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Beta cell regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343794/bone-regeneration-using-a-porcine-bone-substitute-collagen-composite-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Eisner Salamanca, Chia-Chen Hsu, Haw-Ming Huang, Nai-Chia Teng, Che-Tong Lin, Yu-Hwa Pan, Wei-Jen Chang
The biocharacteristics of xenogeneic grafts make them a possible substitute for autogenous bone grafts in dental bone graft procedures. This study aimed to develop a novel porcine graft with collagen capable of generating new bone in bone defects via osteoconduction over 8 weeks of healing and to compare it with a porcine graft. The porcine collagen graft was made to undergo a cell viability test (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP). The surgical procedure was performed in 20 male adult New Zealand white rabbits...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334988/epidermal-wnt-signalling-regulates-transcriptome-heterogeneity-and-proliferative-fate-in-neighbouring-cells
#2
Arsham Ghahramani, Giacomo Donati, Nicholas M Luscombe, Fiona M Watt
BACKGROUND: Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling regulates self-renewal and lineage selection within the mammalian epidermis. Although the transcriptional response of keratinocytes that receive a Wnt signal is well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which keratinocytes in proximity to the Wnt-receiving cell are co-opted to undergo a change in cell fate. RESULTS: To address this, we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing on mouse keratinocytes co-cultured with and without beta-catenin-activated neighbouring cells...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284013/creating-a-stem-cell-niche-in-the-inner-ear-using-self-assembling-peptide-amphiphiles
#3
Akihiro J Matsuoka, Zafar A Sayed, Nicholas Stephanopoulos, Eric J Berns, Anil R Wadhwani, Zachery D Morrissey, Duncan M Chadly, Shun Kobayashi, Alexandra N Edelbrock, Tomoji Mashimo, Charles A Miller, Tammy L McGuire, Samuel I Stupp, John A Kessler
The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for regeneration of the spiral ganglion will require techniques for promoting otic neuronal progenitor (ONP) differentiation, anchoring of cells to anatomically appropriate and specific niches, and long-term cell survival after transplantation. In this study, we used self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) molecules that display an IKVAV epitope (IKVAV-PA) to create a niche for hESC-derived ONPs that supported neuronal differentiation and survival both in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rodent inner ears...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275427/hope-vs-hype-where-are-we-in-type-1-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Jay S Skyler
Much progress has been made in type 1 diabetes research. Biological replacement of islet function has been achieved with pancreas transplantation and with islet transplantation. In the future, human embryonic stem cells and/or induced pluripotent stem cells may offer a potentially unlimited source of cells for islet replacement. Another potential strategy is to induce robust beta cell replication so that regeneration of islets can be achieved. Immune interventions are being studied with the hope of arresting the type 1 diabetes disease process to either prevent the disease or help preserve beta cell function...
December 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259721/characterization-of-polydactyly-derived-chondrocyte-sheets-versus-adult-chondrocyte-sheets-for-articular-cartilage-repair
#5
Miki Maehara, Masato Sato, Eriko Toyoda, Takumi Takahashi, Eri Okada, Tomomi Kotoku, Masahiko Watanabe
Background: We previously conducted a first-in-human clinical study of articular cartilage repair using autologous chondrocyte sheets and confirmed the regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in all eight patients. However, regenerative medicine with autologous chondrocyte sheets requires the harvesting of tissue from healthy regions, and the quality of this tissue varies between individuals. To overcome such limitations, allogeneic transplantation is a promising treatment method, particularly for articular cartilage repair...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229887/multiple-oncogenic-roles-of-nuclear-beta-catenin
#6
Raju Kumar, Murali D Bashyam
β-Catenin is essential for embryonic development and required for cell renewal/regeneration in adult life. Cellular β-catenin exists in three different pools: membranous, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In this review, we focus on functions of the nuclear pool in relation to tumorigenesis. In the nucleus, beta-catenin functions as both activator and repressor of transcription in a context-dependent manner. It promotes cell proliferation and supports tumour growth by enhancing angiogenesis. β-Catenin-mediated signalling regulates cancer cell metabolism and is associated with tumour-initiating cells in multiple malignancies...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227863/phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-pancreas-new-triggers-new-players
#7
REVIEW
Theoni Ingrid Demcollari, Ana-Maria Cujba, Rocio Sancho
The pancreas has a very limited regenerative potential during homeostasis. Despite its quiescent nature, recent in vivo models suggest a certain degree of regeneration and cellular interconversion is possible within the adult pancreas. It has now become evident that cellular plasticity can be observed in essentially all cell types within the pancreas when provided with the right stress stimuli. In this review, we will focus on the latest findings uncovering phenotypic plasticity of different cell types in the pancreas, the molecular mechanisms behind such plasticity and how plasticity associated with pancreatic or non-pancreatic cells could be harnessed in the generation of new insulin-producing beta cells...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227558/rna-sequencing-identifies-gene-regulatory-networks-controlling-extracellular-matrix-synthesis-in-intervertebral-disk-tissues
