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Insulin regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334272/extracellular-vesicle-mimetic-nanovesicles-transport-lncrna-h19-as-competing-endogenous-rna-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-wounds
#1
Shi-Cong Tao, Bi-Yu Rui, Qi-Yang Wang, Ding Zhou, Yang Zhang, Shang-Chun Guo
Diabetic wounds, one of the most enervating complications of diabetes mellitus, affect millions of people worldwide annually. Vascular insufficiency, caused by hyperglycemia, is one of the primary causes and categories of diabetic impaired wound healing. Recently, long noncoding RNA (LncRNA)-H19, which is significantly decreased in diabetes and may be crucial in triggering angiogenesis, has attracted increasing interest. The possible relationship between the decrease of LncRNA-H19 and the impairment of angiogenesis in diabetes could involve impairment of the insulin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway via the interdiction of LncRNA-H19...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#2
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322010/beneficiary-effect-of-commiphora-mukul-ethanolic-extract-against-high-fructose-diet-induced-abnormalities-in-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-in-wistar-rats
#3
Ramesh Bellamkonda, Rasineni Karuna, Bongu Sasi Bhusana Rao, Ketham Haritha, Bengeppagari Manjunatha, Somavarapu Silpa, Desireddy Saralakumari
The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin elthanolic extract treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: two of these groups (group C and C+CM) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (group F and F+CM) were fed with high fructose (66 %) diet. C. mukul suspension in 5% Tween-80 in distilled water (200 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CM and group F+CM...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317820/enhanced-bone-regeneration-using-an-insulin-loaded-nano-hydroxyapatite-collagen-plga-composite-scaffold
#4
Xing Wang, Guilan Zhang, Feng Qi, Yongfeng Cheng, Xuguang Lu, Lu Wang, Jing Zhao, Bin Zhao
Insulin is widely considered as a classical hormone and drug in maintaining energy and glucose homeostasis. Recently, insulin has been increasingly recognized as an indispensable factor for osteogenesis and bone turnover, but its applications in bone regeneration have been restricted because of the short periods of activity and uncontrolled release. In this study, we incorporated insulin-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA) nanospheres into nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC) scaffolds and investigated the bioactivity of the composite scaffolds in vitro and in vivo...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306256/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-mouse-vestibular-nucleus-neurons
#5
Aydın Him, Serap Altuntaş, Gürkan Öztürk, Ender Erdoğan, Nureddin Cengiz
Background/aim: Isolated cell cultures are widely used to study neuronal properties due to their advantages. Although embryonic animals are preferred for culturing, their morphological or electrophysiological properties may not reflect adult neurons, which may be important in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop a method for preparing isolated cell cultures of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) from adult mice and describe its morphological and electrophysiological properties.Materials and methods: Vestibular nucleus neurons were mechanically and enzymatically isolated and cultured using a defined medium with known growth factors...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289464/kinetics-of-pancreatic-tissue-proliferation-in-a-polymeric-platform-in-mice
#6
Luciana Xavier Pereira, Celso Tarso Rodrigues Viana, Laura Alejandra Ariza Orellano, Simone Aparecida de Almeida, Marcela Guimarães Takahashi de Lazari, Letícia Chinait Couto, Anilton Cesar Vasconcelos, Silvia Passos Andrade, Paula Peixoto Campos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreas regenerative capacity after injury is not always sufficient to comply with the body's requirement of digestive enzymes and hormones. We present an alternative system to induce pancreas parenchyma proliferation (exocrine and endocrine components), rather than regeneration or remodeling in normoglycemic mice. METHODS: Porous discs of polyether-polyurethane were surgically placed adjacent to the native pancreas and removed at days 15, 30 and 45 after implantation...
December 21, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275427/hope-vs-hype-where-are-we-in-type-1-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Jay S Skyler
Much progress has been made in type 1 diabetes research. Biological replacement of islet function has been achieved with pancreas transplantation and with islet transplantation. In the future, human embryonic stem cells and/or induced pluripotent stem cells may offer a potentially unlimited source of cells for islet replacement. Another potential strategy is to induce robust beta cell replication so that regeneration of islets can be achieved. Immune interventions are being studied with the hope of arresting the type 1 diabetes disease process to either prevent the disease or help preserve beta cell function...
December 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258756/insulin-antagonises-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-induced-modulation-of-lineage-commitment-of-myocytes-and%C3%A2-heterotrophic-ossification
#8
Revathy Carnagarin, Mina Elahy, Arun M Dharmarajan, Crispin R Dass
Extensive bone defects arising as a result of trauma, infection and tumour resection and other bone pathologies necessitates the identification of effective strategies in the form of tissue engineering, gene therapy and osteoinductive agents to enhance the bone repair process. PEDF is a multifunctional glycoprotein which plays an important role in regulating osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. PEDF treatment of mice and human skeletal myocytes at physiological concentration inhibited myogenic differentiation and activated Erk1/2 MAPK- dependent osteogenic transdifferentiation of myocytes...
