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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126892/atrial-fibrillation-ablation-beyond-pulmonary-veins-the-role-of-left-atrial-appendage
#1
REVIEW
Jorge Romero, Andrea Natale, Luigi Di Biase
The role of pulmonary vein isolation in patients with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is only modest. Several studies have demonstrated the role of the left atrial appendage (LAA) in initiating and maintaining of this arrhythmia. We review in this article the incremental benefit in free-arrhythmia recurrence of LAA electrical isolation in patients undergoing procedures for persistent AF or long standing persistent AF either using radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation or Lariat device implantation. Likewise, acute complications, anticoagulation and the risk of ischemic stroke after LAA electrical isolation (LAAEI) are analyzed...
November 7, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116363/molecular-roles-and-function-of-circular-rnas-in-eukaryotic-cells
#2
REVIEW
Lesca M Holdt, Alexander Kohlmaier, Daniel Teupser
Protein-coding and noncoding genes in eukaryotes are typically expressed as linear messenger RNAs, with exons arranged colinearly to their genomic order. Recent advances in sequencing and in mapping RNA reads to reference genomes have revealed that thousands of genes express also covalently closed circular RNAs. Many of these circRNAs are stable and contain exons, but are not translated into proteins. Here, we review the emerging understanding that both, circRNAs produced by co- and posttranscriptional head-to-tail "backsplicing" of a downstream splice donor to a more upstream splice acceptor, as well as circRNAs generated from intronic lariats during colinear splicing, may exhibit physiologically relevant regulatory functions in eukaryotes...
November 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101586/a-lariat-derived-circular-rna-is-required-for-plant-development-in-arabidopsis
#3
Jinping Cheng, Yong Zhang, Ziwei Li, Taiyun Wang, Xiaotuo Zhang, Binglian Zheng
Lariat RNA is produced during pre-mRNA splicing, and it is traditionally thought as by-products, due to the quick turnover by debranching followed by degradation. However, recent findings identified many lariat RNAs accumulate with a circular form in higher eukaryotes. Although the remarkable accumulation, biological consequence of lariat-derived circular RNAs (here we name laciRNAs) remains largely unknown. Here, we report that a specific laciRNA from At5g37720 plays an essential role in plant development by regulating gene expression globally...
October 31, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092009/machine-learning-annotation-of-human-branchpoints
#4
Bethany Signal, Brian S Gloss, Marcel E Dinger, Tim R Mercer
Motivation: The branchpoint element is required for the first lariat-forming reaction in splicing. However current catalogues of human branchpoints remain incomplete due to the difficulty in experimentally identifying these splicing elements. To address this limitation, we have developed a machine-learning algorithm - branchpointer - to identify branchpoint elements solely from gene annotations and genomic sequence. Results: Using branchpointer, we annotate branchpoint elements in 85% of human gene introns with sensitivity (61...
October 28, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030393/fanconi-anemia-fancd2-and-fanci-proteins-regulate-the-nuclear-dynamics-of-splicing-factors
#5
María Moriel-Carretero, Sara Ovejero, Marie Gérus-Durand, Dimos Vryzas, Angelos Constantinou
Proteins disabled in the cancer-prone disorder Fanconi anemia (FA) ensure the maintenance of chromosomal stability during DNA replication. FA proteins regulate replication dynamics, coordinate replication-coupled repair of interstrand DNA cross-links, and mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription. Here we show that FANCI and FANCD2 associate with splicing factor 3B1 (SF3B1), a key spliceosomal protein of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2 snRNP). FANCI is in close proximity to SF3B1 in the nucleoplasm of interphase and mitotic cells...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988455/safety-profiles-of-percutaneous-left-atrial-appendage-closure-devices-an-analysis-of-the-food-and-drug-administration-manufacturer-and-user-facility-device-experience-maude-database-from-2009-2016
#6
Mohammad-Ali Jazayeri, Venkat Vuddanda, Mohit K Turagam, Valay Parikh, Madhav Lavu, Donita Atkins, Matthew Earnest, Luigi Di Biase, Andrea Natale, David Wilber, Yeruva Madhu Reddy, Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is a viable option for AF patients who are unable to tolerate long term oral anticoagulation (OAC). OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the safety of two commonly used percutaneous devices for LAA closure in the United States by analysis of surveillance data from the FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. METHODS: The MAUDE database was queried between May 1, 2006 and May 1, 2016 for LARIAT® (SentreHEART Inc...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969093/circular-rnas-a-novel-type-of-biomarker-and-genetic-tools-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Yi-Neng Han, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of universal and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and they form a covalently closed continuous loop without 5' or 3' tails unlike linear RNAs. Most circRNAs are presented with characteristics of abundance, stability, conservatism, and often exhibiting tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. CircRNAs are generated either from exons or introns by back splicing or lariat introns. CircRNAs play important roles as miRNA sponges, gene transcription and expression regulators, RNA-binding protein (RBP) sponges and protein/peptide translators...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940485/anatomical-and-electrical-remodeling-with-incomplete-left-atrial-appendage-ligation-results-from-the-laala-af-registry
