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Insulin regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#1
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140125/diabetes-area-patent-participation-analysis-part-ii-years-2011-2016
#2
Markus Boehm, Matthew Crawford, Jamie E Moscovitz, Philip A Carpino
Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of plasma glucose. When untreated, diabetes increases the risk of developing co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Several drugs, often used as part of combination therapies, have been approved to treat the disease, but these drugs will eventually fail to effectively control blood glucose levels, at which point insulin replacement therapy is required. A medical need exists for new anti-diabetic drugs that exhibit good efficacy with improved safety/toleration profiles and can be added on top of existing therapies, or that can provide additional benefits beyond glucose lowering such as pancreatic beta (β)-cell protection...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130349/regenerating-%C3%AE-cells-of-the-pancreas-potential-developments-in-diabetes-treatment
#3
Shengli Dong, Hongju Wu
The etiology of diabetes is mainly attributed to insulin deficiency due to the lack of β cells (type 1), or to insulin resistance that eventually results in β cell dysfunction (type 2). Therefore, an ultimate cure for diabetes requires the ability to replace the lost insulin-secreting β cells. Strategies for regenerating β cells are under extensive investigation. Areas covered: Herein, the authors first summarize the mechanisms underlying embryonic β cell development and spontaneous adult β cell regeneration, which forms the basis for developing β cell regeneration strategies...
November 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119607/impaired-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-type-2-diabetic-mouse-model
#4
Pham Minh Vuong, H Tu Nguyen, Tayo Katano, Shinji Matsumura, Akira Saito, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Seiji Ito
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type-2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and its incidence increases in patients 40 years of age or older. In spite of extensive research over decades, there are few effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy besides glucose control and improved lifestyle. The earliest changes in diabetic neuropathy occur in sensory nerve fibers, with initial degeneration and regeneration resulting in pain...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113568/combined-delivery-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-from-nano-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-based-calcium-phosphate-cement-and-its-effect-on-bone-regeneration-in%C3%A2-vitro
#5
Xiulin Shu, Jin Feng, Jing Feng, Xiaomo Huang, Liangqiu Li, Qingshan Shi
In this study, nano-doped calcium phosphate cement delivery systems (poly (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramics and nano (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium phosphate ceramic) were fabricated, and low doses (10 µg/g) of two growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2, were encapsulated then sequentially released. We characterized the delivery systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and measured washout resistance and compressive strength, and thus optimized the most appropriate proportioning of delivery systems for the two growth factors...
November 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113341/knockout-of-toll-like-receptor-impairs-nerve-regeneration-after-a-crush-injury
#6
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Pao-Jen Kuo, Shu-Hsuan Liu, Chia-Jung Wu, Tsu-Hsiang Lu, Yi-Chan Wu, Chia-Wei Lin
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the initiation of Schwann cell activation and subsequent recruitment of macrophages for clearance of degenerated myelin and neuronal debris after nerve injury. The present study was designed to investigate the regenerative outcome and expression of myelination-related factors in Tlr-knockout mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Materials and methods: A standard sciatic nerve crush injury, induced by applying constant pressure to the nerve with a No...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111856/vascular-derived-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-is-critical-for-pregnancy-induced-%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia-in-adult-mice
#7
Raymond C Pasek, Jennifer C Dunn, Joseph M Elsakr, Mounika Aramandla, Anveetha R Matta, Maureen Gannon
During pregnancy, maternal β cells undergo compensatory changes including hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Failure of these adaptations to occur can result in gestational diabetes mellitus. The secreted protein, Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), is critical for normal β cell development and promotes regeneration after partial β cell ablation. During embryogenesis, Ctgf is expressed in pancreatic ducts, vasculature, and β cells. In the adult pancreas, Ctgf is expressed only in the vasculature...
November 7, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110360/enhancing-engineered-vascular-networks-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-the-effects-of-igf1-on-vascular-development-and-durability
#8
Claudia C Friedrich, Yunfeng Lin, Alexander Krannich, Yinan Wu, Joseph P Vacanti, Craig M Neville
OBJECTIVES: Creation of functional, durable vasculature remains an important goal within the field of regenerative medicine. Engineered biological vasculature has the potential to restore or improve human tissue function. We hypothesized that the pleotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) would enhance the engineering of capillary-like vasculature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The impact of IGF1 upon vasculogenesis was examined in in vitro cultures for a period of up to 40 days and as subcutaneous implants within immunodeficient mice...
