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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331868/a-novel-practical-equation-for-treatment-of-emergent-hypernatremia-and-dehydration-phase-in-infants
#1
Saba Ghaffary, Azadeh Moghaddas, Mehrnoush Dianatkhah
Serum sodium (Na) concentration more than 145 mmol/L is defined as hypernatremia. Hypernatremia carries an acute morbidity and mortality, especially in neonates and infants. Rapid correction of hypernatremia leads to severe cerebral damages, and seizure is the most common neurological complication of hypernatremia. Selection and calculation of an appropriate fluid and its amount is one of the tremendous challenges. It is important to choose the correct amount of suitable fluid and adjust rehydration rate. In this study, we have suggested practical equation to determine the amount of fluid that should be administered to the neonates and infants with hypernatremia...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330689/evaluation-of-methohexital-as-an-alternative-to-propofol-in-a-high-volume-outpatient-pediatric-sedation-service
#2
Nicholas E Jones, Michael S Kelleman, Harold K Simon, Jana A Stockwell, Courtney McCracken, Michael D Mallory, Pradip P Kamat
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a preferred agent for many pediatric sedation providers because of its rapid onset and short duration of action. It allows for quick turn around times and enhanced throughput. Occasionally, intravenous (IV) methohexital (MHX), an ultra-short acting barbiturate is utilized instead of propofol. OBJECTIVE: Describe the experience with MHX in a primarily propofol driven outpatient sedation program and to see if it serves as an acceptable alternative when propofol is not the preferred pharmacologic option...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324923/topotecan-vincristine-doxorubicin-in-stage-4-high-risk-neuroblastoma-patients-failing-to-achieve-a-complete-metastatic-response-to-rapid-cojec-a-siopen-study
#3
Loredana Amoroso, Giovanni Erminio, Guy Makin, Andrew Dj Pearson, Penelope Brock, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Victoria Castel, Marlène Pasquet, Genevieve Laureys, Caroline Thomas, Roberto Luksch, Ruth Ladenstein, Riccardo Haupt, Alberto Garaventa
Purpose: Metastatic response to induction therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma is a prognostic factor. In the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN) HR-NBL-1 protocol, only patients with metastatic complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) with ≤3 abnormal skeletal areas on 123iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine ([123I]mIBG) scintigraphy and no bone marrow disease proceed to high dose therapy (HDT). In this study, topotecan-vincristine-doxorubicin (TVD) was evaluated in patients failing to achieve these criteria, with the aim of improving the metastatic response rate...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324159/hibernation-based-blood-loss-therapy-increases-survivability-of-lethal-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#4
Cecilia E Perez de Lara Rodriguez, Lester R Drewes, Matthew T Andrews
A small-volume (1 ml/kg) resuscitation fluid based on metabolic adaptations in hibernating mammals was optimized using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. A previous study of this therapy tested only one concentration of three specific components: 4 M D-stereoisomer of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), 43 mM melatonin, and 20% DMSO. In this study, we considered the range of concentrations of BHB and melatonin seen during the physiological extremes of rapid arousal from hypothermic torpor in natural hibernators and applied these to the non-hibernating Sprague-Dawley rat model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322027/rapid-differentiating-colorectal-cancer-and-colorectal-polyp-using-dried-blood-spot-mass-spectrometry-metabolomic-approach
#5
Yu Jing, Xue Wu, Peng Gao, Zhongze Fang, Jingjing Wu, Qingjun Wang, Chen Li, Zhitu Zhu, Yunfeng Cao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading causes of cancer mortality, and the early-stage detection could significantly enhance survival rates. Cancer influences the important metabolic pathways and the changes in metabolite levels had been used in many studies as the potential biomarkers. This study is aimed at screening metabolite biomarkers with CRC diagnosis potentials. The direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analysis based on dried blood spot was used to distinguish CRC from polyp. The target metabolites were composed of 23 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines...
March 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321983/chloroprocaine-for-epidural-anesthesia-in-infants-and-children
#6
REVIEW
Giorgio Veneziano, Joseph D Tobias
Continuous epidural infusions are an effective and safe method of providing anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in infants and children with multiple advantages over systemic medications, including earlier tracheal extubation, decreased perioperative stress response, earlier return of bowel function, and decreased exposure to volatile anesthetic agents with uncertain long-term neurocognitive effects. Despite these benefits, local anesthetic toxicity remains a concern in neonates and infants because of their decreased metabolic capacity for amide local anesthetics...
