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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749595/morbidity-and-mortality-in-infant-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-a-46-year-retrospective-review
#1
James M Hassell, Dawn Zimmerman, Michael R Cranfield, Kirsten Gilardi, Antoine Mudakikwa, Jan Ramer, Elisabeth Nyirakaragire, Linda J Lowenstine
Long-term studies of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging primates are scarce, but may have important implications for the conservation of extant populations. Infants comprise a particularly important age group, as variation in survival rates may have a strong influence on population dynamics. Since 1968, the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP, Inc.) and government partners have conducted a comprehensive health monitoring and disease investigation program on mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749474/racial-ethnic-differences-in-multiple-gene-sequencing-results-for-hereditary-cancer-risk
#2
Jennifer L Caswell-Jin, Tanya Gupta, Evan Hall, Iva M Petrovchich, Meredith A Mills, Kerry E Kingham, Rachel Koff, Nicolette M Chun, Peter Levonian, Alexandra P Lebensohn, James M Ford, Allison W Kurian
PurposeWe examined racial/ethnic differences in the usage and results of germ-line multiple-gene sequencing (MGS) panels to evaluate hereditary cancer risk.MethodsWe collected genetic testing results and clinical information from 1,483 patients who underwent MGS at Stanford University between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015.ResultsAsians and Hispanics presented for MGS at younger ages than whites (48 and 47 vs. 55; P = 5E-16 and 5E-14). Across all panels, the rate of pathogenic variants (15%) did not differ significantly between racial groups...
July 27, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749450/evaluation-of-shifted-excitation-raman-difference-spectroscopy-and-comparison-to-computational-background-correction-methods-applied-to-biochemical-raman-spectra
#3
Eliana Cordero, Florian Korinth, Clara Stiebing, Christoph Krafft, Iwan W Schie, Jürgen Popp
Raman spectroscopy provides label-free biochemical information from tissue samples without complicated sample preparation. The clinical capability of Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro and in vivo applications. However, a challenge for in vivo applications is the simultaneous excitation of auto-fluorescence in the majority of tissues of interest, such as liver, bladder, brain, and others. Raman bands are then superimposed on a fluorescence background, which can be several orders of magnitude larger than the Raman signal...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749433/hbv-drug-resistance-substitutions-existed-before-the-clinical-approval-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-a-bioinformatic-analysis-by-genbank-data-mining
#4
Xizhan Xu, Kuanhui Xiang, Mingze Su, Yao Li, Wei Ji, Yutang Li, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
Naturally occurring nucleos(t)ide analogue resistance (NUCr) substitution frequencies in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) were studied extensively after the clinical approval of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs; year of approval 1998). We aimed to study NUCr substitutions in HBV RT sequences obtained before 1998 and better understand the evolution of RT sequences without NUC pressures. Our strategy was to retrieve HBV sequences from GenBank deposited before 1998. The initial search used the keywords "hepatitis B virus" or "HBV" and 1139 sequences were found...
July 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749342/broadband-vibration-detection-in-tissue-phantoms-using-a-fiber-fabry-perot-cavity
#5
Jack Barnes, Sijia Li, Apoorv Goyal, Purang Abolmaesumi, Parvin Mousavi, Hans-Peter Loock
A fiber optic vibration sensor is developed and characterized with an ultra-wide dynamic sensing range, from less than 1 Hz to clinical ultrasound frequencies near 6 MHz. The vibration sensor consists of a matched pair of fiber Bragg gratings coupled to a custom-built signal processing circuit. The wavelength of a laser diode is locked to one of the many cavity resonances using the Pound-Drever-Hall scheme. A calibrated piezoelectric vibration element was used to characterize the sensor's strain, temperature, and noise responses...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749318/probabilistic-linkage-to-enhance-deterministic-algorithms-and-reduce-data-linkage-errors-in-hospital-administrative-data
#6
Gareth Hagger-Johnson, Katie Harron, Harvey Goldstein, Robert Aldridge, Ruth Gilbert
 BACKGROUND: The pseudonymisation algorithm used to link together episodes of care belonging to the same patients in England (HESID) has never undergone any formal evaluation, to determine the extent of data linkage error. OBJECTIVE: To quantify improvements in linkage accuracy from adding probabilistic linkage to existing deterministic HESID algorithms. METHODS: Inpatient admissions to NHS hospitals in England (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES) over 17 years (1998 to 2015) for a sample of patients (born 13/28th of months in 1992/1998/2005/2012)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749316/-it-s-like-texting-at-the-dinner-table-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-impact-of-electronic-health-records-on-patient-physician-interaction-in-hospitals
#7
Kimberly D Pelland, Rosa R Baier, Rebekah L Gardner
nBACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) may reduce medical errors and improve care, but can complicate clinical encounters. OBJECTIVE: To describe hospital-based physicians' perceptions of the impact of EHRs on patient-physician interactions and contrast these findings against office-based physicians' perceptionsMethods: We performed a qualitative analysis of comments submitted in response to the 2014 Rhode Island Health Information Technology Survey. Office- and hospital-based physicians licensed in Rhode Island, in active practice, and located in Rhode Island or neighboring states completed the survey about their Electronic Health Record use...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749315/connecting-medical-records-an-evaluation-of-benefits-and-challenges-for-primary-care-practices
#8
Deborah Ruth Compeau, Amanda Terry
BACKGROUND: Implementation of systems to support health information sharing has lagged other areas of healthcare IT, yet offers a strong possibility for benefit.  Clinical acceptance is a key limiting factor in health IT adoption. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and challenges experienced by clinicians using a custom-developed health information exchange system, and to show how perceptions of benefits and challenges influence perceptions of productivity and care-related outcomes...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749314/designing-health-information-technology-tools-to-prevent-gaps-in-public-health-insurance
#9
Jennifer D Hall, Rose L Harding, Jennifer E DeVoe, Rachel Gold, Heather Angier, Aleksandra Sumic, Christine A Nelson, Sonja Likumahuwa-Ackman, Deborah J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Changes in health insurance policies have increased coverage opportunities, but enrollees are required to annually reapply for benefits which, if not managed appropriately, can lead to insurance gaps. Electronic health records (EHRs) can automate processes for assisting patients with health insurance enrollment and re-enrollment. OBJECTIVE: We describe community health centers' (CHC) workflow, documentation, and tracking needs for assisting families with insurance application processes, and the health information technology (IT) tool components that were developed to meet those needs...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749296/bridging-gaps-between-zoo-and-wildlife-medicine-establishing-reference-intervals-for-free-ranging-african-lions-panthera-leo
#10
Heather M Broughton, Danny Govender, Purvance Shikwambana, Patrick Chappell, Anna Jolles
The International Species Information System has set forth an extensive database of reference intervals for zoologic species, allowing veterinarians and game park officials to distinguish normal health parameters from underlying disease processes in captive wildlife. However, several recent studies comparing reference values from captive and free-ranging animals have found significant variation between populations, necessitating the development of separate reference intervals in free-ranging wildlife to aid in the interpretation of health data...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749277/case-series-clinical-salmonellosis-in-four-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-calves
#11
David Love, Rodolfo Madrigal, Shannon Cerveny, Janis Raines, Bruce Rideout, Nancy P Lung
Although Salmonella spp. infection has been identified in captive and free-ranging rhinoceros, clinical cases in black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ) calves have not been described. This case series describes clinical salmonellosis in four black rhinoceros calves. Two calves developed self-limiting diarrhea, recovering after treatment. The other two cases were fatal. One of the fatal cases had a short clinical course, whereas the other case was protracted, with signs reflecting multiple organ system involvement...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749257/first-record-of-hematologic-values-in-free-living-and-captive-maned-sloths-bradypus-torquatus-xenartha-bradypodidae
#12
Lilian S Catenacci, Aisla Nascimento, Elza S Muniz-Neta, Camila R Cassano, Sharon L Deem, Elizabeth S Travassos da Rosa, Patricia Parker, Alexandre D Munhoz
Bradypus torquatus is a rare and endemic sloth species from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Due to a lack of medical information including hematologic reference parameters for the species, hematologic baseline values were determined using samples from 14 clinically healthy B. torquatus , under captive (n = 7) and free-living (n = 7) conditions in Bahia State, Brazil. Additionally, the morphology of the blood cells is presented, with a demonstration that the Barr body chromosome may assist with sex determination of the species...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749059/expanding-the-horizon-of-our-obligations-in-the-clinician-patient-relationship
#13
Robert D Truog
Johan Brännmark's article "Patients as Rights Holders," in this issue of the Hastings Center Report, squarely identifies some important problems with the way we in clinical practice conceive of our obligations to our patients. As a solution, he helpfully suggests augmenting our focus on autonomy and informed consent with a broader menu of considerations drawn from the literature on human rights. Respect for autonomy is, of course, one of the hallowed principles of bioethics. In our traditional understanding, our patients deserve our respect because they are capable of autonomous choice, and the way we demonstrate our respect is by seeking their informed consent for our care...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749016/trends-in-study-design-and-the-statistical-methods-employed-in-a-leading-general-medicine-journal
