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Left atrium

Shigeaki Aoyagi, Eiki Tayama, Takeshi Oda, Tomokazu Kosuga, Hiroshi Yasunaga
In patients with atrial fibrillation, closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is recommended to prevent thromboembolic events, however, conventional exclusion or excision techniques have potential drawbacks such as persistent blood flow into the appendage and a residual stump. We propose a simple and easy technique for LAA closure consisting of intra-atrial excision of the LAA, which is invaginated into the left atrium (LA), and direct suture closure of the orifice from inside the LA. In this technique, complete elimination of the LAA was achieved without leaving a residual stump because the LAA was excised at the orifice and was closed at the base of the LAA...
September 9, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
J Vila, R Pariaut, N S Moïse, E M Oxford, P R Fox, C A Reynolds, C Saelinger
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and distribution of desmosomal and gap junction proteins of the intercalated disc in the atria of boxers with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). ANIMALS: Nineteen control dogs and 13 boxers with histopathologically confirmed ARVC. METHODS: Right and left atrial samples were examined using immunofluorescence and Western blots. The intercalated disc proteins investigated included total and phosphorylated connexin43 (Cx43 and pCx43), connexin45, connexin40, plakoglobin, plakophilin-2, desmoplakin, and N-cadherin...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Stefan Reers, Tolga Agdirlioglu, Michael Kellner, Matthias Borowski, Holger Thiele, Johannes Waltenberger, Michael Reppel
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran or rivaroxaban are alternatives to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Incidences of risk factors for left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus formation, such as dense spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), low LAA velocity (LAAV) <20 cm/s under treatment with dabigatran and rivaroxaban in comparison with VKAs are unknown...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
Kouhei Tajima, Nobuyuki Uchida, Hajime Sasamoto, Toshiyuki Okada, Takayuki Kohri, Akira Mogi, Hiroyuki Kuwano
A 69-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of right chest pain. Chest computed tomography showed a 55 × 45 mm tumor in the right upper lobe. Bronchoscopy revealed displaced anomalous B (1) and B (2)(+3) arising from the right main bronchus, and the patient was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma by transbronchial lung biopsy from the displaced B (2)(+3) . Three-dimensional computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction revealed a displaced anomalous B (1) and B (2)(+3) branching directly from the right main bronchus, respectively, and abnormal distribution of the aberrant pulmonary vein (V (2) ) descended dorsally to the right main bronchus and emptied into the left atrium...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Fahima Syeda, Andrew P Holmes, Ting Y Yu, Samantha Tull, Stefan Michael Kuhlmann, Davor Pavlovic, Daniel Betney, Genna Riley, Jan P Kucera, Florian Jousset, Joris R de Groot, Stephan Rohr, Nigel A Brown, Larissa Fabritz, Paulus Kirchhof
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms conveying their variable effectiveness are not known. Recent data suggested that paired like homeodomain-2 transcription factor (PITX2) might play an important role in regulating gene expression and electrical function of the adult left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVES: After determining LA PITX2 expression in AF patients requiring rhythm control therapy, the authors assessed the effects of Pitx2c on LA electrophysiology and the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Yoshito Kadoya, Michiyo Yamano, Satoaki Matoba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Christopher P Lawrance, Matthew C Henn, Jacob R Miller, Michael A Kopek, Andrew J Zhang, Richard B Schuessler, Ralph J Damiano
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 30% of patients with mitral regurgitation referred for surgical intervention. However, the underlying mechanisms in this population are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of acute left atrial volume overload on atrial electrophysiology and the inducibility of AF. METHODS: Ten canines underwent insertion of an atrioventricular shunt between the left ventricle and left atrium. Shunt and aortic flows were calculated, and the shunt was titrated to a shunt fraction to 40% to 50% of cardiac output...
October 15, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Yu Sugawara, Ryuji Okamura, Shigeki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Left atrial thrombi have traditionally been treated with heparin and warfarin, and many physicians have limited experience with direct oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. Furthermore, the efficacy of apixaban for the treatment of left atrial thrombi has not been established. We experienced a case of left atrial thrombus formation before breast cancer surgery, which was resolved by apixaban. CASE PRESENTATION: Computed tomography for a 74-year-old Japanese woman with breast cancer incidentally revealed a left atrial mass with a root before the breast surgery...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Krasimira Hristova, Vera Bogdanova, Rumen Marinov
OBJECTIVE: Arterial hypertension (HTN) causes left ventricular (LV) dysfunction even if ejection function (EF) remains preserved. The objective of this study was to assess whether complex LAFI (left atrium functional index) had additional value in definition and grading of diastolic dysfunction and compare with indices of atrial deformation - longitudinal strain. DESIGN AND METHOD: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) was evaluated in 82 patients with systemic HTN and preserved EF (> = 55%) divided in 41 with diastolic dysfunction but no hypertrophy (HTNdd), and 41 with no diastolic dysfunction or hypertrophy (eHTN)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joo Hoon Lee, Jae Suk Baek, Jeong Jin Yu, Young-Hwue Kim, Jae-Kon Ko, Young Seo Park
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiac parameters on echocardiography. DESIGN AND METHOD: Echocardiography was checked at 6 months ∼ 1 year interval in children with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis, which was more frequently done in patients with hypertension or any heart problems. We reviewed blood pressure (BP) and echocardiographic findings of those children (since February 2005). Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (median, minimum ∼ maximum)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
M Cottini, A Pergolini, G Zampi, V Buffa, P G Pino, V Polizzi, F Ranocchi, G Luzi, A Montalto, F Musumeci
Atrial myxomas are the most common benign cardiac neoplasms. Although the majority occur in the left atrium (LA) and are attached to the interatrial septum (75-80 % of cases), they can arise from any part of the LA and the cardiac chambers. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with features of worsening dyspnea and persistent headache. During transthoracic echocardiography, a suspected cardiac myxoma was found arising from the posterior wall of the LA.
