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Insulin regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922713/peppermint-essential-oil-alleviates-hyperglycemia-caused-by-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetes-in-rats
#1
Suhair A Abdellatief, Rasha R Beheiry, Shefaa A M El-Mandrawy
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is steadily growing throughout the world. Traditional medicine has an excellent potential in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential antidiabetic effect of peppermint essential oil (PEO) on streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats fasting overnight by the intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide followed by a single dose of STZ. After 72h, two groups of diabetic rats were treated with different doses of PEO (40 and 80mg/kg BW) respectively and one group was treated with the standard hypoglycemic agent glibenclamide...
September 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917077/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-type-2-diabetes-development
#2
Miranda-Perez Maria Elizabeth, Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J, Ortega-Camarillo Clara, Escobar-Villanueva, Maria Del Carmen
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents one of the main causes of death in the world, and those suffering from it have a lower quality of life. Although there are multiple hypotheses about the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the development of T2D, the effects of this pathology on pancreatic β-cells are often ignored. We now know that in addition to genetic defects, β-cell organellar dysfunction participates in the earliest stages of the disease; other factors also contribute to this dysfunction, such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in cellular volume and mass...
2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915971/genotrophic-effect-of-neurotrophins-restart-of-%C3%AE-cell-regeneration-in-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Mariyana G Hristova
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic worldwide and a proved risk factor for cardiovascular complications. In 89% of the cases, it deals, in fact, with metabolic syndrome of multifactorial etiopathogenesis. This paradigm has been generalized by the neurotrophic theory emphasizing the role of hyponeurotrophinemia of key factor. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell damage. Cyclic keeping the fast enhances plasma neurotrophin levels...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889951/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-regeneration-as-a-possible-therapy-for-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Aguayo-Mazzucato, Susan Bonner-Weir
Diabetes is the result of having inadequate supply of functional insulin-producing β cells. Two possible approaches for replenishing the β cells are: (1) replacement by transplanting cadaveric islets or β cells derived from human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells and (2) induction of endogenous regeneration. This review focuses on endogenous regeneration, which can follow two pathways: enhanced replication of existing β cells and formation of new β cells from cells not expressing insulin, either by conversion from a differentiated cell type (transdifferentiation) or differentiation from progenitors (neogenesis)...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878669/picrorhiza-kurroa-enhances-%C3%AE-cell-mass-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion-in-streptozotocin-evoked-%C3%AE-cell-damage-in-rats
#5
Shiv Kumar, Vikram Patial, Sourabh Soni, Supriya Sharma, Kunal Pratap, Dinesh Kumar, Yogendra Padwad
Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells leads to insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Regeneration of β-cells is one of the proposed treatment for type 1 diabetes and insulin insufficiency. Picrorhiza kurroa is a medicinal herb and is traditionally being used for the treatment of various diseases. Previous studies reported the hypoglycemic potential of P. kurroa. However, its potential role in β-cell induction in insulin secretion have not been fully investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875689/liver-fibrosis-in-the-context-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-the-role-of-adipokines
#6
Giovanni DI Maira, Mirella Pastore, Fabio Marra
Liver fibrosis is a multifaceted process that occurs as a consequence of chronic liver injury. This process is characterized by inflammation, activation of matrix-producing cells, matrix deposition and remodeling, and epithelial cell regeneration. In subjects with chronic liver damage, fibrogenesis is favored by the presence of obesity and insulin resistance, which are also relevant risk factors for the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is now well-known that adipose tissue is not only involved in energy storage but also functions as an endocrine organ that secretes various bioactive substances known as adipokines...
September 5, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853981/intermittent-fasting-preserves-beta-cell-mass-in-obesity-induced-diabetes-via-the-autophagy-lysosome-pathway
#7
Haiyan Liu, Ali Javaheri, Rebecca J Godar, John Murphy, Xiucui Ma, Nidhi Rohatgi, Jana Mahadevan, Krzysztof Hyrc, Paul Saftig, Connie Marshall, Michael L McDaniel, Maria S Remedi, Babak Razani, Fumihiko Urano, Abhinav Diwan
Obesity-induced diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and progressive beta cell failure. In islets of mice with obesity-induced diabetes, we observe increased beta cell death and impaired autophagic flux. We hypothesized that intermittent fasting, a clinically sustainable therapeutic strategy, stimulates autophagic flux to ameliorate obesity-induced diabetes. Our data show that despite continued high-fat intake, intermittent fasting restores autophagic flux in islets and improves glucose tolerance by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta cell survival, and nuclear expression of NEUROG3, a marker of pancreatic regeneration...
