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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820449/applying-a-consumer-behavior-lens-to-salt-reduction-initiatives
#1
REVIEW
Áine Regan, Monique Potvin Kent, Monique M Raats, Áine McConnon, Patrick Wall, Lise Dubois
Reformulation of food products to reduce salt content has been a central strategy for achieving population level salt reduction. In this paper, we reflect on current reformulation strategies and consider how consumer behavior determines the ultimate success of these strategies. We consider the merits of adopting a 'health by stealth', silent approach to reformulation compared to implementing a communications strategy which draws on labeling initiatives in tandem with reformulation efforts. We end this paper by calling for a multi-actor approach which utilizes co-design, participatory tools to facilitate the involvement of all stakeholders, including, and especially, consumers, in making decisions around how best to achieve population-level salt reduction...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818411/long-term-supplementation-with-egcg-and-beta-alanine-decreases-mortality-but-does-not-affect-cognitive-or-muscle-function-in-aged-mice
#2
Brandt D Pence, Tushar K Bhattacharya, Pul Park, Jennifer L Rytych, Jacob M Allen, Yi Sun, Robert H McCusker, Keith W Kelley, Rodney W Johnson, Justin S Rhodes, Jeffrey A Woods
We have previously shown that 6weeks of a diet containing epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and beta-alanine (B-ALA) was not effective in improving either cognitive or muscle function in aged (18month) mice (Gibbons et al. Behav Brain Res 2014). However, diet reduced oxidative stress in the brain, and previous studies using longer-term interventions have documented beneficial effects in cognitive, but not muscle, function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 6months of feeding on measures of cognitive and muscle function in mice...
August 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812221/multimodal-neuroimaging-in-schizophrenia-description-and-dissemination
#3
C J Aine, H J Bockholt, J R Bustillo, J M Cañive, A Caprihan, C Gasparovic, F M Hanlon, J M Houck, R E Jung, J Lauriello, J Liu, A R Mayer, N I Perrone-Bizzozero, S Posse, J M Stephen, J A Turner, V P Clark, Vince D Calhoun
In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e...
August 15, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805436/event-related-potentials-discriminate-familiar-and-unusual-goal-outcomes-in-5-month-olds-and-adults
#4
Christine Michel, Katharina Kaduk, Áine Ní Choisdealbha, Vincent M Reid
Previous event-related potential (ERP) work has indicated that the neural processing of action sequences develops with age. Although adults and 9-month-olds use a semantic processing system, perceiving actions activates attentional processes in 7-month-olds. However, presenting a sequence of action context, action execution and action conclusion could challenge infants' developing working memory capacities. A shortened stimulus presentation of a highly familiar action, presenting only the action conclusion of an eating action, may therefore enable semantic processing in even younger infants...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804572/bacterial-infections-post-living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-egyptian-hepatitis-c-virus-cirrhotic-patients-a-single-center-study
#5
Mohamed F Montasser, Nadia A Abdelkader, Sara M Abdelhakam, Hany Dabbous, Iman F Montasser, Yasmine M Massoud, Waleed Abdelmoaty, Shereen A Saleh, Mohamed Bahaa, Hany Said, Mahmoud El-Meteini
AIM: To determine risk factors, causative organisms and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial infections following living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This prospective study included 45 patients with hepatitis C virus-related end-stage liver disease who underwent LDLT at Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplant, Cairo, Egypt from January 2014 to November 2015. Patients were followed-up for the first 3 mo after LDLT for detection of bacterial infections...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804397/impact-of-depression-and-anxiety-disorders-on-adherence-to-oral-hypoglycemics-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-in-canada
#6
Lia Gentil, Helen-Maria Vasiliadis, Djamal Berbiche, Michel Préville
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing in Canada, and nonadherence to oral hypoglycemics is a common problem among older adults. This study aims to document the impact of depression and anxiety disorders on adherence to oral hypoglycemics in older adults with diabetes mellitus. Data used in this study came from the longitudinal Quebec survey on senior's health (Enquête sur la Santé des Ainés), using a representative sample of 2811 older adults aged 65 and over. The final sample for analysis consisted of 301 patients who received oral hypoglycemic pharmacotherapy...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800559/assessment-of-health-literacy-among-outpatient-clinics-attendees-at-ain-shams-university-hospitals-egypt-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
R Almaleh, Y Helmy, E Farhat, H Hasan, A Abdelhafez
OBJECTIVES: The aim of conducting this study is to measure health literacy (HL) and to investigate the factors associated with inadequate HL in a sample of outpatient clinics attendees (i.e. patients and companions) at Ain Shams University (ASU) Hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: It is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study was conducted on 805 attendees of the outpatient clinics at El-Demerdash University Hospital of ASU Hospitals. The Arabic versions of the Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire-short version-were used to assess HL...
