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Asthma trials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454096/jak-stat-inhibitors-and-other-small-molecule-cytokine-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-allergic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Michael D Howell, Carolyn Fitzsimons, Paul Smith
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of janus kinase (JAK), chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper 2 cells (CRTH2), and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in allergic disorders. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles included in this review discuss the emerging mechanism of action of small molecule inhibitors and their utilization in atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and allergic rhinitis (AR)...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452202/effectiveness-of-indoor-allergen-reduction-in-the-management-of-asthma-a-systematic-review
#2
Brian F Leas, Kristen E D'Anci, Andrea J Apter, Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Marcus P Lynch, Janice L Kaczmarek, Craig A Umscheid
BACKGROUND: This review will inform updated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program clinical practice guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of allergen reduction interventions on asthma outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched the gray literature and five bibliographic databases. Eligible studies included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized interventional studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias instrument and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449558/interventions-to-enhance-the-adoption-of-asthma-self-management-behaviour-in-the-south-asian-and-african-american-population-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Salina Ahmed, Liz Steed, Katherine Harris, Stephanie J C Taylor, Hilary Pinnock
South Asian and other minority communities suffer poorer asthma outcomes, have a higher rate of unscheduled care and benefit less from most existing self-management interventions when compared to the majority population. Possible reasons for these differences include failure to implement asthma self-management strategies, or that strategies implemented were inappropriate for their needs; alternatively, they may relate to the minority and/or lower socioeconomic status of these populations. We aimed to synthesise evidence from randomised controlled trials for asthma self-management in South Asian and Black populations from different sociocultural contexts, and identify barriers and facilitators to implementing self-management...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446469/clinical-trials-in-allergen-immunotherapy-current-concepts-and-future-needs
#4
REVIEW
O Pfaar, M Alvaro, V Cardona, E Hamelmann, R Mösges, J Kleine-Tebbe
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a safe, effective treatment for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma. However, AIT's clinical effect is still contested - primarily due to heterogeneity in clinical trial designs, study populations, therapeutic formulations and efficacy criteria. After discussing current concepts and unmet needs, an international panel of experts made several recommendations: (i) explore and validate definitions for [clinical] responders in AIT-trials; (ii) use of well-documented, standardized provocation tests prior to inclusion of subjects with relevant diseases in AIT trials; (iii) monitoring neo-sensitizations and occurrence of new allergy in extended AIT trials, and exclusion of polyallergic participants; (iv) validation of allergen exposure chambers with regard to natural exposure; (v) in studies of seasonal allergies, focus on peak exposure but also consider organising two parallel, geographically distinct but otherwise identical trials; (vi) discuss adaptive trial designs with the regulatory authorities; (vii) use e-health and m-health technologies to capture more information on individual exposure to allergens; (viii) initiate research on potential psychological, biochemical, immune, neural and even genomic markers of the placebo response; (ix) identify trial designs and primary endpoints that will give children with allergies easier, faster access to AIT formulations; and (x) promote and apply standardized methods for reporting systemic and local adverse events...