December 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250715/long-term-regular-eccentric-exercise-decreases-neuropathic-pain-like-behavior-and-improves-motor-functional-recovery-in-an-axonotmesis-mouse-model-the-role-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#9
Daniel F Martins, Thiago C Martins, Ana Paula Batisti, Larissa Dos Santos Leonel, Franciane Bobinski, Luiz A O Belmonte, Leidiane Mazzardo-Martins, Eduardo Cargnin-Ferreira, Adair R S Santos
Although training programs with regular eccentric (ECC) exercise are more commonly used for improving muscular strength and mobility, ECC exercise effects upon functional recovery of the sciatic nerve has not yet been determined. After sciatic nerve crush, different mice groups were subjected to run on the treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 6, 10, or 14 m/min with - 16° slope, 5 days per week, over 8 weeks. During the training time, neuropathic pain-like behavior (mechanical and cold hyperalgesia) was assessed and functional recovery was determined with the grip strength test and the Sciatic Functional and Static indexes (SFI and SSI)...
December 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230196/saxagliptin-induces-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-through-increasing-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Chun-Jun Li, Bei Sun, Qian-Hua Fang, Min Ding, Yun-Zhi Xing, Li-Ming Chen, De-Min Yu
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, such as saxagliptin, have been reported to have beneficial effects on β-cell function, but the specific underlying mechanism remains unclear. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a chemokine produced in multiple organs, has been considered as a crucial regulator in promoting β-cell survival. Here, we speculate that SDF-1α might mediate the effect of saxagliptin on improving β-cell function. After 12-week saxagliptin treatment in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, significant improvement in pancreas insulin secretion capacity evaluated by hyperglycemia clamp and increased β-cell to α-cell areas ratio were observed...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227863/phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-pancreas-new-triggers-new-players
#11
REVIEW
Theoni Ingrid Demcollari, Ana-Maria Cujba, Rocio Sancho
The pancreas has a very limited regenerative potential during homeostasis. Despite its quiescent nature, recent in vivo models suggest a certain degree of regeneration and cellular interconversion is possible within the adult pancreas. It has now become evident that cellular plasticity can be observed in essentially all cell types within the pancreas when provided with the right stress stimuli. In this review, we will focus on the latest findings uncovering phenotypic plasticity of different cell types in the pancreas, the molecular mechanisms behind such plasticity and how plasticity associated with pancreatic or non-pancreatic cells could be harnessed in the generation of new insulin-producing beta cells...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220092/dose-rectification-of-an-unbalance-between-dpp4-and-glp-1-ameliorates-chronic-stress-related-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis
#12
Xian Wu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Limei Piao
Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging and regeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) exerts many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), stromal cell-derived factor-1α/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4, etc.]. Over the past decade, emerging data revealed unexpected roles for DPP-4 and GLP-1 in intracellular signaling, oxidative stress production, lipid metabolism, cell apoptosis, immune activation, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219174/igfbp3-deposited-in-the-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-secreted-extracellular-matrix-promotes-bone-formation
#13
Moyuan Deng, Keyu Luo, Tianyong Hou, Fei Luo, Zhao Xie, Zehua Zhang, Aijun Yang, Bo Yu, Shaoxuan Yi, Tan Jiulin, Shiwu Dong, Jianzhong Xu
The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains rich biological cues for cell recruitment, proliferation and even differentiation. The osteoinductive potential of scaffolds could be enhanced through human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) directly depositing extracellular matrix (ECM) on surface of scaffolds. However, the role and mechanism of human umbilical cord MSC-secreted ECM in bone formation remain unknown. We tested the osteoinductive properties of a human umbilical cord MSC-secreted ECM construct (hUCMSC-ECM) in a large femur defect of a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216879/anti-diabetic-potential-of-sapium-ellipticum-hochst-pax-leaf-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#14
Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
BACKGOUND: Ethnobatanical survey associates Sapium ellipticum (SE) with antidiabetic usage among other medicinal functions in different parts of Africa. More importantly, previous studies on the plant extract in our laboratory showed that SE has significant effects on the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In view of these, the anti-diabetic potential of the plant leaf extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rat model (Wistar strain) was examined...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208957/neuronal-signals-regulate-obesity-induced-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-by-foxm1-dependent-mechanism
#15
Junpei Yamamoto, Junta Imai, Tomohito Izumi, Hironori Takahashi, Yohei Kawana, Kei Takahashi, Shinjiro Kodama, Keizo Kaneko, Junhong Gao, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Tomoichiro Asano, Vladimir V Kalinichenko, Etsuo A Susaki, Makoto Kanzaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Yasushi Ishigaki, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri
Under insulin-resistant conditions such as obesity, pancreatic β-cells proliferate to prevent blood glucose elevations. A liver-brain-pancreas neuronal relay plays an important role in this process. Here, we show the molecular mechanism underlying this compensatory β-cell proliferation. We identify FoxM1 activation in islets from neuronal relay-stimulated mice. Blockade of this relay, including vagotomy, inhibits obesity-induced activation of the β-cell FoxM1 pathway and suppresses β-cell expansion. Inducible β-cell-specific FoxM1 deficiency also blocks compensatory β-cell proliferation...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197579/microfluidic-production-of-bioactive-fibrin-micro-beads-embedded-in-crosslinked-collagen-used-as-an-injectable-bulking-agent-for-urinary-incontinence-treatment
#16
Vardar E, Larsson Hm, Simone Allazetta, Engelhardt Em, Pinnagoda K, Vythilingam G, Hubbell Ja, Lutolf Mp, Frey P
Endoscopic injection of bulking agents has been widely used to treat urinary incontinence, often due to urethral sphincter complex insufficiency. The aim of the study was to develop a novel injectable bioactive collagen-fibrin bulking agent restoring long-term continence by functional muscle tissue regeneration. Fibrin micro-beads were engineered using a droplet microfluidic system. They had an average diameter of 140 μm, and recombinant fibrin-binding insulin-like growth factor-1 (α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1) was covalently conjugated to the beads...
