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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666919/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-and-evidence-for-disease-prevention-in-the-older-population
#1
REVIEW
Julia Kühn, Paula Trotz, Gabriele I Stangl
The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, usually assessed by the analysis of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH])D), is very high in the aging German population. An important factor that reduces endogenous vitamin D synthesis in older persons is physical inactivity or care-dependency that limits the time spent outside. Additionally, it has been suggested that the age-dependent decline in the glomerular filtration rate is associated with a reduced production of bioactive calcitriol. As this phenomenon is not detectable by the assessment of 25(OH)D, it is necessary to analyze the level of parathyroid hormone as a marker of calcitriol function...
April 17, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664873/effects-of-a-picu-status-asthmaticus-de-escalation-pathway-on-length-of-stay-and-albuterol-use
#2
Steven Brennan, Lia Lowrie, Jamie Wooldridge
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the effects of an asthma de-escalation clinical pathway on selected outcomes for patients admitted to a PICU with status asthmaticus. DESIGN: Time series quality improvement trial. SETTING: PICU in a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Children age 2-18 years old with a known diagnosis of asthma presenting with status asthmaticus. INTERVENTION: One-hundred five admissions to a PICU for status asthmaticus were treated according to a new de-escalation pathway between August 15, 2015, and August 30, 2016...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662064/the-use-of-electronic-alerts-in-primary-care-computer-systems-to-identify-the-excessive-prescription-of-short-acting-beta-2-agonists-for-people-with-asthma-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Shauna McKibben, Anna De Simoni, Andy Bush, Mike Thomas, Chris Griffiths
Computers are increasingly used to improve prescribing decisions in the management of long-term conditions however the effects on asthma prescribing remain unclear. We aimed to synthesise the evidence for the use of computerised alerts that identify excessive prescribing of short-acting beta2 -agonists (SABAs) to improve asthma management for people with asthma. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus databases (1990-2016) were searched for randomised controlled trials using electronic alerts to identify excessive prescribing of SABAs for people with asthma in primary care...
April 16, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656145/sq-house-dust-mite-sublingual-immunotherapy-tablet-subgroup-efficacy-and-local-application-site-reaction-duration
#4
David I Bernstein, Joerg Kleine-Tebbe, Harold S Nelson, Jose A Bardelas, Gordon L Sussman, Susan Lu, Dorte Rehm, Bodil Svanholm Fogh, Hendrik Nolte
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis (AR/C) is common, necessitating evaluation of SQ house dust mite (HDM) sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet efficacy in various subgroups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 12 SQ-HDM efficacy and safety across subgroups, and the onset, duration, and recurrence of local application site reactions. METHODS: Subgroup (age, gender, race, asthma status, and allergen sensitization) efficacy was assessed using pooled data from two previously described trials of daily 12 SQ-HDM vs placebo for AR/C (N=2138)...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652761/effect-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-in-the-management-of-patients-with-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Neslihan Duruturk, Manolya Acar, Mustafa Ilgaz Doğrul
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, quality of life, and daily living activities of asthmatic patients. METHODS: Thirty-eight asthmatic patients, between 18 and 65 years of age, were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups; IMT (n = 20) or control (n = 18). Participants in the IMT group performed 30 breaths using a patient-specific threshold pressure device, twice daily for 6 wk at 50% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), in addition to "breathing training" during this period...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651336/pi3k-p38-and-jak-stat-signalling-in-bronchial-tissue-from-patients-with-asthma-following-allergen-challenge
#6
Thomas Southworth, Sarah Mason, Alan Bell, Isabel Ramis, Marta Calbet, Anna Domenech, Neus Prats, Montserrat Miralpeix, Dave Singh
Background: Inhaled allergen challenges are often used to evaluate novel asthma treatments in early phase clinical trials. Current novel therapeutic targets in asthma include phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) delta and gamma, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathways. The activation of these pathways following allergen exposure in atopic asthma patients it is not known. Methods: We collected bronchial biopsies from 11 atopic asthma patients at baseline and after allergen challenge to investigate biomarkers of PI3K, p38 MAPK and JAK/STAT activation by immunohistochemistry...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642713/house-dust-mite-sublingual-immunotherapy-for-pediatric-patients-with-allergic-asthma
#7
Jessika R Richards, Janice L Stumpf