March 21, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319488/an-in-vitro-assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-various-iv-cannulas-for-the-rapid-iv-fluid-administration
#7
Mineto Kamata, Hina Walia, Mumin Hakim, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVES: The current study prospectively evaluates the administration of fluid through commonly used vascular cannulas of various length and diameter. DESIGN: Observational, in vitro experiment. SETTING: Not applicable. SUBJECTS: No human subjects. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fluid (500 mL) was administered via gravity flow and with pressure assistance (pressure bag set at 300 mm Hg) through various vascular cannulas including peripheral IV catheters (22 gauge, 1 inch; 20 gauge, 1...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303726/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-variability-of-insulin-when-administered-by-jet-injection
#8
Elsemiek E C Engwerda, Cees J Tack, Bastiaan E de Galan
BACKGROUND: Jet injection has been shown to accelerate the absorption and action of rapid-acting insulin. In this study, we compared the variability of absorption characteristics between jet injection and conventional administration of the rapid-acting insulin analogue aspart. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized controlled blinded parallel study. On two test days, they received insulin aspart (0.2 units/kg body weight), either by jet injection or conventional pen, followed by a 6-hour euglycemic glucose clamp...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296671/the-use-of-thrombolytic-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-frostbite-injury
#9
Allyson Wexler, Sarah Zavala
Frostbite can lead to severe consequences including loss of digits and limbs. One of the mechanisms of frostbite includes vascular thrombosis. The use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in frostbite has been shown to be effective in case reports and small prospective studies. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients admitted for frostbite between January 2008 and April 2015, and six patients were identified as having received treatment with intravenous tPA. Patients received an initial bolus dose followed by a 6-hour infusion of tPA...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289713/th17-cells-are-refractory-to-senescence-and-retain-robust-antitumor-activity-after-long-term-ex-vivo-expansion
#10
Jacob S Bowers, Michelle H Nelson, Kinga Majchrzak, Stefanie R Bailey, Baerbel Rohrer, Andrew D M Kaiser, Carl Atkinson, Luca Gattinoni, Chrystal M Paulos
Adoptive immunotherapy for solid tumors relies on infusing large numbers of T cells to mediate successful antitumor responses in patients. While long-term rapid-expansion protocols (REPs) produce sufficient numbers of CD8(+) T cells for treatment, they also cause decline in the cell's therapeutic fitness. In contrast, we discovered that IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) do not require REPs to expand 5,000-fold over 3 weeks. Also, unlike Th1 cells, Th17 cells do not exhibit hallmarks of senescence or apoptosis, retaining robust antitumor efficacy in vivo...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289286/early-antibody-therapy-can-induce-long-lasting-immunity-to-shiv
#11
Yoshiaki Nishimura, Rajeev Gautam, Tae-Wook Chun, Reza Sadjadpour, Kathryn E Foulds, Masashi Shingai, Florian Klein, Anna Gazumyan, Jovana Golijanin, Mitzi Donaldson, Olivia K Donau, Ronald J Plishka, Alicia Buckler-White, Michael S Seaman, Jeffrey D Lifson, Richard A Koup, Anthony S Fauci, Michel C Nussenzweig, Malcolm A Martin
Highly potent and broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) have been used to prevent and treat lentivirus infections in humanized mice, macaques, and humans. In immunotherapy experiments, administration of bNAbs to chronically infected animals transiently suppresses virus replication, which invariably returns to pre-treatment levels and results in progression to clinical disease. Here we show that early administration of bNAbs in a macaque simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control...
March 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282403/chemokine-binding-protein-m3-limits-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-mice
#12
Dhanya Ravindran, Anisyah Ridiandries, Laura Z Vanags, Rodney Henriquez, Siân Cartland, Joanne T M Tan, Christina A Bursill
Chemokines are important in macrophage recruitment and the progression of atherosclerosis. The 'M3' chemokine binding protein inactivates key chemokines involved in atherosclerosis (e.g. CCL2, CCL5 and CX3CL1). We aimed to determine the effect of M3 on plaque development and composition. In vitro chemotaxis studies confirmed that M3 protein inhibited the activity of chemokines CCL2, CCL5 and CX3CL1 as primary human monocyte migration as well as CCR2-, CCR5- and CX3CR1-directed migration was attenuated by M3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280971/a-phase-1-study-of-anti-tgf%C3%AE-receptor-type-ii-monoclonal-antibody-ly3022859-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#13
Anthony W Tolcher, Jordan D Berlin, Jan Cosaert, John Kauh, Emily Chan, Sarina A Piha-Paul, Alex Amaya, Shande Tang, Kyla Driscoll, Richard Kimbung, S R Prasad Kambhampati, Ivelina Gueorguieva, David S Hong
PURPOSE: LY3022859 is an anti-TGFβRII IgG1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor-mediated signaling activation. The primary objective of this phase I study was to determine a phase II dose in patients with advanced solid tumors. Secondary objectives were to assess safety and pharmacokinetics (PK). METHODS: LY3022859 was infused intravenously (IV) at 1.25 mg/kg over 1 h every 2 weeks (Q2W) (cohort 1A) and at flat doses of 12.5 mg (cohort 1B) and 25 mg (cohort 2) over 3 h Q2W...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280089/successful-transfer-of-umbilical-cord-blood-cd34-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-derived-nk-cells-in-older-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#14
Harry Dolstra, Mieke W H Roeven, Jan Spanholtz, Basav N Hangalapura, Marleen Tordoir, Frans Maas, Marij Leenders, Fenna Bohme, Nina Kok, Carel Trilsbeek, Jos Paardekooper, Anniek B van der Waart, Peter E Westerweel, Tjeerd J F Snijders, Jan J Cornelissen, Gerard M J Bos, Hans F M Pruijt, Aniek O De Graaf, Bert van der Reijden, Joop H Jansen, Arnold van der Meer, Gerwin Huls, Jeannette Cany, Frank Preijers, Nicole M A Blijlevens, Nicolaas M Schaap
PURPOSE: Older acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients have a poor prognosis, therefore novel therapies are needed. Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells have been adoptively transferred with promising clinical results. Here, we report the first-in-human study exploiting an unique scalable NK cell product generated ex vivo from CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from partially HLA-matched umbilical cord blood units. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ten older AML patients in morphologic complete remission received an escalating HSPC-NK cell dose (between 3 and 30x10^6/kg body weight) after lymphodepleting chemotherapy without cytokine boosting...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279967/ezetimibe-increases-endogenous-cholesterol-excretion-in-humans
#15
Xiaobo Lin, Susan B Racette, Lina Ma, Michael Wallendorf, Richard E Ostlund
OBJECTIVE: Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo...