November 7, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107169/the-complement-system-is-dysfunctional-in-metabolic-disease-evidences-in-plasma-and-adipose-tissue-from-obese-and-insulin-resistant-subjects
#9
REVIEW
José María Moreno-Navarrete, José Manuel Fernández-Real
The relationship between chronic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and other obesity-associated metabolic disturbances is increasingly recognized. The possible mechanisms that trigger these immunologic alterations remain to be fully understood. The complement system is a crucial element of immune defense system, being important in the activation of innate and adaptative immune response, promoting the clearance of apoptotic and damaged endogenous cells and participating in processes of tissue development, degeneration, and regeneration...
October 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096722/pdx1-neurogenin-3-and-mafa-critical-transcription-regulators-for-beta-cell-development-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Yaxi Zhu, Qian Liu, Zhiguang Zhou, Yasuhiro Ikeda
Transcription factors regulate gene expression through binding to specific enhancer sequences. Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (PDX1), Neurogenin-3 (NEUROG3), and V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MAFA) are transcription factors critical for beta cell development and maturation. NEUROG3 is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and controls islet differentiation and regeneration. PDX1 is essential for the development of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells including beta cells...
November 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079048/cytokine-expression-of-stem-cells-originating-from-the-apical-complex-and-coronal-pulp-of-immature-teeth
#11
Ki Hoon Joo, Je Seon Song, Seunghye Kim, Hyo-Seol Lee, Mijeong Jeon, Seong-Oh Kim, Jae-Ho Lee
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the expression levels of cytokines from developing apical complex cells (DACCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) of the immature tooth. METHODS: DPSC-conditioned medium (CM) and DACCs-CM were obtained from human young teeth, and 174 cytokines secreted from each CM were identified and compared. A cytokine membrane array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure and compare the expression levels of the cytokines...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063963/does-oxidative-stress-play-a-role-in-altered-characteristics-of-diabetic-bone-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Miljana Bacevic, Bozidar Brkovic, Adelin Albert, Eric Rompen, Regis P Radermecker, France Lambert
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with increased bone fracture rates, impaired bone regeneration, delayed bone healing, and depressed osteogenesis. However, the plausible pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in altered characteristics of diabetic bone under in vivo conditions. An electronic search of the MEDLINE (via PubMed) and Embase databases was performed. In vivo animal studies involving DM and providing information regarding assessment of OS markers combined with analyses of bone histology/histomorphometry parameters were selected...
December 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058819/involvement-of-dying-beta-cell-originated-messenger-molecules-in-differentiation-of-pancreatic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-glucotoxic-and-glucolipotoxic-conditions
#13
Selda Gezginci-Oktayoglu, Evren Onay-Ucar, Serap Sancar-Bas, Ayse Karatug-Kacar, Emine Sekure Nazli Arda, Sehnaz Bolkent
Beta cell mass regulation represents a critical issue for understanding and treatment of diabetes. The most important process in the development of diabetes is beta cell death, generally induced by glucotoxicity or glucolipotoxicity, and the regeneration mechanism of new beta cells that will replace dead beta cells is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the generation mechanism of new beta cells by considering the compensation phase of type2 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet derived mesenchymal stem cells (PI-MSCs) were isolated from adult rats and characterized...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052001/quail-coturnix-japonica-egg-yolk-bioactive-components-attenuate-streptozotocin-induced-testicular-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-rats
#14
Gideon Oludare Oladipo, Chidinma Martha Nlekerem, Emmanuel Oluwafemi Ibukun, Ayodele Oluseyi Kolawole
INTRODUCTION: The testicular milieu is the machinery for the metabolism of testosterone in the male reproductive system. PURPOSE: The dysfunction of this highly regenerating system is inevitable in the condition of glucose imbalance as a result of insulin machinery impairment. Therefore, it is imperative to recommend dietary intervention for attenuating the testicular dysfunction and oxidative stress resulting from STZ-induction of diabetes. METHODS: STZ-induced diabetes (65 mg/kg, ip) was treated with QEYEM (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) and quercetin (50 mg/kg/day) for 7weeks...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031208/phytoecdysteroids-from-ajuga-iva-act-as-potential-antidiabetic-agent-against-alloxan-induced-diabetic-male-albino-rats