August 8, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795489/plasma-metabolomics-reveals-steroidal-alkaloids-as-novel-biomarkers-of-tomato-intake-in-mice
#8
Morgan J Cichon, Ken M Riedl, Lei Wan, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, David M Francis, Steven K Clinton, Steven J Schwartz
SCOPE: Diets rich in tomato products are associated with a reduced risk of various chronic disease processes. The carotenoid lycopene is most intensely studied as the bioactive mediating health effects, yet tomatoes contain an array of phytochemicals. We conducted an untargeted metabolomics study on blood plasma to identify novel markers of tomato consumption absorbed from the diet and released into the bloodstream in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male mice were fed a control AIN-93G diet or the same diet supplemented with 0...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791789/acute-calming-effects-of-alcohol-are-associated-with-disruption-of-the-salience-network
#9
Stephanie M Gorka, K Luan Phan, Emma Childs
The mood-altering properties of alcohol are a key motivation for drinking, and people commonly report that they drink alcohol to alleviate stress or to relax. To date, the neural processes associated with the self-reported calming effects of alcohol are not well understood. Existing data imply that alcohol may target and disrupt activity within anterior insula (aINS) and amygdala-based neural networks, which are regions implicated in threat detection and anxious responding. The aims of the current study were (1) to examine the acute effect of alcohol upon functional connectivity within aINS and amygdala circuits and (2) to assess relationships between alcohol effects on functional connectivity and self-reported subjective mood...
August 9, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789929/commentary-on-comprehensive-transcriptional-analysis-of-early-stage-urothelial-carcinoma-hedegaard-j-lamy-p-nordentoft-i-algaba-f-h%C3%A3-yer-s-ulh%C3%A3-i-bp-vang-s-reinert-t-hermann-gg-mogensen-k-thomsen-mb-nielsen-mm-marquez-m-segersten-u-aine-m-h%C3%A3-glund-m-birkenkamp
#10
Byron H Lee
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease with widely different outcomes. We performed a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of 460 early-stage urothelial carcinomas and showed that NMIBC can be subgrouped into 3 major classes with basal- and luminal-like characteristics and different clinical outcomes. Large differences in biological processes such as the cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and differentiation were observed. Analysis of transcript variants revealed frequent mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in chromatin organization and cytoskeletal functions...
August 5, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783095/a-study-on-ain-film-based-saw-attenuation-in-liquids-and-their-potential-as-liquid-ethanol-sensors
#11
Yong Wang, Zhonggui Xu, Yinshen Wang, Jin Xie
In this paper, we report attenuation characteristics of aluminum nitride (AIN) film-based surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in liquids and their potential as liquid ethanol sensors. An AIN film-based SAW resonator was fabricated for liquid sensing application. The fabricated SAW device had a Rayleigh wave mode at a resonant frequency of 147.1 MHz and a low temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of -21.7 ppm/K. The signal attenuation in the transmission line of the SAW device was presented when ethanol (ETH) droplets and deionized water (DIW) with different concentrations and volume (0...
August 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777150/utility-of-stathmin-1-as-a-novel-marker-in-evaluating-anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-ain
#12
Erika Hissong, Adela Cimic, Annemiek Leeman, Edyta C Pirog
The aim of this study is to determine whether immunohistochemistry for Stathmin-1 enhances diagnostic accuracy of anal dysplasia. The study included 40 biopsies with diagnosis of benign anal transitional zone (n=10), low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) (AIN1, n=10), and high-grade AIN (AIN2, n=10, AIN3, n=10). The cases were selected to represent classic features. Immunohistochemistry for Stathmin-1, p16, and Ki-67 was performed and assessed for distribution within epithelial thickness. Stathmin-1 was expressed only in the basal layer of benign anal epithelium...
