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Beta cell regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542487/characterization-of-micrornas-expression-profiles-in-human-dental-derived-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Xiaobing Tan, Qingyuan Dai
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology provides a powerful means to generate and regenerate unlimited pluripotent stem cells directly from body tissue cells. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are present in 'cell-rich zones' within the dental pulp region, which are capable of regenerating pulp and dentin tissues in vivo. In this study, we investigated the difference of miRNAs expression in SCAPs and DPSCs before and after the reprogramming. Using miRNA microarray, 134 and 265 differentially expressed miRNAs in DPSCs- and SCAP-iPSCs were up-regulated compared to these before reprogramming...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539839/ppard-is-an-inhibitor-of-cartilage-growth-in-external-ears
#2
Zhen Zhang, Yanyu Duan, Zhongping Wu, Hui Zhang, Jun Ren, Lusheng Huang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARD) is an important determinant of multiple biological processes. Our previous studies identified a missense mutation in the PPARD gene that significantly reduces its transcription activity, and consequently causes enlarged external ears in pigs. However, the mechanisms underlying the causality has remained largely unknown. Here, we show that PPARD retards the development of auricular cartilage by accelerating the apoptosis of cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), the terminal differentiation of cartilage cells and the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix in the auricle...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532087/the-repairing-of-full-thickness-skin-deficiency-and-its-biological-mechanism-using-decellularized-human-amniotic-membrane-as-the-wound-dressing
#3
Mengsheng Song, Weiqing Wang, Qihua Ye, Shizhong Bu, Zhisen Shen, Yabin Zhu
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) was a biocompatible scaffold with advantages of anti-inflammatory, low antigen, feasibility, tolerance and low cost. In our previous work, HAM was treated to be decellularized using surfactant, lipase and DNAase methods and the efficacy as an implantable biological mesh was verified after decellularization treatment. In this work, we used the previous protocol to decellularize the fresh HAM, and applied it to repair full-thickness skin defects with Sprague-Dawley rats as the test animals...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521371/evaluation-of-biological-effects-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-hibiscus-rosa-sinensis-flowers-on-alloxan-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#4
Mohan Pethe, Samir Yelwatkar, Smita Manchalwar, Vijay Gujar
Aim and Objective The current study sought to investigate antidiabetic, hypolipidimic, antioxidant and histopathological effects of floral extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in Alloxan induced Diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods Study was conducted on 6 groups with 6 wistar rats in each group for the period of 4 weeks. Group I: served as normal control (NC), rats administered with gum acacia 1 ml daily, group II: consider as diabetic control (DC) treated with alloxon 150 mg/kg body wt. Whereas Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract was given orally in group III (DE1), group IV (DE2), group V (DE3) at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight dissolved in distilled water respectively...
May 18, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513838/the-emerging-role-of-npnt-in-tissue-injury-repair-and-bone-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Youqiang Sun, Vincent Kuek, Heng Qiu, Jennifer Tickner, Leilei Chen, Haibin Wang, Wei He, Jiake Xu
Nephronectin (NPNT), a highly conserved extracellular matrix protein, plays an important role in regulating cell adhesion, differentiation, spreading and survival. NPNT protein belongs to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like superfamily and exhibits several common structural determinants; including EGF-like repeat domains, MAM domain (Meprin, A5 Protein, and Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase µ), RGD motif (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a coiled-coil domain. It regulates integrins-mediated signaling pathways via the interaction of its RGD motif with integrin α8β1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507358/effect-of-citrullus-colocynthis-aqueous-seed-extract-on-beta-cell-regeneration-and-intra-islet-vasculature-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-male-albino-rats
#6
Alia Amin, Mohammad Tahir, Khalid Pervez Lone
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Citrullus colocynthis on beta cell regeneration and intra-islet vasculature. METHODS: This experimental study was conducted at the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, from February 2013 to January 2014. It comprised male wistar rats weighing 100-150gand aged 6-8 weeks. The animals were divided into 6 groups. Group A1 served as control. Diabetes was induced in groups A2, B2 and C2 using single intravenous injection of 50mg/kg of alloxan...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506643/epithelial-basement-membrane-injury-and-regeneration-modulates-corneal-fibrosis-after-pseudomonas-corneal-ulcers-in-rabbits
#7
Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Santhanam Abirami, Luciana L Dibbin, Thangavadivel Shanmugapriya, Carla S Medeiros, Karthikeyan Bose, Kwai Ping Tam, Steven E Wilson
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myofibroblast-related fibrosis (scarring) after microbial keratitis was modulated by the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) injury and regeneration. Rabbits were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after epithelial scrape injury and the resultant severe keratitis was treated with topical tobramycin. Corneas were analyzed from one to four months after keratitis with slit lamp photos, immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and monocyte lineage marker CD11b, and transmission electron microscopy...