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature evaluating administration of house dust mite (HDM) sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in pediatric patients with allergic asthma. DATA SOURCES: PubMed database search (1966 to November 2017) using the search terms allergy, allergic rhinitis, asthma, allergic asthma, house dust mite, allergen immunotherapy, subcutaneous immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, MK-8237, children, and pediatric. Package labeling and references from identified articles were also reviewed...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642409/squamous-cell-carcinoma-antigen-2-scca2-serpinb4-an-emerging-biomarker-for-skin-inflammatory-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Kenji Izuhara, Yukie Yamaguchi, Shoichiro Ohta, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nanri, Yoshinori Azuma, Noriko Nomura, Yasuhiko Noguchi, Michiko Aihara
Squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 and 2 (SCCA1 and 2, SERPIN B3 and B4), members of the ovalbumin serpin (ov-serpin)/clade B serpin family, were originally discovered as tumor-specific antigens and are used as tumor markers for various kinds of squamous cell carcinomas. Recently, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of how SCCA1/2 enhance tumor growth has greatly increased. Moreover, it has been shown that SCCA1/2 are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases: asthma, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628376/childhood-predictors-of-lung-function-trajectories-and-future-copd-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study-from-the-first-to-the-sixth-decade-of-life
#9
Dinh S Bui, Caroline J Lodge, John A Burgess, Adrian J Lowe, Jennifer Perret, Minh Q Bui, Gayan Bowatte, Lyle Gurrin, David P Johns, Bruce R Thompson, Garun S Hamilton, Peter A Frith, Alan L James, Paul S Thomas, Deborah Jarvis, Cecilie Svanes, Melissa Russell, Stephen C Morrison, Iain Feather, Katrina J Allen, Richard Wood-Baker, John Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, Eugene H Walters, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. METHODS: We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627188/maternal-black-race-and-persistent-wheezing-illness-in-former-extremely-low-gestational-age-newborns-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-trial
#10
Katherine C Wai, Anna M Hibbs, Martina A Steurer, Dennis M Black, Jeanette M Asselin, Eric C Eichenwald, Philip L Ballard, Roberta A Ballard, Roberta L Keller
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between maternal self-reported race/ethnicity and persistent wheezing illness in former high-risk, extremely low gestational age newborns, and to quantify the contribution of socioeconomic, environmental, and biological factors on this relationship. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed persistent wheezing illness determined at 18-24 months corrected (for prematurity) age in survivors of a randomized trial. Parents/caregivers were surveyed for wheeze and inhaled asthma medication use quarterly to 12 months, and at 18 and 24 months...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626211/targeting-cytokines-to-treat-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
REVIEW
Peter J Barnes
Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating and perpetuating the chronic airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), making them attractive targets for treating these disorders. Asthma and some cases of COPD are mainly driven by type 2 immune responses, which comprise increased airway eosinophils, T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the secretion of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Clinical trials of antibodies that block these interleukins have shown reduced acute exacerbations and oral corticosteroid use and improvements in lung function and symptoms in selected patients...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623819/register-based-ecologic-evaluation-of-safety-signals-related-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children
#12
Miia Artama, Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Hanna Nohynek, Jukka Jokinen, Arto Palmu
BACKGROUND: In clinical trials of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV), some adverse events have been reported more frequently in the PCV vaccinated. Ten-valent PCV (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Programme (NVP) in September 2010. OBJECTIVES: We conducted an ecologic register-based study to investigate further the reported adverse events after PCV. METHODS: This study included data obtained from the Finnish nationwide, population-based registers...
April 6, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622672/viral-infections-in-wheezing-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Peter Le Souëf
Over the past year, studies into virus-induced wheeze in children have shifted towards investigations that examine the mechanisms by which respiratory viruses cause wheeze and an increase in studies examining the effects of novel interventions to reduce wheezing exacerbations. Studies on rhinovirus species (RV)-C infection have found that this is associated with a decrease in expression of CDHR3, the cellular receptor specific for this virus, and a decrease in interferon-β expression, both of which are likely to favour RV-C infection...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622380/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-single-ascending-dose-study-to-assess-the-safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-subcutaneous-tralokinumab-in-japanese-healthy-volunteers
#14
Paul Baverel, Dewei She, Edward Piper, Shinya Ueda, Tomoko Yoshioka, Raffaella Faggioni, Hakop Gevorkyan
Tralokinumab is a human monoclonal antibody in clinical development for asthma and atopic dermatitis that specifically neutralizes interleukin-13. This phase I, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single ascending-dose study assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of subcutaneous tralokinumab (150, 300, or 600 mg) in thirty healthy Japanese adults. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) in all treatment groups was injection-site pain. The frequency and severity of TEAEs was similar across tralokinumab doses...
