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Insulin regeneration

Jian-An Li, Chang-Fu Zhao, Shao-Jun Li, Jun Zhang, Zhen-Hua Li, Qiao Zhang, Xiao-Yu Yang, Chun-Fang Zan
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a potential nutrient for nerve repair. However, it is impractical as a therapy because of its limited half-life, rapid clearance, and limited target specificity. To achieve targeted and long-lasting treatment, we investigated the addition of a binding structure by fusing a collagen-binding domain to IGF-1. After confirming its affinity for collagen, the biological activity of this construct was examined by measuring cell proliferation after transfection into PC12 and Schwann cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Ni Zhu, Bing Yi, Zhifu Guo, Guanxin Zhang, Shengdong Huang, Yongwen Qin, Xianxian Zhao, Jianxin Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pim-1 is a serine/threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the heart, and exerts potent cardiac protective effects through enhancing survival, proliferation, and regeneration of cardiomyocytes. Its myocardial specific substrates, however, remain unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate whether Pim-1 modulates myofilament activity through phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a key component in regulating myofilament function in the heart. METHODS: Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent assays were employed to investigate the interaction of Pim-1 with cTnI in cardiomyocytes...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Anastassios Philippou, Maria Maridaki, Roxane Tenta, Michael Koutsilieris
OBJECTIVE: Mechanically overloaded muscle and its subsequent damage are strong stimuli for eliciting acute hormonal changes, while the muscle adaptation which occurs following exercise-induced muscle damage may involve complex hormonal responses before the completion of muscle regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate systemic responses of various hormones, as well as secreted proteins that are exercise-regulated and associated with muscle adaptation, for several days after eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in humans...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lei Wang, Mengnan Yang, Minfei Jin, Yuelin Wu, Tao Zheng, Shengyi Gu, Xiaolin Hua
To investigate the potential beneficial effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in BMSC transplantation therapy of uterus injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms, rat BMSCs were isolated and cultured. The relative expressions of IGF-1 and IL-10 were determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The secretory IL-10 and released E2 were measured using ELISA kits. The relative vWF and α-SMA expressions were determined by immunohistochemistry. The direct binding of NF-κB subunit p50 with IL-10 promoter was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Christian Patry, Christian Betzen, Farnoosh Fathalizadeh, Alexander Fichtner, Jens H Westhoff, Thomas Fleming, Volker Eckstein, Tom Bruckner, Martina Bielaszewska, Helge Karch, Georg F Hoffmann, Burkhard Tönshoff, Neysan Rafat
Endothelial injury with consecutive microangiopathy and endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the post-enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS). To identify new treatment strategies, we examined the regenerative potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in an in vitro model of Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a-induced glomerular endothelial injury present in D+HUS and the mechanisms of EPC-triggered endothelial regeneration. We simulated the pro-inflammatory milieu present in D+HUS by priming human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGEC) with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α prior to stimulation with Stx2a...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Hailian Wang, Xia He, Tiantian Lei, Yilong Liu, Guoli Huai, Minghan Sun, Shaoping Deng, Hongji Yang, Rongsheng Tong, Yi Wang
Previous studies by our group on mangiferin demonstrated that it exerts an anti‑hyperglycemic effect through the regulation of cell cycle proteins in 3‑month‑old, partially pancreatectomized (PPx) mice. However, β‑cell proliferation is known to become severely restricted with advanced age. Therefore, it is unknown whether mangiferin is able to reverse the diabetic condition and retain β‑cell regeneration capability in aged mice. In the present study, 12‑month‑old C57BL/6J mice that had undergone PPx were subjected to mangiferin treatment (90 mg/kg) for 28 days...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Samad Akbarzadeh, Hossein Gholampour, Parviz Farzadinia, Adel Daneshi, Bahman Ramavandi, Ali Moazzeni, Mojtaba Keshavarz, Afshar Bargahi
Objectives: Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome which is associated with the worldwide major public health problems. There are many natural compounds from the sea-market, as a valuable aquatic source, along with the variety of health and therapeutic benefits. In the present research, with respect to the traditional and ethnic uses of Sargassum oligocystum algae for healing of some diseases which have similar metabolic mechanism to the diabetes, its anti-diabetic effects in animal model was proposed...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Amir M Abdelhamid, Rania Ramadan Abdelaziz, Hatem A Salem
Type I diabetes (TID) is generally assumed to be caused by an immune associated, if not directly immune-mediated, destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In patients with long-term diabetes, the pancreas lacks insulin-producing cells and the residual β-cells are unable to regenerate. Patients with TID are subjected to a lifelong insulin therapy which shows risks of hypoglycemia, suboptimal control and ketosis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Vildagliptin (Vilda) alone or in combination with Pioglitazone (Pio), as treatment regimens for TID using Streptozotocin (STZ) induced TID model in rats...