November 29, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197368/an-asian-traditional-herbal-complex-containing-houttuynia-cordata-thunb-perilla-frutescens-var-acuta-and-green-tea-stimulates-hair-growth-in-mice
#17
Mun Su Chung, Woong Jin Bae, Sae Woong Choi, Kyu Won Lee, Hyun Cheoul Jeong, Fahad Bashraheel, Seung Hwan Jeon, Jin Woo Jung, Byung Il Yoon, Eun Bi Kwon, Hyun A Oh, Sung Yeoun Hwang, Sae Woong Kim
BACKGROUND: Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HC) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in Asia for the treatment of patients with alopecia, usually in combination with other two herbal medicines (Perilla frutescens var. acuta (PFVA) and green tea (GT)). However, the effect of this herbal complex has not been clearly demonstrated. We sought to determine the hair growth-promoting effect of this herbal complex (HC, PFVA, and GT) in the animal model. METHODS: Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (negative control, finasteride (1 mg/kg) as a positive control, and two (200 and 400 mg/kg) concentrations of the herbal complex as experimental groups) and were fed its corresponding medications orally for 25 days...
December 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193451/retinoic-acid-signaling-regulates-the-proliferative-and-neurogenic-capacity-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-derived-progenitor-cells-in-the-avian-retina
#18
Levi Todd, Lilianna Suarez, Colin Quinn, Andy J Fischer
In the retina, Müller glia have the potential to become progenitor cells with the ability to proliferate and regenerate neurons. However, the ability of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) to proliferate and produce neurons is limited in higher vertebrates. Using the chick model system, we investigate how retinoic acid (RA)-signaling influences the proliferation and the formation of MGPCs. We observed an upregulation of cellular RA binding proteins (CRABP) in the Müller glia of damaged retinas where the formation of MGPCs is known to occur...
November 27, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186427/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-improves-vascular-endothelial-repair-in-male-mice-in-the-setting-of-insulin-resistance
#19
Aziz Amir, Natalie J Haywood, Paul A Cordell, Jess Smith, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anshuman Sengupta, Noman Ali, Ben N Mercer, Romana S Mughal, Kirsten Riches, Richard M Cubbon, Karen E Porter, Mark T Kearney, Stephen B Wheatcroft
Insulin resistance is associated with impaired endothelial regeneration in response to mechanical injury. We recently demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP1) ameliorated insulin resistance and increased nitric oxide generation in the endothelium. In this study, we hypothesised that IGFBP1 would improve endothelial regeneration and restore endothelial reparative functions in the setting of insulin resistance. In male mice heterozygous for deletion of insulin receptors (IR+/-), endothelial regeneration after femoral artery wire injury was enhanced by transgenic expression of human IGFBP1...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169990/lack-of-heme-oxygenase-1-induces-inflammatory-reaction-and-proliferation-of-muscle-satellite-cells-after-cardiotoxin-induced-skeletal-muscle-injury
#20
Magdalena Kozakowska, Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz, Maciej Ciesla, Marta Seczynska, Iwona Bronisz-Budzynska, Paulina Podkalicka, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Agnieszka Loboda, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, Hmox1) regulates viability, proliferation, and differentiation of many cell types, hence it may affect regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. Here we injected cardiotoxin into gastrocnemius muscle of Hmox1+/+ and Hmox1-/- animals and analyzed cellular response after muscle injury, focusing on muscle satellite cells (SC), inflammatory reaction, fibrosis, and formation of new blood vessels. HO-1 is strongly induced after muscle injury, being expressed mostly in the infiltrating leukocytes (CD45+ cells), including macrophages (F4/80+ cells)...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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