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Child attachment

Miguel Ceballos, Gail Wallace, Glenda Goodwin
BACKGROUND: The presence of postpartum depression can lead to poor maternal-child attachment, failure to thrive, and even infant death. Postpartum depression affects 13-19 % of parturients. However, among racial and ethnic minority parturients, postpartum depression rates have been shown to reach up to 35-67 % (as reported by O'Hara and McCabe, Annu Rev Clin Psychol 9:379-407, 2013; Boury et al., Women Health. 39(3):19-34, 2004; Ramos-Marcuse et al.. J Affect Disord. 122(1-2):68-75, 2010; Lucero et al...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Giacomo Vivanti, Heather J Nuskec
We explore three challenges that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) poses to our understanding of the processes underlying early attachment. First, while caregiver-infant attachment and later social-affiliative behavior share common biobehavioral mechanisms, individuals with ASD are able to form secure attachment relationships, despite reduced social-emotional reciprocity and motivation for social interaction. Therefore, disruptions in social affiliation mechanisms can co-exist with secure caregiver-infant bonding...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Sari Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Zack Boukydis, Anna Margareta Axelin, Liisa Lehtonen
Parents of preterm infants commonly experience separation from their infant or exclusion from their role as primary caregivers during the hospital care of their infant, which may impair parent-infant bonding and parents' psychological well-being. Therefore, we developed the Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention to improve staff skills in communicating and collaborating with parents in neonatal intensive care units (NICU), to increase parents' presence and participation into infant care, and to improve parent-infant bonding and, thereby, parents' psychological well-being and later child development...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Shota Nishitani, Kazuya Ikematsu, Tsunehiko Takamura, Sumihisa Honda, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Kazuyuki Shinohara
There is extensive evidence in animal studies, particularly in vole species (Microtus), that oxytocin (OT) receptor and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) receptor 1a is critical for the regulation of maternal and paternal behavior, respectively. Human studies have gained insight into the relationship between both hormone receptor gene variants and behavior, but not between the variants and the underlying brain activity. To study this, we investigated the association between neural activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) in mothers and fathers in response to their child smiling video stimuli to induce the positive affect related to attachment with their child, and genetic variants of OT receptor (OXTR) and AVP receptor 1A (AVPR1A)...
October 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Angela B Bradford, Kayla L Burningham, Jonathan G Sandberg, Lee N Johnson
Research shows that the parent-child relationship affects attachment security, which correlates with anxiety and depression in adulthood. Additional research shows that romantic attachment behaviors may supersede individual attachment security and buffer against negative processes. Using data from 680 married couples in the general population, we examined whether attachment mediates the link between the parent-child relationship and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adulthood. In addition, we tested whether perceived spouse attachment behaviors moderate the effects of attachment insecurity...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Feihong Wang, Michael Willoughby, Roger Mills-Koonce, Martha J Cox
This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's externalizing behavior at 36 months and this prediction was not contingent on any other factors tested. For predicting changes in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months, we found a significant main effect of family cumulative risk and an interaction effect between attachment disorganization at 12 months and maternal sensitivity at 24 months...
October 13, 2016: Attachment & Human Development
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Virginie C Pointet, Tatjana Aue, Ludwig Stenz, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Wafae Adouan, Aurélia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Marylene Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Maria I Cordero, Molly Rothenberg, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Alexandre G Dayer
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the serotonin 3A receptor gene (HTR3A) has been linked to child maltreatment and adult psychopathology. The present study examined whether HTR3A methylation might be associated with mothers' lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), IPV-related psychopathology, child disturbance of attachment, and maternal neural activity. METHODS: Number of maternal lifetime IPV exposures and measures of maternal psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and aggressive behavior (AgB), and a measure of child attachment disturbance known as "secure base distortion" (SBD) were assessed in a sample of 35 mothers and children aged 12-42 months...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jungeun Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the concept of Yakson, especially its use as an intervention to improve mother-infant interaction and attachment in the NICU. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL Plus, Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google were searched for literature on Yakson, published in English and Korean, between 1993 and 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Because Korean characters are phonograms, Yakson has two different meanings: the soothing hand touch and the ring finger...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Elena Longhi, Lynne Murray, Rachael Hunter, David Wellsted, Samantha Taylor-Colls, Kathryn MacKenzie, Gwynne Rayns, Richard Cotmore, Peter Fonagy, Richard M Pasco Fearon
BACKGROUND: Young mothers living in low-income urban settings often are exposed to significant and chronic environmental difficulties including poverty, social isolation and poor education and typically also have to cope with personal histories of abuse and depression. Minding the Baby® (MTB) is an interdisciplinary home-visiting programme developed to support first-time young mothers, which integrates primary care and mental health approaches into a single intensive intervention from the last trimester of pregnancy until the child's second birthday...