March 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Andrieli T Hauschildt, Luciana A Corá, Gustavo T Volpato, Yuri K Sinzato, Débora C Damasceno, Madileine F Américo
Moderate hyperglycaemic levels seem to be related to abnormal gastric motility in diabetes mellitus. However, experimental models designed to evaluate the relationship between motility and diabetes over time are not yet well established. Our objective was to investigate the long-term effects of mild diabetes on gastric motility in rats. Newborn male rats received streptozotocin (mild diabetes groups - MD) or vehicle (control groups - C), and both groups were evaluated after 3 (C3 and MD3) and 6 months (C6 and MD6) postinduction...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Matheus de Castro Fonseca, Andressa França, Rodrigo Machado Florentino, Roberta Cristelli Fonseca, Antônio Carlos Melo, Paula Teixeira Vieira Vidigal, André G Oliveira, Laurent Dubuquoy, Michael H Nathanson, M Fátima Leite
Hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is a well-coordinated process regulated by the activation of several growth factor receptors, including the insulin receptor (IR). The IR can be localized in part to cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains, but the role of such domains in insulin-mediated events in hepatocytes is not known. We investigated whether partitioning of IRs into cholesterol-enriched membrane rafts is important for the mitogenic effects of insulin in the hepatic cells. IR and lipid rafts were labeled in HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Stefano Ciciliot, Mattia Albiero, Stefano Campanaro, Nicol Poncina, Serena Tedesco, Valentina Scattolini, Francesca Dalla Costa, Andrea Cignarella, Monica Vettore, Iole Maria Di Gangi, Sara Bogialli, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
The 66 kDa isoform of the mammalian Shc gene promotes adipogenesis, and p66Shc-/- mice accumulate less body weight than wild-type (WT) mice. As the metabolic consequences of the leaner phenotype of p66Shc-/- mice is debated, we hypothesized that gut microbiota may be involved. We confirmed that p66Shc-/- mice gained less weight than WT mice when on a high-fat diet (HFD), but they were not protected from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. p66Shc deletion significantly modified the composition of gut microbiota and their modification after an HFD...
February 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yanjie Wang, Zan Tang, Huanwei Huang, Jiao Li, Zheng Wang, Yuanyuan Yu, Chengwei Zhang, Juan Li, Huaping Dai, Fengchao Wang, Tao Cai, Nan Tang
Pulmonary alveolar type I (AT1) cells cover more than 95% of alveolar surface and are essential for the air-blood barrier function of lungs. AT1 cells have been shown to retain developmental plasticity during alveolar regeneration. However, the development and heterogeneity of AT1 cells remain largely unknown. Here, we conducted a single-cell RNA-seq analysis to characterize postnatal AT1 cell development and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (Igfbp2) as a genetic marker specifically expressed in postnatal AT1 cells...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mona G Amer, Azza S Embaby, Rehab A Karam, Marwa G Amer
Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas...