August 2, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776456/the-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Gina Hadley, Ain A Neuhaus, Yvonne Couch, Daniel J Beard, Bryan A Adriaanse, Kostas Vekrellis, Gabriele C DeLuca, Michalis Papadakis, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
Background Cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) hippocampal neurons are resistant to global ischemia, whereas cornu ammonis (CA1) 1 neurons are vulnerable. Hamartin expression in CA3 neurons mediates this endogenous resistance via productive autophagy. Neurons lacking hamartin demonstrate exacerbated endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased cell death. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in CA1 and CA3 regions following global cerebral ischemia, and whether pharmacological modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress or autophagy altered neuronal viability ...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764905/comparison-of-short-and-long-term-exposure-effects-of-cruciferous-and-apiaceous-vegetables-on-carcinogen-metabolizing-enzymes-in-wistar-rats
#14
Jae Kyeom Kim, Noemia Strapazzon, Cynthia M Gallaher, Dwight R Stoll, William Thomas, Daniel D Gallaher, Sabrina P Trudo
Cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables may be chemopreventive due to their ability to modulate carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes but whether the effects on such enzymes are sustained over time is unknown. To examine the short- and long-term effects of the vegetables, rats were fed one of four diets for 7, 30, or 60 d: AIN-93G, CRU (21% cruciferous vegetables-fresh broccoli, green cabbage, watercress), API (9% apiaceous vegetables - fresh parsnips, celery), or API + CRU (10.5% CRU + 4.5% API). Although CRU increased activity and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2 after 7 d, only activity was sustained after 30 and 60 d...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764587/corrigendum
#15
Sidra Rana, Umair Nazar, Jafar Ali, Qurat Ul Ain Ali, Nasir M Ahmad, Fiza Sarwar, Hassan Waseem, Syed Umair Ullah Jamil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761489/the-impact-of-different-copro-preservation-conditions-on-molecular-detection-of-cryptosporidium-species
#16
Iman Moawad Abdelsalam, Rania Mohammad Sarhan, Marmar Ahmed Hanafy
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate different copro-preservation conditions along the duration of one month for a better outcome of molecular diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species. METHODS: Ten samples out of 380 fresh stool samples collected from patients with diarrhea proved positive after direct examination, concentration, staining and confirmed by immunochromatographic test. The study was conducted at the Diagnostic and Research Unit of Parasitic diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University at the time interval from July 2014 to December 2015...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755775/a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-staff-perceptions-of-organizational-readiness-to-change-and-the-process-of-innovation-adoption-in-substance-misuse-treatment-programs
#17
Peter Kelly, Josephine Hegarty, Joe Barry, Kyle R Dyer, Aine Horgan
Translating innovation, such as contemporary research evidence, into policy and practice is a challenge, not just in substance misuse treatment programs, but across all spheres of healthcare. Organizational readiness to change (ORC) has been described as a fundamental concept, and an important determinant of the process of innovation adoption. The aim of this review was to describe the relationship between staff perceptions of ORC and the process of innovation adoption: exposure, adoption, implementation and integration into practice, in substance misuse treatment programs...
September 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752795/bovine-milk-derived-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-prevents-hepatic-fibrosis-induced-by-dimethylnitrosamine-via-nitric-oxide-pathway-in-rats
#18
Akika Fukawa, Orie Kobayashi, Makoto Yamaguchi, Masayuki Uchida, Akira Hosono
The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of α-lactalbumin (αLA) against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced toxic insults in the rat liver. The liver damage was induced in rats by the repeated administration of DMN (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on three consecutive days per week for three weeks. The rats were maintained on either a standard AIN-93 M or αLA-enriched diet starting one week before the DMN injection until the termination of the experiment. The DMN treatment produced a progressive increase in the plasma markers (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bililbin, hyarulonic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-2) in 28 days after the first DMN injection...
July 28, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750597/a-maternal-high-fat-high-caloric-diet-delays-reflex-ontogeny-during-lactation-but-enhances-locomotor-performance-during-late-adolescence-in-rats
#19
Erika Vanesa Cadena-Burbano, Carolina Cadete Lucena Cavalcanti, Amanda Braz Lago, Raquel de Arruda Campos Benjamim, Thaynan Raquel Dos Prazeres Oliveira, Jacqueline Maria Silva, Raul Manhães-De-Castro, Raquel Da Silva Aragão
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of two maternal high-fat diets with different energy densities on the somatic growth, reflex ontogeny, and locomotor activity of offspring. METHODS: Twenty-nine female Wistar rats (220-250 g) were mated and grouped into three different dietary conditions: control (n = 11, AIN-93G diet, 3.6 kcal/g), high-fat/high-caloric (HH, n = 9, 51% of the calories from fat, 4.62 kcal/g), and high-fat/isocaloric (HI, n = 9, 51% of the calories from fat, 3...
July 28, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750591/five-dimensional-long-bones-biometry-for-estimation-of-femur-length-and-fetal-weight-at-term-compared-to-two-dimensional-ultrasound-a-pilot-study
#20
Mohamed Laban, Ahmed A Alanwar, Mohamed K Etman, Mohammed S Elsokkary, Ahmed M Elkotb, Ahmad S Hasanien, Ali E KhalafAllah, Nancy M Noah
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate accuracy of five-dimensional long bones (5D LB) compared to two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) biometry to predict fetal weight among normal term women. METHODS: Fifty six normal term women were recruited at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt from 14 May to 30 November 2015. Fetal weight was estimated by Hadlock's IV formula using 2DUS and 5D LB. Estimated fetal weights (EFW) by 2DUS and 5D LB were compared with actual birth weights (ABW)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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