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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429784/sight-and-sound-persistently-out-of-synch-stable-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-synchronisation-revealed-by-implicit-measures-of-lip-voice-integration
#1
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426708/let-s-decide-together-differences-between-individual-and-joint-delay-discounting
#2
Diana Schwenke, Maja Dshemuchadse, Cordula Vesper, Martin Georg Bleichner, Stefan Scherbaum
This study addressed the question whether or not social collaboration has an effect on delay discounting, the tendency to prefer sooner but smaller over later but larger delivered rewards. We applied a novel paradigm in which participants executed choices between two gains in an individual and in a dyadic decision-making condition. We observed how participants reached mutual consent via joystick movement coordination and found lower discounting and a higher decisions' efficiency. In order to establish the underlying mechanism for dyadic variation, we further tested whether these differences emerge from social facilitation or inner group interchange...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421013/the-blurred-future-of-adolescent-gamblers-impulsivity-time-horizon-and-emotional-distress
#3
Giovanna Nigro, Marina Cosenza, Maria Ciccarelli
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the interplay of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, time perspective, and emotional negative states on gambling severity in Italian adolescents. A second aim of the study was to analyze the developmental trajectories of gambling involvement, functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, consideration of future consequences, and negative affectivity in a cross-sectional perspective. One thousand and ten Italian adolescents aging between 12 and 19 years were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Functional and Dysfunctional Impulsivity Scale (FDIS), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411154/neural-mechanisms-of-individual-differences-in-temporal-discounting-of-monetary-and-primary-rewards-in-adolescents
#4
Erik de Water, Gabry W Mies, Bernd Figner, Yuliya Yoncheva, Wouter van den Bos, F Xavier Castellanos, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Adolescents are generally characterized as impulsive. However, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that involves multiple component processes. Which of these components contribute to adolescent impulsivity is currently unclear. This study focused on the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in distinct components of temporal discounting (TD), i.e., the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Participants were 58 adolescents (12-16 years-old) who performed an fMRI TD task with both monetary and snack rewards...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400516/community-trust-reduces-myopic-decisions-of-low-income-individuals
#5
Jon M Jachimowicz, Salah Chafik, Sabeth Munrat, Jaideep C Prabhu, Elke U Weber
Why do the poor make shortsighted choices in decisions that involve delayed payoffs? Foregoing immediate rewards for larger, later rewards requires that decision makers (i) believe future payoffs will occur and (ii) are not forced to take the immediate reward out of financial need. Low-income individuals may be both less likely to believe future payoffs will occur and less able to forego immediate rewards due to higher financial need; they may thus appear to discount the future more heavily. We propose that trust in one's community-which, unlike generalized trust, we find does not covary with levels of income-can partially offset the effects of low income on myopic decisions...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394735/drug-use-status-in-youth-the-role-of-gender-and-delay-discounting
#6
Sneha Thamotharan, Hunter Hahn, Sherecce Fields
BACKGROUND: Evidence from gender and delay discounting studies suggests these variables may influence drug use in youth. However, no studies to date have examined sexual discounting with regard to drug use in youth. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined gender and delay discounting, both monetary and sexual, with regard to the drug use status of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. METHODS: Youth aged 14-21 years (n = 155) provided demographic and drug use information and completed behavioral tasks assessing monetary and sexual discounting in a single laboratory session...
April 10, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392932/delay-discounting-and-utility-for-money-or-weight-loss
#7
Y Y Sze, E M Slaven, W K Bickel, L H Epstein
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is related to a bias towards smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. This bias is typically examined by studying single commodity discounting. However, weight loss often involves choices among multiple commodities. To our knowledge, no research has examined delay discounting of delayed weight loss compared with other commodities. METHODS: We examined single commodity discounting of money and cross commodity discounting of money and weight loss in a sample of 84 adults with obesity or overweight statuses interested in weight loss...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386698/comparison-of-some-behavioral-effects-of-d-and-l-methamphetamine-in-adult-male-rats
#8
Justin N Siemian, Zhaoxia Xue, Bruce E Blough, Jun-Xu Li
RATIONALE: Both l- and d-methamphetamine (l- and d-MA) are more potent to release norpepinephrine (NE) than dopamine, and the selectivity is greater for l-MA than d-MA. Little is known of the in vivo pharmacology of l-MA. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effects of l-MA and d-MA in assays of nociception, behavioral disruption, and impulsivity. METHODS: Antinociceptive effects of d- and l-MA were examined in two pain assays: the warm water tail withdrawal test for acute nociception and the von Frey test in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-treated rats for chronic inflammatory pain...