February 13, 2018: Gene
Abhay Srivastava, Nidheesh Dadheech, Mitul Vakani, Sarita Gupta
In the present study, Swertisin's role in triggering resident pancreatic progenitors for islet neogenesis in Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice was explored. STZ diabetic mice when treated with Swertisin demonstrated reversion to normoglycemia and significant elevation of fasting serum insulin levels. On screening the pancreatic tissue post Swertisin treatment in the STZ diabetic mice, we observed significant up-regulation of key transcription factors viz. Pdx1, Neurog3, MafA and Nkx6.1 required for islet neogenesis and beta cell homeostasis...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chune Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Natia Peradze, Leonie Lang, Jan Straetener, Peter J Feilen, Marcus Alt, Christina Jäger, Katharina Laubner, Nikolaos Perakakis, Jochen Seufert, Günter Päth
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are of interest for cell therapy since their secreted factors mediate immunomodulation and support tissue regeneration. This study investigated the direct humoral interactions between MSC and pancreatic β-cells using human telomerase-immortalized MSC (hMSC-TERT) and rat insulinoma-derived INS-1E β-cells. hMSC-TERT supported survival of cocultured INS-1E β-cells during cellular stress by alloxan (ALX) and streptozotocin (STZ), but not in response to IL-1β. Accordingly, hMSC-TERT had no effect on inflammatory cytokine-related signalling via NF-kB and p-JNK but maintained p-Akt and upregulated p-ERK1/2...
February 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Alfonso Saera-Vila, Ke'ale W Louie, Cuilee Sha, Ryan M Kelly, Phillip E Kish, Alon Kahana
Insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) are key regulators of key biological processes such as embryonic development, growth, and tissue repair and regeneration. The role of Igf in myogenesis is well documented and, in zebrafish, promotes fin and heart regeneration. However, the mechanism of action of Igf in muscle repair and regeneration is not well understood. Using adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration as an experimental model, we show that Igf1 receptor blockage using either chemical inhibitors (BMS754807 and NVP-AEW541) or translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) reduced EOM regeneration...
2018: PloS One
Brian D Green, David J Grieve
Obestatin was initially discovered in rat stomach extract, and although it is principally produced in the gastric mucosa, it can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This 23-amino acid C-terminally amidated peptide is derived from preproghrelin and has been ascribed a wide range of metabolic effects relevant to type 2 diabetes. Obestatin reportedly inhibits gastrointestinal motility, reduces food intake and lowers body weight and improves lipid metabolism. Furthermore, it appears to exert actions on the pancreatic β-cell, most notably increasing β-cell mass and upregulating genes associated with insulin production and β-cell regeneration, with relevance to type 2 diabetes...
February 2018: Peptides
Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Kim, Eun Kyoung Koh, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
PURPOSE: Aims of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects and toxicity of Se-loaded cellulose film originated from Styela clava tunic (SeSCTF) on cutaneous wounds during diabetic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alterations in skin regeneration, angiogenesis and toxicity were examined using streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats with surgical skin wounds after application of SeSCTF for 12 days. RESULTS: SCTF showed high tensile strength (1...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Hale M Tasyurek, Hasan A Altunbas, Mustafa K Balci, Thomas S Griffith, Salih Sanlioglu
Postprandial glucose-induced insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans is facilitated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) - a metabolic hormone with insulinotropic properties. Among the variety of effects it mediates, GLP-1 induces delta cell secretion of somatostatin, inhibits alpha cell release of glucagon, reduces gastric emptying, and slows food intake. These events collectively contribute to weight loss over time. During type 2 diabetes (T2DM), however, the incretin response to glucose is reduced and accompanied by a moderate reduction in GLP-1 secretion...
February 6, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Ran-Ran Zhang, Yun-Wen Zheng, Bin Li, Yun-Zhong Nie, Yasuharu Ueno, Tomonori Tsuchida, Hideki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Mature human hepatocytes are critical in preclinical research and therapy for liver disease, but are difficult to manipulate and expand in vitro. Hepatic stem cells (HpSCs) may be an alternative source of functional hepatocytes for cell therapy and disease modeling. Since these cells play an import role in regenerative medicine, the precise characterization that determines specific markers used to isolate these cells as well as whether they contribute to liver regeneration still remain to be shown...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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