October 17, 2016: Herz
Monish S Raut, Sumir Dubey, Arun Maheshwari, Manish Sharma
Inverted left atrial tissue is mostly identified when the heart is empty while coming off bypass. During echocardiography a new, echodense mobile mass in the left atrium without attachment is visualized. Such a picture can easily produce not only confusion in the diagnosis but also mitral valve obstruction, hemodynamic instability, and a possibility of appendage necrosis. Inability to identify such inverted tissue can lead to unwanted interventions with additional cardiopulmonary bypass time.
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
V Shukla, R K Nath, N Pandit
Submitral aneurysm is a rare entity, with around few hundred cases reported till date. Presentation can be varied. We describe here a case of submitral aneurysm in a young male with rupture into the left atrium cavity.
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Jagdish C Mohan, Madhu Shukla, Vishwas Mohan, Arvind Sethi
Left atrial dissection is a very uncommon complication of cardiac surgery and usually causes significant hemodynamic compromise. Little is known about spontaneous dissection of the left atrium. Two patients, one middle-aged man and another elderly woman were evaluated following stroke. Routine trans-thoracic echocardiogram showed vertical division of the left atrium with both chambers communicating with each other through an orifice. Detailed trans-oesophageal echocardiographic study revealed dissection of the left atrium producing an additional false chamber (pseudo-aneurysm) placed posterior to the left atrial appendage and above the postero-lateral aspect of mitral annulus...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
George Joseph, Mithun J Varghese, Oommen K George
Balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) performed by the conventional transfemoral approach can be difficult or even impossible in the presence of structural impediments such as severe kyphoscoliosis, gross cardiac anatomic distortion and inferior vena caval anomalies. A 25-year-old woman with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis due to poliomyelitis presented with symptomatic rheumatic mitral valve stenosis. After the failure of transfemoral BMV, the procedure was attempted from the right jugular access, using a modified septal puncture technique...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Nicole Bertin, Aniello Pappalardo, Alessandro Minati, Gabriella Forti, Serena Favretto, Franco Pertoldi, Eleonora Ficarra, Francesco Pelizzo, Olga Vriz
Enlargement of left atrium occurs in patients with longstanding mitral valve disease due to chronic pressure and volume overload and occasionally left atrium reaches a massive enlargement, condition known as giant left atrium. It is most commonly associated with rheumatic mitral valve disease, both stenosis and regurgitation. This unique case deals with a 70-year-old woman who developed a giant left atrium due to a severe mitral regurgitation from complete prolapse of both mitral leaflets, as a consequence of previous undersized mitral ring annuloplasty...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Rodrigo Rios, Susan R Foerster, Todd M Gudausky
The Melody® transcatheter pulmonary valve system was developed for placement within right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduits in patients with CHD for treatment of stenosis or regurgitation, providing an alternative to open-heart surgery. Abnormal systemic venous connections altering the catheter course to the right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit may present a challenge to Melody® valve implantation. We present two such cases, in which the Melody® valve was successfully implanted in teenage patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries after Senning atrial switch operation...
October 17, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Chuang-Chi Liaw, Hung Chang, Tzu-Yao Liao, Ming-Sheng Wen, Chih-Teng Yu, Yu-Hsiang Juan
Background. We studied the role of pulmonary veins in cancer progression using computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods. We obtained data from 260 patients with pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome (PVOS). We used CT scans to investigate pulmonary lesions in relation to pulmonary veins. We divided the lesions into central and peripheral lesions by their anatomical location: in the lung parenchymal tissue or pulmonary vein; in the superior or inferior pulmonary vein; and by unilateral or bilateral presence in the lungs...
2016: Journal of Oncology
Gen Suzuki, Rebeccah F Young, Merced M Leiker, Takayuki Suzuki
A major problem in translating stem cell therapeutics is the difficulty of producing stable, long-term severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in a large animal model. For that purpose, extensive infarction was created in sinclair miniswine by injecting microspheres (1.5 × 10(6) microspheres, 45 μm diameter) in LAD. At 2 months after embolization, animals (n = 11) were randomized to receive allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells derived from atrium (CDCs: 20 × 10(6), n = 5) or saline (untreated, n = 6)...
2016: Stem Cells International
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