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Beta cell regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415512/study-of-epithelial-differentiation-and-protein-expression-of-keratinocyte-mesenchyme-stem-cell-co-cultivation-on-electrospun-nylon-b-vulgaris-extract-composite-scaffold
#1
Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Manuchehr Vossoughi, Parviz Ranjbarvan, Shokoh Hamedi, Soheila Zamanlui, Matin Mahmoudifard
Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380380/virgin-beta-cells-persist-throughout-life-at-a-neogenic-niche-within-pancreatic-islets
#2
Talitha van der Meulen, Alex M Mawla, Michael R DiGruccio, Michael W Adams, Vera Nies, Sophie Dólleman, Siming Liu, Amanda M Ackermann, Elena Cáceres, Anna E Hunter, Klaus H Kaestner, Cynthia J Donaldson, Mark O Huising
Postnatal maintenance or regeneration of pancreatic beta cells is considered to occur exclusively via the replication of existing beta cells, but clinically meaningful restoration of human beta cell mass by proliferation has never been achieved. We discovered a population of immature beta cells that is present throughout life and forms from non-beta precursors at a specialized micro-environment or "neogenic niche" at the islet periphery. These cells express insulin, but lack other key beta cell markers, and are transcriptionally immature, incapable of sensing glucose, and unable to support calcium influx...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376251/tissue-regeneration-in-dentistry-can-salamanders-provide-insight
#3
Fadi Sader, Jean-François Denis, Stéphane Roy
The ability to regenerate damaged tissues would be of tremendous benefit for medicine and dentistry. Unfortunately, humans are unable to regenerate tissues such teeth, fingers or to repair injured spinal cord. With an aging population, health problems are more prominent and dentistry is no exception as loss of bone tissue in the orofacial sphere from periodontal disease is on the rise. Humans can repair oral soft tissues exceptionally well, however hard tissues, like bone and teeth, are devoid of the ability to repair well or at all...
April 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326017/adiponectin-regulates-the-polarization-and-function-of-microglia-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-under-amyloid-%C3%AE-toxicity
#4
Juhyun Song, Seong-Min Choi, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), is gradually increasing globally. Given that AD is considered a neuroinflammatory disease, recent studies have focused on the cellular mechanisms in brain inflammatory conditions that underlie AD neuropathology. Microglia are macrophage cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that are activated in response to Aβ condition. The function of microglia contributes to the neuroinflammation in AD brain, suggesting that microglia regulate the production of inflammatory mediators and contribute to the regeneration of damaged tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321233/heterogeneity-of-the-pancreatic-beta-cell
#5
REVIEW
Giselle Dominguez Gutierrez, Jesper Gromada, Lori Sussel
The pancreatic beta cell functions as a key regulator of blood glucose levels by integrating a variety of signals in response to changing metabolic demands. Variations in beta cell identity that translate into functionally different subpopulations represent an interesting mechanism to allow beta cells to efficiently respond to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Recently, there is emerging evidence that morphological and functional differences between beta cells exist. Furthermore, the ability of novel single cell technologies to characterize the molecular identity of individual beta cells has created a new era in the beta cell field...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283432/gentamicin-loaded-thermosetting-hydrogel-and-moldable-composite-scaffold-formulation-study-and-biologic-evaluation
#6
Rossella Dorati, Antonella De Trizio, Ida Genta, Alessia Merelli, Tiziana Modena, Bice Conti
The aim was to design biodegradable drug delivery systems for gentamicin local delivery, meanwhile acting as scaffold for bone regeneration. Gentamicin loaded thermosetting composite hydrogels (TCHG) were prepared combining chitosan with bovine bone substitutes (BBS Orthoss® granules), beta-glycerophosphate as crosslinker, and lyophilized to obtain composite moldable scaffolds (mCSG). Diverse techniques for gentamicin loading into mCS were investigated by drug incorporation during hydrogel preparation, or drug absorption on preformed mCS...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267275/foxos-the-biology-and-pathophysiological-roles-in-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Kyoichiro Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Forkhead box class O family member proteins (FoxOs) of transcription factors are essential regulators of cellular homeostasis, including glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress response and redox signaling, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Altered FoxO1 expression and activity have been associated with glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and complications of diabetes. In liver, they direct carbons to glucose or lipid utilization, thus providing a unifying mechanism for the two abnormalities of the diabetic liver: excessive glucose production, and increased lipid synthesis and secretion...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229859/transient-inflammatory-response-mediated-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE-is-required-for-proper-regeneration-in-zebrafish-fin-fold