August 30, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851992/tcf7l2-plays-pleiotropic-roles-in-the-control-of-glucose-homeostasis-pancreas-morphology-vascularization-and-regeneration
#8
Nicola Facchinello, Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Enrico Grisan, Marco Schiavone, Margherita Peron, Alessandro Mongera, Olivier Ek, Nicole Schmitner, Dirk Meyer, Bernard Peers, Natascia Tiso, Francesco Argenton
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion. The Wnt signaling transcription factor Tcf7l2 is to date the T2D-associated gene with the largest effect on disease susceptibility. However, the mechanisms by which TCF7L2 variants affect insulin release from β-cells are not yet fully understood. By taking advantage of a tcf7l2 zebrafish mutant line, we first show that these animals are characterized by hyperglycemia and impaired islet development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the zebrafish tcf7l2 gene is highly expressed in the exocrine pancreas, suggesting potential bystander effects on β-cell growth, differentiation and regeneration...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835141/transplantation-of-stromal-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-and-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-primed-insulin-producing-cells-reverses-hyperglycaemia-in-diabetic-rats
#9
Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Azra Mehmood, Muhammad Ali, Hira Butt, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
The defective insulin production is associated with severely reduced islet cell mass leading to diabetes. Growth factors preconditioned stem cells have arisen as an effective therapy to treat many diseases including diabetes. The current study was designed to assess the effect of pretreatment of ASCs derived IPCs with combination of stromal cell derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1α) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in improving glucose tolerance in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed maximally significant reduction in hyperglycaemia and fibrosis, while up-regulation of survival and pancreas-specific genes, insulin levels and homing of transplanted cells in SDF-1α + bFGF IPCs transplanted rats as compared with other groups...
August 24, 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832548/nypa-fruticans-wurmb-vinegar-s-aqueous-extract-stimulates-insulin-secretion-and-exerts-hepatoprotective-effect-on-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
Nor Adlin Yusoff, Vuanghao Lim, Bassel Al-Hindi, Khairul Niza Abdul Razak, Tri Widyawati, Dwi Rita Anggraini, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi
BACKGROUND: An aqueous extract (AE) of vinegar made from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. can improve postprandial glucose levels in normoglycaemic rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate its antihyperglycaemic activity further using in vivo and in vitro approaches. METHODS: AE was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats twice daily at three doses (1000, 500, and 250 mg/kg b.w.) for 12 days p.o. Several biochemical analyses and a histological study of the pancreas and liver were performed, accompanied by a cell culture assay...
August 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831915/translating-the-potential-of-stem-cells-for-diabetes-mellitus-challenges-and-opportunities
#11
Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Umar Ali
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, the widely prevalent disease of pancreas, is a metabolic disorder caused by autoimmune destruction of β cells or insulin insufficiency or insulin resistance. Replacement of damaged β cells by cell therapy can mitigate the condition and re-establish normal metabolic control. This has opened up new horizons for research, such as stem cells, cellular reprogramming and β cell regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to summarize the available literature on the use of stem cells for the regeneration of pancreatic β cells and treatment of diabetes mellitus...