#14
M Gosho, Y Sato, K Nagashima, S Takahashi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748892/clinical-profile-of-geriatric-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-tertiary-care-center-from-south-india
#15
Eshwarappa Mahesh, Praveen Nallamuthu, Mahesh Kumar, Parampalli Rakesh Madhyastha, Gurudev Konanna
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is high in the elderly, who comprise an ever-growing segment of the population. Elderly patients pose a different set of diagnostic and therapeutic challenge owing to their associated comorbidities. AKI in the elderly is associated with an increased risk of mortality, morbidity, prolonged length of stay, and progression to chronic kidney disease. Data regarding the clinical profile of AKI in the elderly from the South Indian population are limited. Hence, we present this analysis of the etiological and prognostic factors associated with AKI in elderly population from South India...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748841/prevalence-of-igg-antibodies-for-the-west-nile-virus-in-human-population-in-tripoli-libya
#16
Taher Shaibi, Walid K Saadawi, H Aghila, Badereddin B Annajar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: West Nile fever (WNF) is a mosquito-borne viral infection, circulated in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly Culex species. It is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites, and causes a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe men in go encepha- litis with some fatalities observed in older or immunocompromised patients. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission is considerably influenced by environmental conditions; and abundance of avifauna and mosquitoes...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748776/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-members-of-households-actively-monitored-or-quarantined-to-prevent-transmission-of-ebola-virus-disease-margibi-county-liberia-february-march-2015
#17
Jason A Wilken, Paran Pordell, Brant Goode, Rachel Jarteh, Zayzay Miller, Benjamin G Saygar, Leroy Maximore, Watta M Borbor, Moses Carmue, Gregory W Walker, Adolphus Yeiah
BACKGROUND: In early 2015, a patient from a cluster of cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Monrovia, Liberia traveled to a rural village in Margibi County, potentially exposing numerous persons. The patient died in the village and post-mortem testing confirmed Ebola Virus infection. Problem The Margibi County Health Team (CHT; Kakata, Margibi, Liberia) needed to prevent further transmission of EVD within and outside of the affected villages, and they needed to better understand the factors that support or impede compliance with measures to stop the spread of EVD...
July 27, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748774/exposure-to-parental-psychopathology-and-offspring-s-risk-of-suicide-related-thoughts-and-behaviours-a-systematic-review
#18
S M Goodday, J Shuldiner, S Bondy, A E Rhodes
AIMS: The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise analytic studies examining the association between exposure to parental psychopathology in childhood and the nature of subsequent suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and suicide-related behaviour (SRB) (severity of ideation, planned/unplanned attempts/lethality) and to describe the direction, and magnitude of associations. The secondary objective was to determine if the associations from the primary objective differ by the type(s) and timing of parental psychopathology, sex/gender of the parent and child and is mediated by child psychiatric symptoms and family functioning...
July 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748771/acute-care-referral-systems-in-liberia-transfer-and-referral-capabilities-in-a-low-income-country
#19
Jimin Kim, Maria Barreix, Christine Babcock, Corey B Bills
Introduction Following two decades of armed conflict in Liberia, over 95% of health care facilities were partially or completely destroyed. Although the Liberian health system has undergone significant rehabilitation, one particular weakness is the lack of organized systems for referral and prehospital care. Acute care referral systems are a critical component of effective health care delivery and have led to improved quality of care and patient outcomes. Problem This study aimed to characterize the referral and transfer systems in the largest county of Liberia...
July 27, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748765/biomarkers-in-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-their-clinical-significance-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#20
Konstantinos Toutouzas, Konstantinos Stathogiannis, George Latsios, Andreas Synetos, Maria Drakopoulou, Vicky Penesopoulou, Archontoula Michelongona, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Aortic valve stenosis is one of the most common valvular heart disorders and the prevalence will rise as the population ages. Once symptomatic, patients with aortic valve stenosis tend to fare worse with high mortality rates. Aortic valve replacement is indicated in these patients and besides the standard surgical replacement; a less invasive approach, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, has gained momentum and has showed promising and solid results in patients with high surgical risk. An important aspect of evaluating patients with aortic valve stenosis is the ability to choose the best possible candidate for the procedure...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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