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Beta cell regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899909/depletion-of-the-mrna-translation-initiation-inhibitor-programmed-cell-death-protein-4-pdcd4-impairs-l6-myotube-formation
#1
Naomi Maeda, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Brendan Beatty, Zameer Dhanani, Olasunkanmi A J Adegoke
The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is vital for optimal muscle mass and function. Although the significance of mTORC1 in stimulating muscle growth is unequivocal, evidence in support of its role during muscle regeneration is less clear. Here, we showed that the abundance (protein and mRNA) of the mTORC1/S6K1 substrate, programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), is upregulated at the onset of differentiation of L6 and C2C12 cells. The increase in PDCD4 was not associated with any changes in S6K1 activation, but the abundance of beta transducing repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP), the ubiquitin ligase that targets PDCD4 for degradation, increased...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899816/enzyme-crosslinked-gene-activated-matrix-for-the-induction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-osteochondral-tissue-regeneration
#2
Yi-Hsuan Lee, Hsi-Chin Wu, Chia-Wei Yeh, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Han-Tsung Liao, Horng-Chaung Hsu, Jui-Che Tsai, Jui-Sheng Sun, Tzu-Wei Wang
The development of osteochondral tissue engineering is an important issue for the treatment of traumatic injury or aging associated joint disease. However, the different compositions and mechanical properties of cartilage and subchondral bone show the complexity of this tissue interface, making it challenging for the design and fabrication of osteochondral graft substitute. In this study, a bilayer scaffold is developed to promote the regeneration of osteochondral tissue within a single integrated construct...
September 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892926/antidiabetic-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-solanum-nigrum-linn-berries-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-wistar-albino-rats
#3
M S Umamageswari, T M Karthikeyan, Yasmeen A Maniyar
INTRODUCTION: Solanum nigrum Linn. is a common medicinal plant possessing a wide variety of pharmacological activity. Current treatment of diabetes mellitus has plenty of adverse effects necessitating the search of alternate drugs. AIM: Evaluation of antidiabetic effect of Aqueous Extract of Solanum Nigrum Linn Berries (AESNB) in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were five groups (normal control, diabetic control, AESNB 200 mg/kg/day, ASENB 400 mg/kg/day and standard i...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887614/the-pro-fibrotic-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-ccn2-correlates-with-the-number-of-necrotic-regenerative-foci-in-dystrophic-muscle
#4
María Gabriela Morales, María José Acuña, Daniel Cabrera, Roel Goldschmeding, Enrique Brandan
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has strong inflammatory and profibrotic activities. Its expression is enhanced in skeletal muscular dystrophies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a myopathy characterized by exacerbated inflammation and fibrosis. In dystrophic tissue, necrotic-regenerative foci, myofibroblasts, newly-regenerated muscle fibers and necrosis all occur simultaneously. To determine if CCN2 is involved in the appearance of the foci, we studied their presence and characteristics in mdx mice (DMD mouse model) compared to mdx mice hemizygous for CCN2 (mdx-Ccn2+/-)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879686/development-of-a-bioactive-porous-collagen-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-bone-graft-assisting-rapid-vascularization-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#5
Nafiseh Baheiraei, Mohamma Reza Nourani, Sm Javad Mortazavi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Hossein Eyni, Fatemeh Baghery, Mohammad Hadi Norahan
We developed collagen (COL) and collagen/beta tricalcium phosphate (COL/β-TCP) scaffolds with a β-TCP/collagen weight ratio of 4 by freeze-drying. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were cultured on these scaffolds for 14 days. Samples were characterized by physicochemical analyses and their biological properties such as cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was,also, examined. Additionally, the vascularization potential of the prepared scaffolds was tested subcutaneously in Wistar rats...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875468/multifunctional-jnk-inhibiting-nanotherapeutics-for-augmented-elastic-matrix-regenerative-repair-in-aortic-aneurysms
#6
Andrew Camardo, Dhruv Seshadri, Tom Broekelmann, Robert Mecham, Anand Ramamurthi
Growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), localized aortal wall expansions, is driven by the disruption and subsequent loss of aortal wall elastic fibers by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Since elastic fibers do not naturally regenerate or repair, arresting/reversing AAA growth has not been possible. Previously, we showed utility of doxycycline (DOX), an MMP inhibitor drug, to stimulate elastic matrix neoassembly and crosslinking at low microgram per milliliter doses in addition to inhibiting MMPs. We currently show in aneurysmal smooth muscle cell (SMC) cultures that effects of exogenous DOX in this dose range are linked to its upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) via its inhibition of the regulatory protein c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK 2)...