#8
Mohit Turagam, Donita Atkins, Matthew Earnest, Randall Lee, Jayant Nath, Ryan Ferrell, Krzysztof Bartus, Nitish Badhwar, Abdi Rasekh, Jie Cheng, Luigi Di Biase, Andrea Natale, David Wilber, Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy
BACKGROUND: The anatomical, electrical and clinical impact of incomplete Lariat left atrial appendage ligation remains unclear. METHODS: We studied LAA anatomy pre-and post-ligation using contrast enhanced- computed tomography (CT) scans in 91 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who subsequently underwent catheter ablation (CA). RESULTS: Eleven patients had an incomplete exclusion (12%) with a central leak ranging from 1-5 mm. Despite incomplete ligation; the LAA volume were reduced by 67% post-procedurally when compared to pre-procedure...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931690/conformational-changes-in-the-5-end-of-the-hiv-1-genome-dependent-on-the-debranching-enzyme-dbr1-during-early-stages-of-infection
#9
Alvaro E Galvis, Hugh E Fisher, Hung Fan, David Camerini
Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the RNA debranching enzyme (DBR1) is not required for early steps in HIV cDNA formation but is necessary for synthesis of intermediate and late cDNA products. To further characterize this effect, we evaluated the topology of the 5' end of the HIV-1 RNA genome during early infection with and without inhibition of DBR1 synthesis. Cells were transfected with DBR1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) followed 48 h later by infection with an HIV-1-derived vector containing an RNase H-deficient reverse transcriptase (RT)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919079/structure-of-an-intron-lariat-spliceosome-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Ruixue Wan, Chuangye Yan, Rui Bai, Jianlin Lei, Yigong Shi
The disassembly of the intron lariat spliceosome (ILS) marks the end of a splicing cycle. Here we report a cryoelectron microscopy structure of the ILS complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at an average resolution of 3.5 Å. The intron lariat remains bound in the spliceosome whereas the ligated exon is already dissociated. The step II splicing factors Prp17 and Prp18, along with Cwc21 and Cwc22 that stabilize the 5' exon binding to loop I of U5 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), have been released from the active site assembly...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898453/echocardiographic-guidance-and-monitoring-of-left-atrial-appendage-closure-with-atriclip-during-open-chest-cardiac-surgery
#11
Rachele Contri, Sara Clivio, Tiziano Torre, Tiziano Cassina
Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure prevents thromboembolic risk and avoids lifelong anticoagulation due to atrial fibrillation (AF). Nowadays, AtriClip, a modern epicardial device approved in June 2010, allows external and safe closure of LAA in patients undergoing cardiac surgery during other open-chest cardiac surgical procedures. Such a surgical approach and its epicardial deployment differentiates LAA closure with AtriClip from percutaneous closure techniques such as Watchman (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA), Lariat (SentreHEART Inc...
October 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733144/the-spliceosome-a-protein-directed-metalloribozyme
#12
REVIEW
Yigong Shi
Pre-mRNA splicing is executed by the ribonucleoprotein machinery spliceosome. Nearly 40 years after the discovery of pre-mRNA splicing, the atomic structure of the spliceosome has finally come to light. Four distinct conformational states of the yeast spliceosome have been captured at atomic or near-atomic resolutions. Two catalytic metal ions at the active site are specifically coordinated by the U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and catalyze both the branching reaction and the exon ligation. Of the three snRNAs in the fully assembled spliceosome, U5 and U6, along with 30 contiguous nucleotides of U2 at its 5'-end, remain structurally rigid throughout the splicing reaction...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648679/structure-determination-of-group-ii-introns
#13
REVIEW
Timothy Wiryaman, Navtej Toor
Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that are able to excise themselves from pre-mRNAs using a mechanism identical to that utilized by the spliceosome. Both structural and phylogenetic data support the hypothesis that group II introns and the spliceosome share a common ancestor. Structures of group II introns have given insight into the active site required for the catalysis of RNA splicing. This review outlines crucial aspects of the structure determination of group II introns such as sample preparation and data processing...