March 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279825/optimal-practices-in-unrelated-donor-cord-blood-transplantation-for-hematologic-malignancies
#16
REVIEW
Juliet N Barker, Joanne Kurtzberg, Karen Ballen, Michael Boo, Claudio Brunstein, Corey Cutler, Mitchell Horwitz, Filippo Milano, Amanda Olson, Stephen Spellman, John E Wagner, Colleen Delaney, Elizabeth Shpall
Unrelated donor cord blood (CB) transplantation (CBT) results in disease-free survival comparable to that of unrelated adult donor transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies. Extension of allograft access to racial and ethnic minorities, rapid graft availability, flexibility of transplant date, and low risks of disabling chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse are significant advantages of CBT, and multiple series have reported a low risk of late transplant-related mortality (TRM) post-transplant...
March 6, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276638/intravenous-zoledronic-acid-5%C3%A2-mg-on-bone-turnover-markers-and-bone-mineral-density-in-east-china-subjects-with-newly-diagnosed-osteoporosis-a-24-month-clinical-study
#17
Bo-Cheng Liang, Zhen-Yu Shi, Bo Wang, Peng Wu, Ling-Cheng Kong, Jian-Liang Yao, Chun-Wen Li, Xiao-Lin Shi
OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the necessity of early intervention, safety and efficacy of intravenous zoledronic acid 5 mg/year in East China women with newly diagnosed osteoporosis at high risk of fracture during a 24-month treatment period. METHODS: Subjects (57 [52-62] years old) were randomized 3:2 to zoledronic acid versus placebo (randomized at baseline, zoledronic acid [175 cases], placebo-zoledronic acid [110 cases])...
March 9, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275710/intrastriatally-infused-exogenous-cdnf-is-endocytosed-and-retrogradely-transported-to-substantia-nigra
#18
Kert Mätlik, Helena Vihinen, Ali Bienemann, Jaan Palgi, Merja H Voutilainen, Sigrid Booms, Maria Lindahl, Eija Jokitalo, Mart Saarma, Henri J Huttunen, Mikko Airavaara, Urmas Arumäe
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in rodent models of Parkinson's disease and restores DA circuitry when delivered after these neurons have begun to degenerate. These DA neurons have been suggested to transport striatal CDNF retrogradely to the substantia nigra (SN). However, in cultured cells the binding and internalization of extracellular CDNF has not been reported. The first aim of this study was to examine the cellular localization and pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant human CDNF (rhCDNF) protein after its infusion into rat brain parenchyma...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271731/ketamine-augmentation-rapidly-improves-depression-scores-in-inpatients-with-treatment-resistant-bipolar-depression
#19
Janusz K Rybakowski, Agnieszka Permoda-Osip, Alicja Bartkowska-Sniatkowska
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effect of a single ketamine infusion, 0.5 mg/kg body weight, in bipolar depressive patients receiving mood-stabilising drugs, not improving on antidepressants. Previously, in such patients, we had found a correlation between clinical efficacy, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vitamin B12 levels and a rapid improvement in neurocognitive performance. METHODS: The study included 53 patients (13 men, 40 women), aged 22-81 years, receiving ≥1 mood-stabilising medications of the first and/or second generation...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265981/exploring-canine-human-differences-in-product-performance-part-ii-use-of-modeling-and-simulation-to-explore-the-impact-of-formulation-on-ciprofloxacin-in-vivo-absorption-and-dissolution-in-dogs
#20
M N Martinez, B Mistry, V Lukacova, K A Lentz, J E Polli, S W Hoag, T Dowling, R Kona, R M Fahmy
This study explored the in vivo performance of three oral ciprofloxacin formulations (oral solution, fast, or slow dissolving tablets) in beagle dogs. The in vivo absorption and dissolution behaviors, estimated with in silico mechanistic models, were compared to the results previously published in human volunteers. Six normal healthy male beagle dogs (five to completion) received three oral formulations and an intravenous infusion in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were estimated by tandem mass spectrometry detection...
March 6, 2017: AAPS Journal
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