December 12, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618952/role-of-genetic-variations-of-chitinase-3-like-1-in-bronchial-asthmatic-patients
#15
Kazuyuki Abe, Yutaka Nakamura, Kohei Yamauchi, Makoto Maemondo
Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chitinase 3 - like 1 ( CHI3L1 ) are associated with bronchial severity and pulmonary function. CHI3L1 proteins are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses; however, to date, the correlation of these SNPs and their age of onset of bronchial asthma has not been demonstrated. Methods: To address the role of these genetic variations, 390 patients with well-controlled bronchial asthma and living in Japan were recruited, genotyped, and had a pulmonary function test performed on them in this study...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616956/a-clinical-trial-on-the-efficacy-of-a-mediterranean-diet-enriched-with-fatty-fish-in-the-management-of-paediatric-asthma-preliminary-results
#16
Maria Papamichael, Charis Katsardis, Dimitrios Tsoukalas, Bircan Erbas, Catherine Itsiopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611207/immunological-and-hematological-effects-of-il-5-r%C3%AE-targeted-therapy-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
M Hassani, L Koenderman
IL-5 is an important cytokine for priming and survival of mature eosinophils, and for proliferation and maturation of their progenitors. Hence, IL-5(Rα) targeting will be increasingly used in diseases where eosinophils are the key immune effector cells such as eosinophilic asthma (EA), hyper eosinophilic syndrome (HES), eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA). Therefore, several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against IL-5 (mepolizumab and reslizumab) and its receptor IL-5Rα (benralizumab) have found or will find their way to the clinic...
April 3, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606855/benralizumab-in-the-treatment-of-severe-asthma-design-development-and-potential-place-in-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Corrado Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella, Andrea Bruni, Rosa Terracciano, Girolamo Pelaia
Asthma is a widespread and heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the airways, which is characterized by several different phenotypes and endotypes. In particular, eosinophilic airway inflammation is a common pathologic trait of both allergic and nonallergic asthma. The key cytokine responsible for maturation, activation, recruitment, and survival of eosinophils is interleukin (IL)-5, which is mainly produced by T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Therefore, for uncontrolled patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, who are not fully responsive to corticosteroids, IL-5 represents a very important molecular target for add-on biological therapies...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605205/caregiver-and-pediatric-provider-perspectives-on-symptom-based-inhaled-corticosteroid-therapy-in-asthma
#19
Tiffany Dy, Ericka M Lewis, Vithya Murugan, Sarah Gehlert, Juanita Taylor, Jane Garbutt, Leonard B Bacharier, Mario Castro, Kaharu Sumino
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend that healthcare providers adjust the dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma patients based on the degree of symptom severity and control. Symptom-based, intermittent ICS therapy (use of ICS together with short acting bronchodilators- symptom-based adjustment: SBA) has been demonstrated to be comparable to guideline-based management by providers in controlled clinical trials. We sought input from African American caregivers and pediatricians on the acceptability and barriers for this alternative management strategy...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605203/in-vitro-and-clinical-characterization-of-the-valved-holding-chamber-aerochamber-plus-%C3%A2-flow-vu-%C3%A2-for-administrating-tiotropium-respimat-%C3%A2-in-1-5-year-old-children-with-persistent-asthmatic-symptoms
#20
Herbert Wachtel, Mark Nagel, Michael Engel, Georges El Azzi, Ashish Sharma, Jason Suggett
BACKGROUND: When characterizing inhalation products, a comprehensive assessment including in vitro, pharmacokinetic (PK), and clinical data is required. We conducted a characterization of tiotropium Respimat® when administered with AeroChamber Plus® Flow-Vu® anti-static valved holding chamber (test VHC) with face mask in 1-5-year-olds with persistent asthmatic symptoms. METHODS: In vitro tiotropium dose and particle size distribution delivered into a cascade impactor were evaluated under fixed paediatric and adult flow rates between actuation and samplings...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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