#8
Tomoya Hasegawa, Christopher J Hall, Philip S Crosier, Gembu Abe, Koichi Kawakami, Akira Kudo, Atsushi Kawakami
Cellular responses to injury are crucial for complete tissue regeneration, but their underlying processes remain incompletely elucidated. We have previously reported that myeloid-defective zebrafish mutants display apoptosis of regenerative cells during fin fold regeneration. Here, we found that the apoptosis phenotype is induced by prolonged expression of interleukin 1 beta (il1b). Myeloid cells are considered to be the principal source of Il1b, but we show that epithelial cells express il1b in response to tissue injury and initiate the inflammatory response, and that its resolution by macrophages is necessary for survival of regenerative cells...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#9
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190584/the-effects-of-m1-and-m2-macrophages-on-odontogenic-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-cells
#10
Hee Chul Park, Hongxuan Quan, Tingting Zhu, Yongjoon Kim, Bongju Kim, Hyeong-Cheol Yang
INTRODUCTION: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated) macrophages are known to play primary roles in inflammation and tissue regeneration. To investigate the role of macrophages in dentin regeneration, this study examined the effects of M1 and M2 macrophages on the odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) using the conditioned media (CM) of the activated human monocyte cell line THP-1. METHODS: M1 and M2 macrophages were induced by lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ and interleukin-4, respectively, and the phenotypes were confirmed by flow cytometry...
April 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188996/dual-delivery-of-growth-factors-with-coacervate-coated-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanofiber-improves-neovascularization-in%C3%A2-a-mouse-skin-flap-model
#11
Min Suk Lee, Taufiq Ahmad, Jinkyu Lee, Hassan K Awada, Yadong Wang, Kyobum Kim, Heungsoo Shin, Hee Seok Yang
Random skin flaps are commonly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery for patients suffering from severe or large scale wounds or in facial reconstruction. However, skin flaps are sometimes susceptible to partial or complete necrosis at the distal parts of the flaps due to insufficient blood perfusion in the defected area. In order to improve neovascularization in skin flaps, we developed an exogenous growth factor (GF) delivery platform comprised of coacervate-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers...
January 30, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173844/differential-long-noncoding-rna-mrna-expression-profiling-and-functional-network-analysis-during-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Wenyuan Zhang, Rui Dong, Shu Diao, Juan Du, Zhipeng Fan, Fu Wang
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most promising cell types for bone regeneration and repair due to their osteogenic potential. MSC differentiation is precisely regulated and orchestrated by the mechanical and molecular signals from the extracellular environment, involving complex pathways regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the potential role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in the osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs remains largely unclear...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152182/reprogramming-of-pancreatic-acinar-cells-to-functional-beta-cells-by-in-vivo-transduction-of-a-polycistronic-construct-containing-pdx1-ngn3-mafa-in-mice
#13
C Cavelti-Weder, A Zumsteg, W Li, Q Zhou
To generate new beta cells after birth is a key focus of regenerative medicine, which could greatly aid the major health burden of diabetes. Beta-cell regeneration has been described using four different approaches: (1) the development of beta cells from putative precursor cells of the adult pancreas, which is termed neogenesis, (2) replication of existing beta cells, (3) differentiation from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, and (4) reprogramming of non-beta cells to beta cells. Studies from the authors' laboratory have shown that beta-cell reprogramming can be achieved by transduction of adult pancreatic tissues with viral constructs containing the three developmentally important transcription factors Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA...
February 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132857/il-27-facilitates-skin-wound-healing-through-induction-of-epidermal-proliferation-and-host-defense
#14
Bin Yang, Jutamas Suwanpradid, Roberto Sanchez-Lagunes, Hae Woong Choi, Peter Hoang, Donghai Wang, Soman N Abraham, Amanda S MacLeod
Skin wound repair requires a coordinated program of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation as well as resistance to invading microbes. However, the factors that trigger epithelial cell proliferation in this inflammatory process are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-27 is rapidly and transiently produced by CD301b(+) cells in the skin after injury. The functional role of IL-27 and CD301b(+) cells is demonstrated by the finding that CD301b-depleted mice exhibit delayed wound closure in vivo, which could be rescued by topical IL-27 treatment...