August 22, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820316/cell-cycle-related-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-replication-competent-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#12
Chiara Montemurro, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Tatyana Gurlo, Alexandra E Butler, Kenny E Vongbunyong, Anton Petcherski, Orian S Shirihai, Leslie S Satin, Daniel Braas, Peter C Butler, Slavica Tudzarova
Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca(2+) are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#13
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810121/comparative-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-follistatin-induced-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#14
Caroline Barbé, Fabrice Bray, Marine Gueugneau, Stéphanie Devassine, Pascale Lause, Caroline Tokarski, Christian Rolando, Jean-Paul Thissen
Skeletal muscle, the most abundant body's tissue, plays vital roles in locomotion and metabolism. Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. In addition to increase muscle mass, Myostatin inhibition impacts on muscle contractility and energy metabolism. To decipher the mechanisms of action of the Myostatin inhibitors, we used proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to investigate the changes induced in skeletal muscles of transgenic mice overexpressing Follistatin, a physiological Myostatin inhibitor...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773103/in-vitro-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-response-to-ionic-dissolution-products-from-lithium-containing-45s5-bioactive-glass
#15
Luis A Haro Durand, Gabriela E Vargas, Rosa Vera-Mesones, Alberto Baldi, María P Zago, María A Fanovich, Aldo R Boccaccini, Alejandro Gorustovich
Since lithium (Li⁺) plays roles in angiogenesis, the localized and controlled release of Li⁺ ions from bioactive glasses (BGs) represents a promising alternative therapy for the regeneration and repair of tissues with a high degree of vascularization. Here, microparticles from a base 45S5 BG composition containing (wt %) 45% SiO₂, 24.5% Na₂O, 24.5% CaO, and 6% P₂O₅, in which Na₂O was partially substituted by 5% Li₂O (45S5.5Li), were obtained. The results demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) have greater migratory and proliferative response and ability to form tubules in vitro after stimulation with the ionic dissolution products (IDPs) of the 45S5...
July 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772271/remission-phase-in-paediatric-type-1-diabetes-new-understanding-and-emerging-biomarkers
#16
Mireia Fonolleda, Marta Murillo, Federico Vázquez, Joan Bel, Marta Vives-Pi
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease of unknown aetiology that results from the autoimmune destruction of the β-cells. Clinical onset with classic hyperglycaemic symptoms occurs much more frequently in children and young adults, when less than 30% of β-cells remain. Exogenous insulin administration is the only treatment for patients. However, due to glucose dysregulation, severe complications develop gradually. Recently, an increase in T1D incidence has been reported worldwide, especially in children...
August 3, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768837/vitamin-d-in-the-spectrum-of-prediabetes-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Nevena Chakarova
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone with pleiotropic effects. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D coordinates the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, which regulate cardiovascular autonomic function and may explain its putative role in the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). CAN is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with diabetes and prediabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
September 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763258/cyclin-d2-is-sufficient-to-drive-beta-cell-self-renewal-and-regeneration
#18
Shuen-Ing Tschen, Chun Zeng, Loren Field, Sangeeta Dhawan, Anil Bhushan, Senta Georgia
Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional beta cells, due to either beta cell loss caused by autoimmune destruction (Type I diabetes) or beta cell failure in response to insulin resistance (Type II diabetes). Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate beta cell mass may be key to developing new techniques that foster beta cell regeneration as a cellular therapy to treat diabetes. While previous studies concluded that cyclin D2 is required for postnatal beta cell self-renewal in mice, it is not clear if cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal...
August 1, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762248/engineering-brown-fat-into-skeletal-muscle-using-ultrasound-targeted-microbubble-destruction-gene-delivery-in-obese-zucker-rats-proof-of-concept-design
#19
Raul A Bastarrachea, Jiaxi Chen, Jack W Kent, Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala, Marcel M Daadi, Barbara Jorge, Hugo Laviada-Molina, Anthony G Comuzzie, Shuyuan Chen, Paul A Grayburn
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a novel means of tissue-specific gene delivery. This approach systemically infuses transgenes precoupled to gas-filled lipid microbubbles that are burst within the microvasculature of target tissues via an ultrasound signal resulting in release of DNA and transfection of neighboring cells within the tissue. Previous work has shown that adenovirus containing cDNA of UCP-1, injected into the epididymal fat pads in mice, induced localized fat depletion, improving glucose tolerance, and decreasing food intake in obese diabetic mice...
September 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753672/an-increase-in-immature-%C3%AE-cells-lacking-glut2-precedes-the-expansion-of-%C3%AE-cell-mass-in-the-pregnant-mouse
#20
Christine A Beamish, Linhao Zhang, Sandra K Szlapinski, Brenda J Strutt, David J Hill
A compensatory increase in β-cell mass occurs during pregnancy to counter the associated insulin resistance, and a failure in adaptation is thought to contribute to gestational diabetes. Insulin-expressing but glucose-transporter-2-low (Ins+Glut2LO) progenitor cells are present in mouse and human pancreas, being predominantly located in extra-islet β-cell clusters, and contribute to the regeneration of the endocrine pancreas following induced ablation. We therefore sought to investigate the contribution of Ins+Glut2LO cells to β-cell mass expansion during pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
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