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Beta cell regeneration

Jian Weng, Yan-Hua Wang, Ming Li, Dian-Ying Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
Delay of axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is considered to be one of the main molecular mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly. We hold the hypothesis that the innervation of target muscle can be promoted by accelerating axon regeneration and decelerating muscle cell degeneration so as to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve injury...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jonas Lorenz, Mike Barbeck, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Robert Sader, Henriette Lerner, Shahram Ghanaati
PURPOSE: In this prospective study, the regenerative potential and pathways of a new injectable bone substitute (IBS) material composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hyaluronan were investigated for its application in alveolar bone regeneration within extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone substitute material was implanted in 44 extraction sockets after removal of teeth not worth preserving in the maxillary and mandibular arches of 21 patients...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Yuanyuan Tang, Joshua Berlind, Nirmala Mavila
BACKGROUND: The WNT-beta-catenin pathway is known to regulate cellular homeostasis during development and tissue regeneration. Activation of WNT signaling increases the stability of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and enhances its nuclear translocation. Nuclear beta-catenin function is regulated by transcriptional co-factors such as CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. Hyper-activated WNT-beta-catenin signaling is associated with many cancers. However, its role in inducing stemness to liver cancer cells, its autoregulation and how it regulates tumor suppressor pathways are not well understood...
March 12, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Matheus de Castro Fonseca, Andressa França, Rodrigo Machado Florentino, Roberta Cristelli Fonseca, Antônio Carlos Melo, Paula Teixeira Vieira Vidigal, André G Oliveira, Laurent Dubuquoy, Michael H Nathanson, M Fátima Leite
Hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is a well-coordinated process regulated by the activation of several growth factor receptors, including the insulin receptor (IR). The IR can be localized in part to cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains, but the role of such domains in insulin-mediated events in hepatocytes is not known. We investigated whether partitioning of IRs into cholesterol-enriched membrane rafts is important for the mitogenic effects of insulin in the hepatic cells. IR and lipid rafts were labeled in HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Antian Xu, Chen Zhuang, Shuxin Xu, Fuming He, Lijun Xie, Xianyan Yang, Zhongru Gou
Bioceramic particulates capable of filling bone defects have gained considerable interest over the last decade. Herein, dual-shell bioceramic microspheres (CaP@CaSi@CaP, CaSi@CaP@CaSi) with adjustable beta-tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and beta-calcium silicate (CaSi) distribution were fabricated using a co-concentric capillary system enabling bone repair via a tailorable biodegradation process. The in vitro results showed the optimal concentration (1/16 of 200 mg/ml) of extracts of dual-shell microspheres could promote bone marrow mesenchymal cell (BMSC) proliferation and enhance the level of ALP activity and Alizarin Red staining...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Raiyan T Zaman, Silvan Tuerkcan, Morteza Mahmoudi, Toshinobu Saito, Phillip C Yang, Frederick T Chin, Michael V McConnell, Lei Xing
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes, myocardial tissue damage, and impairment of myocardial function. The inability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate prevents the heart from self-regeneration. The treatment for advanced heart failure following an MI is heart transplantation despite the limited availability of the organs. Thus, stem-cell-based cardiac therapies could ultimately prevent heart failure by repairing injured myocardium that reverses cardiomyocyte loss...
2018: PloS One
Wei Zhu, Haitao Cui, Benchaa Boualam, Fahed Masood, Erin Flynn, Raj Rao, Zhiyong Zhang, Lijie Grace Zhang
Cartilage tissue is prone to degradation and has little capacity for self-healing due to its avascularity. Tissue engineering, which provides artificial scaffolds to repair injured tissues, is a novel and promising strategy for cartilage repair. 3D bioprinting offers even greater potential for repairing degenerative tissue by simultaneously integrating living cells, biomaterials, and biological cues to provide a customized scaffold. With regard to cell selection, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great capacity for differentiating into a variety of cell types, including chondrocytes, and could therefore be utilized as a cartilage cell source in 3D bioprinting...
February 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Michio Nagata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Earlier works of the glomerulogenesis described morphological steps and protein expression during in-vivo and in-vitro kidney development. Recent technologies using cell-specific or conditional knock-out mice for several factors provide important knowledge about cross-talk signaling among resident cells as local events. Based on the recent advancement, this review revisits comprehensive morphological development of the glomerulus. RECENT FINDINGS: Interactions of presumptive podocyte vascular endothelial growth factor with vascular endothelial growth factor-2 on angioblasts initiate glomerular vascularization...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Abhay Srivastava, Nidheesh Dadheech, Mitul Vakani, Sarita Gupta
In the present study, Swertisin's role in triggering resident pancreatic progenitors for islet neogenesis in Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice was explored. STZ diabetic mice when treated with Swertisin demonstrated reversion to normoglycemia and significant elevation of fasting serum insulin levels. On screening the pancreatic tissue post Swertisin treatment in the STZ diabetic mice, we observed significant up-regulation of key transcription factors viz. Pdx1, Neurog3, MafA and Nkx6.1 required for islet neogenesis and beta cell homeostasis...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hale M Tasyurek, Hasan A Altunbas, Mustafa K Balci, Thomas S Griffith, Salih Sanlioglu
Postprandial glucose-induced insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans is facilitated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) - a metabolic hormone with insulinotropic properties. Among the variety of effects it mediates, GLP-1 induces delta cell secretion of somatostatin, inhibits alpha cell release of glucagon, reduces gastric emptying, and slows food intake. These events collectively contribute to weight loss over time. During type 2 diabetes (T2DM), however, the incretin response to glucose is reduced and accompanied by a moderate reduction in GLP-1 secretion...