#8
Scott M Riester, Yang Lin, Wei Wang, Lin Cong, Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Ali, Sun H Peck, Lachlan J Smith, Bradford L Currier, Michelle Clark, Paul Huddleston, William Krauss, Michael J Yaszemski, Mark E Morrey, Matthew P Abdel, Mohamad Bydon, Wenchun Qu, A Noelle Larson, Andre J van Wijnen, Ahmad Nassr
Degenerative disk disease of the spine is a major cause of back pain and disability. Optimization of regenerative medical therapies for degenerative disk disease requires a deep mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling the structural integrity of spinal tissues. In this investigation, we sought to identify candidate regulatory genes controlling extracellular matrix synthesis in spinal tissues. To achieve this goal we performed high throughput next generation RNA sequencing on 39 annulus fibrosus and 21 nucleus pulposus human tissue samples...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216879/anti-diabetic-potential-of-sapium-ellipticum-hochst-pax-leaf-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#9
Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
BACKGOUND: Ethnobatanical survey associates Sapium ellipticum (SE) with antidiabetic usage among other medicinal functions in different parts of Africa. More importantly, previous studies on the plant extract in our laboratory showed that SE has significant effects on the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In view of these, the anti-diabetic potential of the plant leaf extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rat model (Wistar strain) was examined...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176876/neuroprotection-and-neuroregeneration-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-after-intravitreal-carbon-monoxide-release
#10
Julia Stifter, Felix Ulbrich, Ulrich Goebel, Daniel Böhringer, Wolf Alexander Lagrèze, Julia Biermann
PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia induces apoptosis leading to neurodegeneration and vision impairment. Carbon monoxide (CO) in gaseous form showed cell-protective and anti-inflammatory effects after retinal ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI). These effects were also demonstrated for the intravenously administered CO-releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186. This article summarizes the results of intravitreally released CO to assess its suitability as a neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent. METHODS: Water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (25 μg), PBS, or inactivated ALF (iALF) (all 5 μl) were intravitreally applied into the left eyes of rats directly after retinal IRI for 1 h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169144/targeting-the-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-cancer-update-on-effectors-and-inhibitors
#11
REVIEW
Nithya Krishnamurthy, Razelle Kurzrock
The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is a family of proteins that is implicated in many vital cellular functions such as stem cell regeneration and organogenesis. Several intra-cellular signal transduction pathways are induced by Wnt, notably the Wnt/beta-catenin dependent pathway or canonical pathway and the non-canonical or beta-catenin-independent pathway; the latter includes the Wnt/Ca2+ and Planar Cell Polarity pathway (PCP). Wnt activation occurs at the intestinal crypt floor, and is critical to optimal maintenance of stem cells...
January 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168546/glucocorticoids-and-beta-cell-function
#12
Marta Fichna, Piotr Fichna
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in carbohydrate metabolism. They counteract insulin by decreasing peripheral glucose uptake and stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis, although they are best known for inducing insulin resistance (IR). Moreover, GCs may attenuate the incretin effect. Nevertheless, their direct impact on beta cells is not fully defined. This review aims to present the current understanding of this subject. Humans exposed to GC excess display IR, impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually develop diabetes...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157270/autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-induces-bone-formation-of-tissue-engineered-bone-with-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-ceramics
#13
Tengbo Yu, Huazheng Pan, Yanling Hu, Hao Tao, Kai Wang, Chengdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can serve as bone-inducing factors to provide osteoinduction and improve bone regeneration for tissue-engineered bones fabricated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics. The current study will give more insight into the contradictory osteogenic capacity of PRP. METHODS: The concentration of platelets, platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in PRP and whole blood...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150918/central-role-of-transforming-ggrowth-factor-type-beta-1-in-skeletal-muscle-dysfunctions-an-update-on-therapeutic-strategies
#14
Johanna Abrigo, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Gonzalo Cordova, Capucine Trollet, Claudio Cabello Verrugio