May 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486025/efficacy-and-persistence-of-allogeneic-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-combined-with-hyaluronic-acid-in-osteoarthritis-after-intra-articular-injection-in-a-sheep-model
#8
Chenchen Feng, Xuan Luo, Na He, Huitang Xia, Xiaoteng Lv, Xue Zhang, Dan Li, Fei Wang, Jiaping He, Li Zhang, Xiangming Lin, Liping Lin, Huabin Yin, Jiyin He, Jinwu Wang, Wei Cao, Richard Wang, Guangdong Zhou, Wen Wang
Although a number of studies have reported efficacy of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in treating osteoarthritis (OA), no reliable evidences demonstrate whether allogeneic AD-MSCs can efficiently block OA progression in a large animal model. The current study explored the efficacy and survival of allogeneic AD-MSCs combined with hyaluronic acid (HA) after intra-articular (IA) injection in a sheep OA model, which were conventionally established by anterior cruciate ligament resection and medial meniscectomy...
May 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484495/mitochondrial-dna-hypomethylation-is-a-biomarker-associated-with-induced-senescence-in-human-fetal-heart-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Dehai Yu, Zhonghua Du, Lingling Pian, Tao Li, Xue Wen, Wei Li, Su-Jeong Kim, Jialin Xiao, Pinchas Cohen, Jiuwei Cui, Andrew R Hoffman, Ji-Fan Hu
Background. Fetal heart can regenerate to restore its normal anatomy and function in response to injury, but this regenerative capacity is lost within the first week of postnatal life. Although the specific molecular mechanisms remain to be defined, it is presumed that aging of cardiac stem or progenitor cells may contribute to the loss of regenerative potential. Methods. To study this aging-related dysfunction, we cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human fetal heart tissues. Senescence was induced by exposing cells to chronic oxidative stress/low serum...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484372/potential-involvement-of-snail-members-in-neuronal-survival-and-astrocytic-migration-during-the-gecko-spinal-cord-regeneration
#10
Tingting Shen, Yingjie Wang, Qing Zhang, Xue Bai, Sumei Wei, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Ying Yuan, Yan Liu, Mei Liu, Xiaosong Gu, Yongjun Wang
Certain regenerative vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles are capable of regenerating spinal cord after injury. Most neurons of spinal cord will survive from the injury and regrow axons to repair circuits with an absence of glial scar formation. However, the underlying mechanisms of neuronal anti-apoptosis and glia-related responses have not been fully clarified during the regenerative process. Gecko has becoming an inspiring model to address spinal cord regeneration in amniotes. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of Snail family members, the important transcriptional factors involved in both triggering of the cell migration and cell survival, during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480759/gad65-a-prospective-vaccine-for-treating-type-1-diabetes
#11
Johnny Ludvigsson
In spite of modern techniques, the burden for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) will not disappear and T1D remains a life-threatening disease causing severe complications and increased mortality. We have to learn how to preserve residual insulin secretion or even increase beta cell regeneration. This would give a milder disease, simpler treatment and perhaps even cure. Thus, there are good reasons to try therapies that may preserve beta cell function. Areas covered: In this review the author reviews the literature and registered ongoing trials using GAD-alum put in relation to the high number of published different immune interventions...
May 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469658/neural-stem-cells-over-expressing-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promote-neuronal-survival-and-cytoskeletal-protein-expression-in-traumatic-brain-injury-sites
#12
Tao Chen, Yan Yu, Liu-Jiu Tang, Li Kong, Cheng-Hong Zhang, Hai-Ying Chu, Liang-Wei Yin, Hai-Ying Ma
Cytoskeletal proteins are involved in neuronal survival. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor can increase expression of cytoskeletal proteins during regeneration after axonal injury. However, the effect of neural stem cells genetically modified by brain-derived neurotrophic factor transplantation on neuronal survival in the injury site still remains unclear. To examine this, we established a rat model of traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact. At 72 hours after injury, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL neural stem cells overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor or naive neural stem cells (3 mL) were injected into the injured cortex...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462796/basic-research-and-clinical-application-of-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-%C3%AE-tcp
#13
REVIEW
T Tanaka, H Komaki, M Chazono, S Kitasato, A Kakuta, S Akiyama, K Marumo
The mechanism of bone substitute resorption involves two processes: solution-mediated and cell-mediated disintegration. In our previous animal studies, the main resorption process of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was considered to be cell-mediated disintegration by TRAP-positive cells. Thus, osteoclast-mediated resorption of β-TCP is important for enabling bone formation. We also report the results of treatment with β-TCP graft in patients since 1989. Two to three weeks after implantation, resorption of β-TCP occurred from the periphery, and then continued toward the center over time...