August 1, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639873/anesthetic-management-of-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-endocardial-and-epicardial-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion
#14
Zeena Husain, Payam Safavi-Naeini, Abdi Rasekh, Mehdi Razavi, Charles D Collard, James M Anton, Daniel A Tolpin
Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in adults affecting almost 6 million adults in the United States. The 2 most common comorbidities associated with atrial fibrillation are heart failure and thromboembolic events. Heart failure symptoms may be treated with rate control, antiarrhythmic medications or by catheter ablation. Unfortunately, despite optimal medical management, thromboembolic events still occur. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest and innovation in finding an alternative to chronic anticoagulation...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634583/circular-rnas-biogenesis-function-and-role-in-human-diseases
#15
REVIEW
John Greene, Anne-Marie Baird, Lauren Brady, Marvin Lim, Steven G Gray, Raymond McDermott, Stephen P Finn
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624615/cell-size-dependent-transcription-of-flc-and-its-antisense-long-non-coding-rna-coolair-explain-cell-to-cell-expression-variation
#16
Robert Ietswaart, Stefanie Rosa, Zhe Wu, Caroline Dean, Martin Howard
Single-cell quantification of transcription kinetics and variability promotes a mechanistic understanding of gene regulation. Here, using single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and mathematical modeling, we dissect cellular RNA dynamics for Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FLC expression quantitatively determines flowering time and is regulated by antisense (COOLAIR) transcription. In cells without observable COOLAIR expression, we quantify FLC transcription initiation, elongation, intron processing, and lariat degradation, as well as mRNA release from the locus and degradation...
June 28, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621679/circular-rnas-a-novel-type-of-biomarker-and-genetic-tools-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Yi-Neng Han, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of universal and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and they form a covalently closed continuous loop without 5' or 3' tails unlike linear RNAs. Most circRNAs are presented with characteristics of abundance, stability, conservatism, and often exhibiting tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. CircRNAs are generated either from exons or introns by back splicing or lariat introns. CircRNAs play important roles as miRNA sponges, gene transcription and expression regulators, RNA-binding protein (RBP) sponges and protein/peptide translators...
June 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504306/crystal-structure-of-the-entamoeba-histolytica-rna-lariat-debranching-enzyme-ehdbr1-reveals-a-catalytic-zn-2-mn-2-heterobinucleation
#18
Elizabeth Ransey, Eduardo Paredes, Sourav K Dey, Subha R Das, Annie Heroux, Mark R Macbeth
The RNA lariat debranching enzyme, Dbr1, is a metallophosphoesterase that cleaves 2'-5' phosphodiester bonds within intronic lariats. Previous reports have indicated that Dbr1 enzymatic activity is supported by diverse metal ions including Ni(2+) , Mn(2+) , Mg(2+) , Fe(2+) , and Zn(2+) . While in initial structures of the Entamoeba histolytica Dbr1 only one of the two catalytic metal-binding sites were observed to be occupied (with a Mn(2+) ion), recent structures determined a Zn(2+) /Fe(2+) heterobinucleation...
July 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502770/an-atomic-structure-of-the-human-spliceosome
#19
Xiaofeng Zhang, Chuangye Yan, Jing Hang, Lorenzo I Finci, Jianlin Lei, Yigong Shi
Mechanistic understanding of pre-mRNA splicing requires detailed structural information on various states of the spliceosome. Here we report the cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the human spliceosome just before exon ligation (the C(∗) complex) at an average resolution of 3.76 Å. The splicing factor Prp17 stabilizes the active site conformation. The step II factor Slu7 adopts an extended conformation, binds Prp8 and Cwc22, and is poised for selection of the 3'-splice site. Remarkably, the intron lariat traverses through a positively charged central channel of RBM22; this unusual organization suggests mechanisms of intron recruitment, confinement, and release...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495309/group-ii-introns-in-wheat-mitochondria-have-degenerate-structural-features-and-varied-splicing-pathways
#20
Matthew Ngu, Karen Massel, Linda Bonen
Mitochondrial introns in flowering plant genes are virtually all classified as members of the group II ribozyme family although certain structural features have degenerated to varying degrees over evolutionary time. We are interested in the impact that unconventional intron architecture might have on splicing biochemistry in vivo and we have focused in particular on intronic domains V and VI, which for self-splicing introns provide a key component of the catalytic core and the bulged branchpoint adenosine, respectively...
October 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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