Among the soluble factors that regulate skeletal muscle function, Transforming Growth Factor type Beta 1 (TGF-b1) is one of the most studied. This factor inhibits myogenesis and regeneration by regulating the activity and function of satellite cells (SCs). Indeed, TGF-b has a central role in muscle pathologies in which there is development of fibrosis and/or atrophy of skeletal muscle. Thus, in this review we present the critical and recent antecedents regarding the mechanisms and cellular targets involved in the effects of TGF-b1 in the muscle, in pathological processes such as the inhibition of regeneration, fibrosis and atrophy...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150917/regulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily
#15
Jelena Krstic, Drenka Trivanovic, Hristina Obradovic, Tamara Kukolj, Diana Bugarski, Juan F Santibanez
The ability to differentiate into cells of different lineage, such as muscle, bone, cartilage and fat, is the chief value of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can be used with the final aim to regenerate damaged tissue. Due to potential use, as well as importance in tissue development, a number of questions have been raised regarding the molecular mechanisms of MSC differentiation. As one of the crucial mediators in organism development, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily directs MSCs commitment in the selection of differentiation pathways...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147666/sympathetic-denervation-accelerates-wound-contraction-but-inhibits-reepithelialization-and-pericyte-proliferation-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Zhifang Zheng, Yu Wan, Yishu Liu, Yu Yang, Jianbing Tang, Wenhua Huang, Biao Cheng
Previous studies focused on the effects of sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on nondiabetic wounds, but the effects of 6-OHDA on diabetic wounds have not been previously reported. In this study, treated mice received intraperitoneal 6-OHDA, and control mice received intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. Full-thickness wounds were established on the backs of mice. The wounds were sectioned (four mice per group) for analysis at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days after injury. The wound areas in the control group were larger than those in the treatment group...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140125/diabetes-area-patent-participation-analysis-part-ii-years-2011-2016
#17
Markus Boehm, Matthew Crawford, Jamie E Moscovitz, Philip A Carpino
Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of plasma glucose. When untreated, diabetes increases the risk of developing co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Several drugs, often used as part of combination therapies, have been approved to treat the disease, but these drugs will eventually fail to effectively control blood glucose levels, at which point insulin replacement therapy is required. A medical need exists for new anti-diabetic drugs that exhibit good efficacy with improved safety/toleration profiles and can be added on top of existing therapies, or that can provide additional benefits beyond glucose lowering such as pancreatic beta (β)-cell protection...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133959/a-novel-cytotherapy-device-for-rapid-screening-enriching-and-combining-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-a-biomaterial-for-promoting-bone-regeneration
#18
Yifu Zhuang, Yaokai Gan, Dingwei Shi, Jie Zhao, Tingting Tang, Kerong Dai
Bone defects are a common challenge in clinic, usually warranting bone grafts. However, current strategies to obtain effective graft materials have many drawbacks. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising alternative. We designed an innovative appliance named the stem cell screen-enrich-combine(-biomaterials) circulating system (SECCS). In this study, 42 patients who required bone graft underwent SECCS-based treatment. Their bone marrow samples and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules were processed in the SECCS for 10-15 minutes, to produce MSC/β-TCP composites...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131526/amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mitigate-osteoarthritis-progression-in-a-synovial-macrophage-mediated-in-vitro-explant-co-culture-model
#19
Natasha Topoluk, Kathleen Steckbeck, Sandra Siatkowski, Brian Burnikel, John Tokish, Jeremy Mercuri
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the synovial joint marked by chronic, low-grade inflammation leading to cartilage destruction. Regenerative medicine strategies for mitigating OA progression and/or promoting cartilage regeneration must be assessed using models that mimic the hallmarks of OA. More specifically, these models should maintain synovial macrophage phenotype in their native micro-environment. Herein, an in vitro co-culture model of patient-matched human OA cartilage and synovium was assessed for viability, macrophage phenotype, and progressive cartilage destruction in the presence of an inflammatory milieu...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126441/tgf%C3%AE-3-recruits-endogenous-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-initiate-bone-regeneration
#20
Moyuan Deng, Tieniu Mei, Tianyong Hou, Keyu Luo, Fei Luo, Aijun Yang, Bo Yu, Hao Pang, Shiwu Dong, Jianzhong Xu
BACKGROUND: The recruitment of a sufficient number of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is the first stage of in-situ tissue regeneration. Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGFβ3) could recruit stem or progenitor cells and endothelial cells to participate in tissue regeneration. However, the mechanism of TGFβ3 recruiting MSCs toward bone regeneration has remained obscure. METHODS: We estimated the promigratory property of TGFβ3 on human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) cocultured with the vascular cells (human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells) or not by Transwell assay...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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