February 15, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437489/controller-adherence-following-hospital-discharge-in-high-risk-children-a-pilot-randomized-trial-of-text-message-reminders
#5
Chén C Kenyon, Siobhan M Gruschow, William O Quarshie, Heather Griffis, Michelle C Leach, Joseph J Zorc, Tyra C Bryant-Stephens, Victoria A Miller, Chris Feudtner
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a mobile health, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence reminder intervention and to characterize adherence trajectories immediately following severe asthma exacerbation in high-risk urban children with persistent asthma. METHODS: Children aged 2-13 with persistent asthma were enrolled in this pilot randomized controlled trial during an asthma emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization. Intervention arm participants received daily text message reminders for 30 days, and both arms received electronic sensors to measure ICS use...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434645/atopy-and-related-clinical-symptoms-among-swiss-medical-students-from-2007-to-2015
#6
Lukas Steinegger, Stephan Regenass, Lucas M Bachmann, Elsbeth Probst, Urs C Steiner
Background: Atopic allergy is a widespread disease with increasing prevalence in the second half of the twentieth century and is most often associated with clinical symptoms, like rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma or eczema. This study explored the prevalence of atopy and polysensitization in nine cohorts of Swiss medical students during the period of 2007-2015. Furthermore, the self-reported allergic symptoms, such as rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma and eczema, among students with and without atopy were assessed...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432968/learnings-from-a-pragmatic-pilot-trial-of-text-messaging-for-high-risk-adolescents-with-asthma
#7
Cassandra M Dodds, Maria T Britto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431543/high-flow-nasal-oxygen-therapy-utilization-7-year-experience-at-a-community-teaching-hospital
#8
Mihaela S Stefan, Patrick Eckert, Bogdan Tiru, Jennifer Friderici, Peter K Lindenauer, Jay S Steingrub
OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) between 2008 and 2014 in patients 18 years or older at a community teaching hospital. METHODS: Yearly utilization rates of HFNC, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) were calculated among admissions with a set of cardiopulmonary diagnoses (heart failure, COPD, asthma or pneumonia). RESULTS: Among the 41,711 admissions with at least one of the above cardiopulmonary condition, HFNC was utilized in 1,128 or 27...
February 15, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429807/post-hoc-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-vaccine-type-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-at-risk-older-adults
#9
José A Suaya, Qin Jiang, Daniel A Scott, William C Gruber, Chris Webber, Beate Schmoele-Thoma, Cassandra K Hall-Murray, Luis Jodar, Raul E Isturiz
BACKGROUND: Individuals with certain chronic medical conditions are at higher risk of developing pneumonia and pneumococcal disease than those without. Using data from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), this post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults aged ≥65 years with at-risk conditions. METHODS: The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled study in the Netherlands in which adults aged ≥65 years received either PCV13 or placebo...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427988/emerging-concepts-in-evidence-based-asthma-management
#10
Helen K Reddel
Asthma management is in an intriguing phase, with acceptance of asthma as a heterogeneous condition with different phenotypes and underlying mechanisms and the potential for personalized asthma care, in parallel with increasing evidence about the population-level impact of basic strategies to increase access to medicines and improve inhaler technique and adherence. These changes have been facilitated by a more comprehensive view of evidence, including both randomized controlled trials with high internal validity and pragmatic and observational studies with high generalizability to patients in clinical practice...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427987/advances-and-evolving-concepts-in-allergic-asthma
#11
Hui-Ying Tung, Evan Li, Cameron Landers, An Nguyen, Farrah Kheradmand, J Morgan Knight, David B Corry
Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427967/pleiotropic-effects-of-hypoglycemic-agents-implications-in-asthma-and-copd
#12
REVIEW
Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Nicola Di Daniele, Davide Lauro
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex multifactorial disease due to the interaction between environmental noxae and genetic predisposition. Furthermore, an increased association between DM, especially Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the onset of pulmonary function impairment with a bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been documented. DM is a risk factor for accelerated decline in FEV1 and the development of asthma and COPD. The increased blood glucose concentrations along with higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation can influence the pulmonary function and, since hypoglycemic drugs can act on these different defects we can hypothesize their direct effect on obstructive pulmonary diseases...