May 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120218/platelet-rich-plasma-inhibits-inflammatory-factors-and-represses-rheumatoid-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Shichao Tong, Ji Liu, Changqing Zhang
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease affecting daily life of numerous patients, and uncontrolled proliferation of synovial fibroblasts plays vital role during the pathology of RA. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), widely used in tissue regeneration and pain management, is rarely studied in RA. This study aims to investigate the effect of PRP on synovial fibroblasts during RA. Rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate RA conditions and treated with PRP, after that the concentration of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL) 1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and IL6 in the supernatant of culture medium was quantified by ELISA...
January 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110999/effect-of-hypoxia-on-the-proliferation-of-porcine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-2-and-3-dimensional-culture
#16
Egon Burian, Florian Probst, Benjamin Palla, Christina Riedel, Maximilian Michael Saller, Matthias Cornelsen, Florian König, Matthias Schieker, Sven Otto
OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) currently represent a promising tool for the regeneration of large bony defects. Therefore, it is pivotal to find the best cell source within the body and the best conditions for in vitro cellular expansion. This study compared cellular response of MSCs and ASCs from a porcine animal in normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (2% O2) cell culture conditions via 2D and 3D experimental settings...
March 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093364/fabrication-of-nanofibrous-electrospun-scaffolds-from-a-heterogeneous-library-of-co-and-self-assembling-peptides
#17
Mahboubeh Maleki, Antonino Natalello, Raffaele Pugliese, Fabrizio Gelain
Self-assembling (SAPs) and co-assembling peptides (CAPs) are driving increasing enthusiasm as synthetic but biologically inspired biomaterials amenable of easy functionalization for regenerative medicine. On the other hand, electrospinning (ES) is a versatile technique useful for tailoring the nanostructures of various biomaterials into scaffolds resembling the extracellular matrices found in organs and tissues. The synergistic merging of these two approaches is a long-awaited advance in nanomedicine that has not been deeply documented so far...
January 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032743/sustained-local-release-of-ngf-from-a-chitosan-sericin-composite-scaffold-for-treating-chronic-nerve-compression
#18
Lei Zhang, Wen Yang, Kaixiong Tao, Yu Song, Hongjian Xie, Jian Wang, Xiaolin Li, Xiaoming Shuai, Jinbo Gao, Panpan Chang, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
Chronic nerve compression (CNC), a common form of peripheral nerve injury, always leads to chronic peripheral nerve pain and dysfunction. Current available treatments for CNC are ineffective as they usually aim to alleviate symptoms at the acute phase with limited capability toward restoring injured nerve function. New approaches for effective recovery of CNC injury are highly desired. Here we report for the first time a tissue-engineered approach for the repair of CNC. A genipin cross-linked chitosan-sericin 3D scaffold for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF) was designed and fabricated...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003126/emerging-role-of-hippo-signalling-in-pancreatic-biology-yap-re-expression-and-plausible-link-to-islet-cell-apoptosis-and-replication
#19
REVIEW
Anjana Sharma, Veera Ganesh Yerra, Ashutosh Kumar
Diabetes mellitus is an ailment that develops when the functional capacity of the pancreas does not meet the metabolic requirements of the whole body, either due to insulin insufficiency or resistance to insulin action. Current therapies that control glycaemia are limited by their unwanted effects or their inability to prevent the development of long-term complications. Regeneration and replacement of beta cell therapies are shaping the goals of future management of diabetes. The Hippo pathway, first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, plays a vital role in controlling the organ size...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983926/the-regulatory-effects-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-on-nerve-regeneration
#20
Shiying Li, Xiaosong Gu, Sheng Yi
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) belongs to a group of pleiotropic cytokines that are involved in avariety of biological processes, such as inflammation and immune reaction, cellular phenotype transition, extracellular matrix (ECM) disposition and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. TGF-β is widely distributed throughout the body, including the nervous system. Following injury to the nervous system, TGF-β regulates the behavior of neurons and glial cells and thus mediates the regenerative process...
November 23, 2016: Cell Transplantation
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