September 5, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866225/fabrication-and-characterization-of-two-layered-nanofibrous-membrane-for-guided-bone-and-tissue-regeneration-application
#7
Maryam Masoudi Rad, Saied Nouri Khorasani, Laleh Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Molamma P Prabhakaran, Mohammad Reza Foroughi, Mahshid Kharaziha, Niloufar Saadatkish, Seeram Ramakrishna
Membranes used in dentistry act as a barrier to prevent invasion of intruder cells to defected area and obtains spaces that are to be subsequently filled with new bone and provide required bone volume for implant therapy when there is insufficient volume of healthy bone at implant site. In this study a two-layered bioactive membrane were fabricated by electrospinning whereas one layer provides guided bone regeneration (GBR) and fabricated using poly glycerol sebacate (PGS)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and Beta tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) (5, 10 and 15%) and another one containing PCL/PGS and chitosan acts as guided tissue regeneration (GTR)...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853981/intermittent-fasting-preserves-beta-cell-mass-in-obesity-induced-diabetes-via-the-autophagy-lysosome-pathway
#8
Haiyan Liu, Ali Javaheri, Rebecca J Godar, John Murphy, Xiucui Ma, Nidhi Rohatgi, Jana Mahadevan, Krzysztof Hyrc, Paul Saftig, Connie Marshall, Michael L McDaniel, Maria S Remedi, Babak Razani, Fumihiko Urano, Abhinav Diwan
Obesity-induced diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and progressive beta cell failure. In islets of mice with obesity-induced diabetes, we observe increased beta cell death and impaired autophagic flux. We hypothesized that intermittent fasting, a clinically sustainable therapeutic strategy, stimulates autophagic flux to ameliorate obesity-induced diabetes. Our data show that despite continued high-fat intake, intermittent fasting restores autophagic flux in islets and improves glucose tolerance by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta cell survival, and nuclear expression of NEUROG3, a marker of pancreatic regeneration...
August 30, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853609/in%C3%A2-vitro-development-of-personalized-cartilage-microtissues-uncovers-an-individualized-differentiation-capacity-of-human-chondrocytes
#9
Frank Martin, Mario Lehmann, Ulrich Sack, Ursula Anderer
Personalized features in the treatment of knee injuries and articular replacement therapies play an important role in modern life with increasing demand. Therefore, cell-based therapeutic approaches for the regeneration of traumatic defects of cartilage tissue were developed. However, great variations in the quality of repair tissue or therapeutic outcome were observed. The aim of the study was to capture and visualize individual differentiation capacities of chondrocytes derived from different donors with regard to a possible personal regeneration capacity using a cell-based therapy...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845211/oxidative-stress-in-pancreatic-beta-cell-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Jingjing Wang, Hongjun Wang
Pancreatic β cell neogenesis and proliferation during the neonatal period are critical for the generation of sufficient pancreatic β cell mass/reserve and have a profound impact on long-term protection against type 2 diabetes (T2D). Oxidative stress plays an important role in β cell neogenesis, proliferation, and survival under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Pancreatic β cells are extremely susceptible to oxidative stress due to a high endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a low expression of antioxidative enzymes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844306/signaling-molecules-and-pulp-regeneration
#11
Gottfried Schmalz, Matthias Widbiller, Kerstin M Galler
Signaling molecules play an essential role in tissue engineering because they regulate regenerative processes. Evidence exists from animal studies that single molecules such as members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and factors that induce the growth of blood vessels (vascular endothelial growth factor), nerves (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), or fibroblasts (fibroblast growth factor) may induce reparative dentin formation. Mainly the formation of atubular dentin (osteodentin) has been described after the application of single molecules or combinations of recombinant growth factors on healthy exposed pulps or in pulp regeneration...
September 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835018/effect-of-fgf-2-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bmps-on-teno-ligamentogenesis-and-osteo-cementogenesis-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#12
Sun-Yi Hyun, Ji-Hye Lee, Kyung-Jung Kang, Young-Joo Jang
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is the connective tissue between tooth root and alveolar bone containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). It has been suggested that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) differentiate into osteo/cementoblast and ligament progenitor cells. The periodontitis is a representative oral disease where the PDL tissue is collapsed, and regeneration of this tissue is important in periodontitis therapy. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of fibroblastic MSCs into various cell lineages...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820316/cell-cycle-related-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-replication-competent-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#13
Chiara Montemurro, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Tatyana Gurlo, Alexandra E Butler, Kenny E Vongbunyong, Anton Petcherski, Orian S Shirihai, Leslie S Satin, Daniel Braas, Peter C Butler, Slavica Tudzarova
Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca(2+) are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807667/inhibition-of-beta-catenin-signaling-in-the-skin-rescues-cutaneous-adipogenesis-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-c-82
#14
Robert Lafyatis, Julio C Mantero, Jessica Gordon, Nina Kishore, Mary Carns, Howard Dittrich, Robert Spiera, Robert W Simms, John Varga