February 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426752/increased-dose-and-duration-of-statin-use-is-associated-with-decreased-asthma-related-emergency-department-visits-and-hospitalizations
#13
Jiu-Yao Wang, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Yu-Ting Tsai, Ann Chen Wu, Hui-Ju Tsai
BACKGROUND: Statins have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, yet the effect of statin use on asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations has remained unclear, especially in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the effect of statin therapy on asthma-related ED visits and/or hospitalizations. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2001 to 2013...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420077/tiotropium-added-to-low-to-medium-dose-inhaled-corticosteroids-ics-versus-low-to-medium-dose-ics-alone-for-adults-with-mild-to-moderate-uncontrolled-persistent-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Liqun Wang, Ruirui Zhou, Xiaohui Xie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety profile of tiotropium when added to low- to medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) regimen versus low- to medium-dose ICS alone for adults with mild to moderate uncontrolled persistent asthma. DATA SOURCES: The online databases Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant data published up to November 14, 2017; we also conducted a supplementary search using clinicaltrials.gov. STUDY SELECTIONS: Only randomized control trials were included in this review...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416367/profile-of-dupilumab-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-of-inadequately-controlled-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis
#15
REVIEW
Olabola Awosika, Lori Kim, Momina Mazhar, Monica Rengifo-Pardo, Alison Ehrlich
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder that manifests as eczematous lesions, often associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Historically, moderate-to-severe disease has been managed with systemic immunosuppression, such as oral corticosteroids, which result in relapse and limiting side effects. Due to recent advancements in the identification of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 as key mediators in AD, new biological agents have been developed for treatment. Dupilumab is a recently approved monoclonal antibody that targets the alpha subunit of the IL-4 receptor and, thus, downregulates activity of IL-4 and IL-13...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415330/maternal-supplementation-alone-with-l-rhamnosus-hn001-during-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-does-not-reduce-infant-eczema
#16
Kristin Wickens, Christine Barthow, Edwin A Mitchell, Thorsten V Stanley, Gordon Purdie, Judy Rowden, Janice Kang, Fiona Hood, Lieke van den Elsen, Elizabeth Forbes-Blom, Isobel Franklin, Phillipa Barnes, Penny Fitzharris, Robyn M Maude, Peter Stone, Peter Abels, Rinki Murphy, Julian Crane
BACKGROUND: In a randomised placebo-controlled trial, we previously found that the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) taken by mothers from 35 weeks gestation until 6 months post-partum if breastfeeding and their child from birth to age 2 years halved the risk of eczema during the first 2 years of life. We aimed to test whether maternal supplementation alone is sufficient to reduce eczema, and compare this to our previous study when both mothers and their child were supplemented...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413502/efficacy-and-safety-of-lebrikizumab-in-adult-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-asthma-not-receiving-inhaled-corticosteroids
#17
Philip Korenblat, Edwin Kerwin, Igor Leshchenko, Karl Yen, Cecile T J Holweg, Judith Anzures-Cabrera, Carmen Martin, Wendy S Putnam, Laura Governale, Julie Olsson, John G Matthews
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous and complex disease in both its clinical course and response to treatment. IL-13 is central to Type 2 inflammation and contributes to many features of asthma. In a previous Phase 2 study, lebrikizumab, an anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody, did not significantly improve FEV 1 in mild-to-moderate asthma patients not receiving ICS therapy. This Phase 3 study was designed to further assess the efficacy and safety of lebrikizumab in adult patients with mild-to-moderate asthma treated with daily short-acting β 2 -agonist therapy alone...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413339/current-insights-in-allergen-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Giovanni Passalacqua, Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Enrico Heffler, Francesca Puggioni, Giorgio Walter Canonica
OBJECTIVE: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) in its subcutaneous and sublingual forms is currently a well-established and experimentally supported treatment for respiratory allergy and hymenoptera venom allergy. There have been advances in its use linked strictly to the advancement in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of allergy, the production of well-characterized extracts, and diagnostic techniques. The use of AIT in asthma and the application of new approaches are expanding...
February 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413338/the-skin-as-a-target-for-prevention-of-the-atopic-march
#19
REVIEW
Adrian J Lowe, Donald Y M Leung, Mimi L K Tang, John C Su, Katrina J Allen
OBJECTIVE: Allergic diseases have increased dramatically in the developed world during the past few decades, yet the understanding of risk factors and effective prevention approaches remain limited. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the hypothesis that skin-barrier impairment and early-life atopic dermatitis (AD) could play a causal role in the development of sensitization and subsequent food allergies and allergic airways disease (allergic asthma and rhinitis). We further discuss the potential to target the skin barrier as a means to lower the incidence of allergic disease...
February 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412485/advancing-the-management-of-obstructive-airways-diseases-through-translational-research
#20
Celeste Porsbjerg, Asger Sverrild, Katherine J Baines, Andrew Searles, Steven Maltby, Paul S Foster, Chris Brightling, Peter G Gibson
Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments...
February 7, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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