October 7, 2016: Trials
Elizabeth Jestico, Teresa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In the UK children with cancer are cared for by children's nurses in a variety of settings, specialist and non-specialist. Whilst post-registration specialist education is available to some nurses, many nurses rely solely on pre-registration education to competently care for these children. This study explores whether nurses perceive that this adequately prepares them. OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent to which qualified nurses perceive that pre-registration nurse education prepares them to care for children with cancer; to consider the implications for children's nursing pre-registration curricula...
September 30, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Yael Lahav, Ask Elklit
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is an extreme traumatic event associated with numerous long lasting difficulties and symptoms (e.g., Herman, 1992). These include, among other things, the impediment of basic interpersonal structures of attachment (Rumstein-McKean & Hunsley, 2001), as well as impairment of mental integration manifested in dissociation (Van Den Bosch et al., 2003). Theoretically, attachment insecurities and dissociation are closely linked, since dissociation is generated as a way to resolve the conflicted attachment demands faced by the abused child (e...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
C Westgarth, M Knuiman, H E Christian
BACKGROUND: Many people live with dogs but not all walk with them regularly. This study examines the demographic and behavioural factors that contribute towards owners reporting having a strong sense of encouragement and motivation to walk provided by their dogs, which we call 'the Lassie effect'. METHODS: Data was collected from 629 dog owners participating in the RESIDE cross-sectional survey in Perth, Western Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with two separate outcome survey items 'Dog encouragement to walk' (how often dog encouraged me to go walking in last month) and 'Dog motivation to walk' (Having a dog makes me walk more)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
Geraldine Macdonald, Nuala Livingstone, Jennifer Hanratty, Claire McCartan, Richard Cotmore, Maria Cary, Danya Glaser, Sarah Byford, Nicky J Welton, Tania Bosqui, Lucy Bowes, Suzanne Audrey, Gill Mezey, Helen L Fisher, Wendy Riches, Rachel Churchill
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN: For effectiveness, we included any controlled study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Maitri Raghavendra Kulkarni, Indranil Dutta, Dilip Kumar Dutta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Leiomyoma of uterus forms the most common type of benign tumor of uterus and also the most common pelvic tumor in women. The symptomatology continues to be variable. Surgery has for long been the main mode of therapy for the myomas. For women who wish to retain the uterus for future pregnancies or other reasons, myomectomy is preferred. Recent trend has been toward nonsurgical approaches like GnRH hormone analogs/agonists, RU 486, or selective uterine artery embolization, laparoscopic cryoablation, radiofrequency thermal ablation, and MRGUs...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
Inês Pinto, Simon Wilkinson, Daniel Virella, Marta Alves, Conceição Calhau, Rui Coelho
INTRODUCTION: Quality of the parent-infant relationship influences the mechanisms of development of the child's physiological stress regulation. This study explored associations between attachment strategies and both cortisol and thyroid stimulating hormone, hypothesized to be respectively a potential mediator and a potential intervening variable of the mother-child relationship in obese children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample of 83 obese children (46 boys), aged 10...
May 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Kristen Johannes, Colin Wilson, Barbara Landau
The prepositions in and on appear early in children's descriptions of simple containment and support relations, such as "apple in the bowl" and "cup on the table". However, mature use of these basic terms extends across a very broad range of object configurations, raising the question of whether children and adults share the same underlying semantic space, and if so, how children's use of in and on comes to match that of adults. With a new battery containing diverse object configurations, we asked how 4 and 6 year-olds and adults distribute basic spatial expressions (isin, is on) and lexical verbs (hang, attach, etc...
September 16, 2016: Cognition
Aliya Mubarak, Chantal Cyr, Martin St-André, Daniel Paquette, Mutsuko Emond-Nakamura, Louise Boisjoly, Sylvain Palardy, Stéphanie Adin, Iréna Stikarovska
BACKGROUND: Individuals with sensory regulation disorders present with many difficulties in terms of managing emotions, behavior, and motor control. Children with such difficulties are often referred to psychiatric clinics for assessment of their behavioral and emotional problems. Few studies have investigated the role of environmental factors on sensory dysfunctions, and none have specifically studied its association with child attachment in a clinical sample. OBJECTIVE: In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between sensory regulation and child attachment among preschoolers referred to a psychiatric clinic...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Jung Yeon Lee, Judith S Brook, Nasrat Nezia, David W Brook
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The excessive consumption of alcohol is a major issue in the United States and elsewhere. It is associated with a number of adverse health consequences, as well as difficulty in relationships and employment. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates the direct and indirect adolescent predictors of alcohol use in adulthood. METHODS: Among the 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans), 60% were females (n = 405)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Micol Parolin, Alessandra Simonelli
Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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