#15
Jin-Jun Wang, Hao Jin, Shao-Ling Zheng, Peng Xia, Yong Cai, Xiao-Jie Ni
The present study investigated the protective effect of phytoecdysteroids extracted from the Ajuga iva plant on body weight changes, blood glucose, insulin total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, pancreatic histopathology and hexokinase-I expression in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes was induced following 15day intraperitoneal administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as a sham group, and group II served as the diabetic control...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993191/the-anti-aging-protein-klotho-is-induced-by-gaba-therapy-and-exerts-protective-and-stimulatory-effects-on-pancreatic-beta-cells
#16
Gérald J Prud'homme, Yelena Glinka, Merve Kurt, Wenjuan Liu, Qinghua Wang
Systemic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) therapy prevents or ameliorates type 1 diabetes (T1D), by suppressing autoimmune responses and stimulating pancreatic beta cells. In beta cells, it increases insulin secretion, prevents apoptosis, and induces regeneration. It is unclear how GABA mediates these effects. We hypothesized that Klotho is involved. It is a multi-functional protein expressed in the kidneys, brain, pancreatic beta cells, other tissues, and is cell-bound or soluble. Klotho knockout mice display accelerated aging, and in humans Klotho circulating levels decline with age, renal disease and diabetes...
December 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990512/fighting-type-2-diabetes-present-and-future-perspectives
#17
Cai-Guo Yu, Ying Fu, Yuan Fang, Ning Zhang, Rong-Xin Sun, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng, Bao-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 80-90% of diabetic patients. So far, the treatment of diabetes mainly aims at elevating insulin level and lowering glucose level in the peripheral blood and mitigating insulin resistance. Physiologically, insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is delicately regulated. Thus, how insulin-related therapies could titrate blood glucose appropriately and avoid the occurrence of hypoglycemia remains an important issue for decades. Similar question is addressed on how to attenuate vascular complication in diabetic subjects...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978225/dual-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-regulating-the-response-of-%C3%AE-cells-to-dna-damage
#18
Bryndon J Oleson, John A Corbett
SIGNIFICANCE: Cytokines released in and around pancreatic islets during islet inflammation are believed to contribute to impaired β cell function and β cell death during the development of diabetes. Nitric oxide, produced by β cells in response to cytokine exposure, controls many of the responses of β cells during islet inflammation. Recent Advances: Although nitric oxide has been shown to inhibit insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism and induce DNA damage in β cells, it also activates protective pathways that promote recovery of insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism and repair of damaged DNA...
November 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966671/pancreatic-islet-regeneration-through-pdx-1-notch-1-ngn3-signaling-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-in-db-db-mice
#19
Tao Huang, Jun Fu, Zhijing Zhang, Yuhao Zhang, Yunjia Liang, Cuicui Ge, Xianju Qin
In view of the compelling anti-diabetic effects of gastric bypass surgery (GBS) in the treatment of morbid obesity, it is important to clarify its enhancing effect on pancreatic islets, which is closely linked with diabetes remission in obese patients, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The present study evaluated the effects of GBS on glycemic control and other pancreatic changes in db/db mice. The db/db mice were divided into Control, Sham and GBS group. A significant improvement in fasting plasma glucose levels and glucose intolerance were observed post-surgery...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965028/angiopoietin-like-protein-8-an-attractive-biomarker-for-the-evaluation-of-subjects-with-insulin-resistance-and-related-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Su Wang, Xiafei Hong, Zhigang Tu, Guoyue Yuan
Insulin resistance is prevalent worldwide and is associated with many metabolic diseases, in particular, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8), a newly-identified secreted protein composing of 198 amino acids, is enriched in the liver of human. Considering its promising potential for β-cell proliferation and therapeutic prospect for diabetes, ANGPTL8 has aroused extensive interests...
September 8, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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