April 24, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455716/macrophage-differentiation-in-normal-and-accelerated-wound-healing
#14
Girish J Kotwal, Sufan Chien
Chronic wounds pose considerable public health challenges and burden. Wound healing is known to require the participation of macrophages, but mechanisms remain unclear. The M1 phenotype macrophages have a known scavenger function, but they also play multiple roles in tissue repair and regeneration when they transition to an M2 phenotype. Macrophage precursors (mononuclear cells/monocytes) follow the influx of PMN neutrophils into a wound during the natural wound-healing process, to become the major cells in the wound...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441755/role-of-rheb-in-regulating-differentiation-fate-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-and-bone-regeneration
#15
Sajjad Ashraf, In-Bo Han, Hansoo Park, Soo-Hong Lee
Advances in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell replacement therapies are promising approaches to treat cartilage and bone defects since substantial differentiation capacities of MSCs match the demands of tissue regeneration. Our understanding of the dynamic process requiring indispensable differentiation of MSCs remains limited. Herein, we describe the role of RHEB (Ras homolog enriched in brain) regulating gene signature for differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415512/study-of-epithelial-differentiation-and-protein-expression-of-keratinocyte-mesenchyme-stem-cell-co-cultivation-on-electrospun-nylon-b-vulgaris-extract-composite-scaffold
#16
Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Manuchehr Vossoughi, Parviz Ranjbarvan, Shokoh Hamedi, Soheila Zamanlui, Matin Mahmoudifard
Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380380/virgin-beta-cells-persist-throughout-life-at-a-neogenic-niche-within-pancreatic-islets
#17
Talitha van der Meulen, Alex M Mawla, Michael R DiGruccio, Michael W Adams, Vera Nies, Sophie Dólleman, Siming Liu, Amanda M Ackermann, Elena Cáceres, Anna E Hunter, Klaus H Kaestner, Cynthia J Donaldson, Mark O Huising
Postnatal maintenance or regeneration of pancreatic beta cells is considered to occur exclusively via the replication of existing beta cells, but clinically meaningful restoration of human beta cell mass by proliferation has never been achieved. We discovered a population of immature beta cells that is present throughout life and forms from non-beta precursors at a specialized micro-environment or "neogenic niche" at the islet periphery. These cells express insulin, but lack other key beta cell markers, and are transcriptionally immature, incapable of sensing glucose, and unable to support calcium influx...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376251/tissue-regeneration-in-dentistry-can-salamanders-provide-insight
#18
Fadi Sader, Jean-François Denis, Stéphane Roy
The ability to regenerate damaged tissues would be of tremendous benefit for medicine and dentistry. Unfortunately, humans are unable to regenerate tissues such teeth, fingers or to repair injured spinal cord. With an aging population, health problems are more prominent and dentistry is no exception as loss of bone tissue in the orofacial sphere from periodontal disease is on the rise. Humans can repair oral soft tissues exceptionally well, however hard tissues, like bone and teeth, are devoid of the ability to repair well or at all...
April 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326017/adiponectin-regulates-the-polarization-and-function-of-microglia-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-under-amyloid-%C3%AE-toxicity
#19
Juhyun Song, Seong-Min Choi, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), is gradually increasing globally. Given that AD is considered a neuroinflammatory disease, recent studies have focused on the cellular mechanisms in brain inflammatory conditions that underlie AD neuropathology. Microglia are macrophage cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that are activated in response to Aβ condition. The function of microglia contributes to the neuroinflammation in AD brain, suggesting that microglia regulate the production of inflammatory mediators and contribute to the regeneration of damaged tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321233/heterogeneity-of-the-pancreatic-beta-cell
#20
REVIEW
Giselle Dominguez Gutierrez, Jesper Gromada, Lori Sussel
The pancreatic beta cell functions as a key regulator of blood glucose levels by integrating a variety of signals in response to changing metabolic demands. Variations in beta cell identity that translate into functionally different subpopulations represent an interesting mechanism to allow beta cells to efficiently respond to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Recently, there is emerging evidence that morphological and functional differences between beta cells exist. Furthermore, the ability of novel single cell technologies to characterize the molecular identity of individual beta cells has created a new era in the beta cell field...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
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