February 6, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Solomon Habtemariam
Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu) are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA). A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B), that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yan-Yun Liu, Gregory A Brent
Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development and may also promote recovery and neuronal regeneration after brain injury. TH acts predominantly through the nuclear receptors, TH receptor alpha (THRA) and beta (THRB). Additional factors that impact TH action in the brain include metabolism, activation of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) by the enzyme 5'-deiodinase Type 2 (Dio2), inactivation by the enzyme 5-deiodinase Type 3 (Dio3) to reverse T3 (rT3), which occurs in glial cells, and uptake by the Mct8 transporter in neurons...
February 8, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Takanobu Mashiko, Hitomi Takada, Szu-Hsien Wu, Koji Kanayama, Jingwei Feng, Kensuke Tashiro, Rintaro Asahi, Ataru Sunaga, Kazuto Hoshi, Akira Kurisaki, Tsuyoshi Takato, Kotaro Yoshimura
Chronic changes following radiotherapy include alterations in tissue-resident stem cells and vasculatures, which can lead to impaired wound healing. In this study, novel recombinant human collagen peptide (rhCP) scaffolds were evaluated as a biomaterial carrier for cellular regenerative therapy. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were successfully cultured on rhCP scaffolds. By hASC culture on rhCP, microarray assay indicated that expression of genes related to cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production was upregulated...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Eisner Salamanca, Chia-Chen Hsu, Haw-Ming Huang, Nai-Chia Teng, Che-Tong Lin, Yu-Hwa Pan, Wei-Jen Chang
The biocharacteristics of xenogeneic grafts make them a possible substitute for autogenous bone grafts in dental bone graft procedures. This study aimed to develop a novel porcine graft with collagen capable of generating new bone in bone defects via osteoconduction over 8 weeks of healing and to compare it with a porcine graft. The porcine collagen graft was made to undergo a cell viability test (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP). The surgical procedure was performed in 20 male adult New Zealand white rabbits...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arsham Ghahramani, Giacomo Donati, Nicholas M Luscombe, Fiona M Watt
BACKGROUND: Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling regulates self-renewal and lineage selection within the mammalian epidermis. Although the transcriptional response of keratinocytes that receive a Wnt signal is well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which keratinocytes in proximity to the Wnt-receiving cell are co-opted to undergo a change in cell fate. RESULTS: To address this, we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing on mouse keratinocytes co-cultured with and without beta-catenin-activated neighbouring cells...
January 15, 2018: Genome Biology
Akihiro J Matsuoka, Zafar A Sayed, Nicholas Stephanopoulos, Eric J Berns, Anil R Wadhwani, Zachery D Morrissey, Duncan M Chadly, Shun Kobayashi, Alexandra N Edelbrock, Tomoji Mashimo, Charles A Miller, Tammy L McGuire, Samuel I Stupp, John A Kessler
The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for regeneration of the spiral ganglion will require techniques for promoting otic neuronal progenitor (ONP) differentiation, anchoring of cells to anatomically appropriate and specific niches, and long-term cell survival after transplantation. In this study, we used self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) molecules that display an IKVAV epitope (IKVAV-PA) to create a niche for hESC-derived ONPs that supported neuronal differentiation and survival both in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rodent inner ears...
2017: PloS One
Jay S Skyler
Much progress has been made in type 1 diabetes research. Biological replacement of islet function has been achieved with pancreas transplantation and with islet transplantation. In the future, human embryonic stem cells and/or induced pluripotent stem cells may offer a potentially unlimited source of cells for islet replacement. Another potential strategy is to induce robust beta cell replication so that regeneration of islets can be achieved. Immune interventions are being studied with the hope of arresting the type 1 diabetes disease process to either prevent the disease or help preserve beta cell function...
December 23, 2017: Diabetologia
Miki Maehara, Masato Sato, Eriko Toyoda, Takumi Takahashi, Eri Okada, Tomomi Kotoku, Masahiko Watanabe
Background: We previously conducted a first-in-human clinical study of articular cartilage repair using autologous chondrocyte sheets and confirmed the regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in all eight patients. However, regenerative medicine with autologous chondrocyte sheets requires the harvesting of tissue from healthy regions, and the quality of this tissue varies between individuals. To overcome such limitations, allogeneic transplantation is a promising treatment method, particularly for articular cartilage repair...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
Raju Kumar, Murali D Bashyam
β-Catenin is essential for embryonic development and required for cell renewal/regeneration in adult life. Cellular β-catenin exists in three different pools: membranous, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In this review, we focus on functions of the nuclear pool in relation to tumorigenesis. In the nucleus, beta-catenin functions as both activator and repressor of transcription in a context-dependent manner. It promotes cell proliferation and supports tumour growth by enhancing angiogenesis. β-Catenin-mediated signalling regulates cancer cell metabolism and is associated with tumour-initiating cells in multiple malignancies...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
Theoni Ingrid Demcollari, Ana-Maria Cujba, Rocio Sancho
The pancreas has a very limited regenerative potential during homeostasis. Despite its quiescent nature, recent in vivo models suggest a certain degree of regeneration and cellular interconversion is possible within the adult pancreas. It has now become evident that cellular plasticity can be observed in essentially all cell types within the pancreas when provided with the right stress stimuli. In this review, we will focus on the latest findings uncovering phenotypic plasticity of different cell types in the pancreas, the molecular mechanisms behind such plasticity and how plasticity associated with pancreatic or non-pancreatic cells could be harnessed in the generation of new insulin-producing beta cells...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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