Several studies have suggested that Wnts might contribute to skin fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) by affecting the differentiation of pluripotent dermal cells. We tested C-82, a therapeutic that inhibits canonical Wnt signaling by blocking the interaction of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein with β-Catenin and inhibiting Wnt-activated genes. We utilized previously unreported trial design, formulating C-82 for topical application and conducting a placebo controlled, double-blinded clinical trial in which patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc were treated with C-82 or placebo on opposite forearms...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807594/thyroid-hormone-receptor-beta-agonist-gc-1-inhibits-met-%C3%AE-catenin-driven-hepatocellular-cancer
#15
Elisabetta Puliga, Qian Min, Junyan Tao, Rong Zhang, Tirthadipa Pradhan-Sundd, Minakshi Poddar, Sucha Singh, Amedeo Columbano, Jinming Yu, Satdarshan P Monga
The thyromimetic agent GC-1 induces hepatocyte proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling and may promoting regeneration in both acute and chronic liver insufficiencies. However, β-catenin activation particularly due to mutations in CTNNB1 is seen in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Thus, it will be critical to address any effect of GC-1 on HCC growth and development, before its use can be advocated to stimulate regeneration in chronic liver diseases. In the current study, we first examine the effect of GC-1 on β-catenin-TCF4 activity in HCC cell lines harboring wild-type or mutated-CTNNB1...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797129/differential-effects-of-amnion-and-chorion-membrane-extracts-on-osteoblast-like-cells-due-to-the-different-growth-factor-composition-of-the-extracts
#16
Yoon Young Go, Sung Eun Kim, Geum Joon Cho, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Human amniotic membrane extracts contain numerous growth factors and bioactive substances. However, osteogenic effects of amnion and chorion membrane extracts (AME and CME, respectively) on osteoblasts are unclear. In this study, we explored the ability of AME and CME to promote the osteogenic differentiation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. MG-63 cells were cultured in osteogenic induction medium (OIM) with or without exogenous AME and CME. CME enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 cells compared with AME, as indicated by increased mineralization; alkaline phosphatase activity; and mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes encoding integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), RUNX2, OSTERIX, and osteocalcin (OCN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773103/in-vitro-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-response-to-ionic-dissolution-products-from-lithium-containing-45s5-bioactive-glass
#17
Luis A Haro Durand, Gabriela E Vargas, Rosa Vera-Mesones, Alberto Baldi, María P Zago, María A Fanovich, Aldo R Boccaccini, Alejandro Gorustovich
Since lithium (Li⁺) plays roles in angiogenesis, the localized and controlled release of Li⁺ ions from bioactive glasses (BGs) represents a promising alternative therapy for the regeneration and repair of tissues with a high degree of vascularization. Here, microparticles from a base 45S5 BG composition containing (wt %) 45% SiO₂, 24.5% Na₂O, 24.5% CaO, and 6% P₂O₅, in which Na₂O was partially substituted by 5% Li₂O (45S5.5Li), were obtained. The results demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) have greater migratory and proliferative response and ability to form tubules in vitro after stimulation with the ionic dissolution products (IDPs) of the 45S5...
July 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766528/-the-importance-of-marker-proteins-of-the-nervous-tissue-for-morphological-diagnostics-of-the-craniocerebral-injury
#18
A N Shai, M V Fedulova, Yu E Kvacheva, S V Shigeev, A V Kovalev
The present review of the literature involves 50 publications concerning various substrates of importance as the biological markers of axonal damages with special reference to the secondary molecular and cellular mechanisms on which to base in vitro and in vivo modeling of the craniocerebral injury. The results of the investigations with the application of mass-spectrometry for the identification of the proteins specifically synthesized in response to the injury are presented; their biological functions are described...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763258/cyclin-d2-is-sufficient-to-drive-beta-cell-self-renewal-and-regeneration
#19
Shuen-Ing Tschen, Chun Zeng, Loren Field, Sangeeta Dhawan, Anil Bhushan, Senta Georgia
Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional beta cells, due to either beta cell loss caused by autoimmune destruction (Type I diabetes) or beta cell failure in response to insulin resistance (Type II diabetes). Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate beta cell mass may be key to developing new techniques that foster beta cell regeneration as a cellular therapy to treat diabetes. While previous studies concluded that cyclin D2 is required for postnatal beta cell self-renewal in mice, it is not clear if cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal...
August 1, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762248/engineering-brown-fat-into-skeletal-muscle-using-ultrasound-targeted-microbubble-destruction-gene-delivery-in-obese-zucker-rats-proof-of-concept-design
#20
Raul A Bastarrachea, Jiaxi Chen, Jack W Kent, Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala, Marcel M Daadi, Barbara Jorge, Hugo Laviada-Molina, Anthony G Comuzzie, Shuyuan Chen, Paul A Grayburn
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a novel means of tissue-specific gene delivery. This approach systemically infuses transgenes precoupled to gas-filled lipid microbubbles that are burst within the microvasculature of target tissues via an ultrasound signal resulting in release of DNA and transfection of neighboring cells within the tissue. Previous work has shown that adenovirus containing cDNA of UCP-1, injected into the epididymal fat pads in mice, induced localized fat depletion, improving glucose tolerance, and decreasing food intake in obese diabetic mice...
September 2017: IUBMB Life
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