April 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376700/frontal-tbi-increases-impulsive-decision-making-in-rats-a-potential-role-for-the-inflammatory-cytokine-interleukin-12
#9
Cole Vonder Haar, Kris M Martens, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Susanna Rosi, Cheryl L Wellington, Catharine A Winstanley
Traumatic brain injury is associated with the development of numerous psychiatric diseases. Of particular concern for TBI patients is the impact of chronic impulsivity on daily functioning. Despite the scope of the human problem, little has been done to address impulsivity in animal models of brain injury. In the current study, we examined the effects of either a severe or a milder bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact injury on impulsivity using the delay discounting task (DDT), in which preference for smaller-sooner over larger-later rewards is indicative of greater impulsive choice...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372478/investigation-of-impulsivity-in-binge-eating-rats-in-a-delay-discounting-task-and-its-prevention-by-the-d-amphetamine-prodrug-lisdexamfetamine
#10
Steven P Vickers, Simon Goddard, Richard J Brammer, Peter H Hutson, David J Heal
Freely-fed, female, rats were trained in a two-lever, delay-discounting task: one lever delivered a single chocolate-flavoured pellet immediately and the other a three-pellet reward after increasing delay (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 s). Rats were divided into two groups (i.e. binge-eating rats given irregular, limited access to chocolate in addition to normal chow and controls maintained on normal chow). Both groups exhibited increased preference for the immediate reward as the delay interval was lengthened. The discounting rate was significantly greater in binge-eating rats than non-binge-eating controls, especially as the behaviour became more established indicating that increased impulsivity and intolerance of delayed reward are part of the psychopathology of binge-eating...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365197/high-sucrose-diets-in-male-rats-disrupt-aspects-of-decision-making-tasks-motivation-and-spatial-memory-but-not-impulsivity-measured-by-operant-delay-discounting
#11
Alanna Wong, Vimi R Dogra, Amy C Reichelt
Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, leading to perturbations in behavioural control. Impairments in behavioural control have been observed in obese people on tasks that involve making choices, including delay-discounting, indicative of increased impulsivity. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) in young male rats on behavioural tasks reliant on hippocampal function including delay-discounting, T-maze forced choice alternation and place recognition memory, as well as progressive ratio to measure motivation...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352226/cognitive-control-modulates-effects-of-episodic-simulation-on-delay-discounting-in-aging
#12
Laura K Sasse, Jan Peters, Stefanie Brassen
Enhancing prospective thinking by tagging the future with specific episodic events has been shown to reduce delay discounting in young age ("tag-effect"). So far, it is unclear whether such beneficial effect extends to old adulthood. Since the general ability of future thinking and cognitive control are crucial modulators of temporal discounting in young age, potential age-related decline in these functions might impact on the effect. We focused on this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an established intertemporal choice task including episodic "tags" in healthy older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348448/parenting-and-adolescent-self-regulation-mediate-between-family-socioeconomic-status-and-adolescent-adjustment
#13
Julee P Farley, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Using two waves of longitudinal data, we utilized the family stress model of economic hardship (Conger & Conger, 2002) to test whether family socioeconomic status is related to adolescent adjustment (substance use and academic achievement) through parental knowledge and adolescent self-regulation (behavioral self-control and delay discounting). Participants included 220 adolescent (55% male, mean age = 13 years at Wave 1, mean age = 15 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Results of Structural Equation Modeling revealed significant three-path mediation effects such that low family socioeconomic status at Wave 1 is associated with low parental knowledge at Wave 1, which in turn was related to low academic performance and high substance use at Wave 2 mediated through low adolescent behavioral self-control at Wave 2...
April 2017: Journal of Early Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347716/unique-prediction-of-cannabis-use-severity-and-behaviors-by-delay-discounting-and-behavioral-economic-demand
#14
Justin C Strickland, Joshua A Lile, William W Stoops
Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon...
March 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345215/temporal-discounting-and-the-tendency-to-delay-gratification-across-the-eating-disorder-spectrum
#15
Savani Bartholdy, Samantha Rennalls, Hollie Danby, Claire Jacques, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt, Owen G O'Daly
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have been associated with poorer reward-related inhibitory control, reflected by a reduced tendency to delay gratification. The opposite has been reported in anorexia nervosa (AN), but differences have not been directly compared across eating disorders (EDs). This study investigated self-reported (Delaying Gratification Inventory) and task-based (temporal discounting) inhibitory control in 66 women with an ED and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Poorer task-based inhibitory control was observed in the BN compared with the AN group and poorer self-reported inhibitory control in the BN and in the BED groups compared with the AN and the HC groups, suggesting that reward-related inhibitory control varies across EDs...
March 27, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342061/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-obinutuzumab-for-previously-untreated-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-in-portuguese-patients-who-are-unsuitable-for-full-dose-fludarabine-based-therapy
#16
Ana Teresa Paquete, Luís Silva Miguel, Ursula Becker, Catarina Pereira, Carlos Gouveia Pinto
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) mostly affects patients with comorbidities and limited therapeutic options. Obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb) is a new therapeutic option for previously untreated CLL patients who are unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy. This combination delays disease progression but incurs additional costs; thus, an assessment of its value for money is relevant. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incremental cost-utility ratio of GClb in comparison with (i) rituximab in combination with chlorambucil (RClb), and (ii) chlorambucil alone (Clb) from the perspective of the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS)...
March 24, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340213/effects-of-alcohol-dependence-severity-on-neural-correlates-of-delay-discounting
#17
Aaron C Lim, Anita Cservenka, Lara A Ray
Aims: The current study examines the relationship between alcohol dependence severity and delay discounting neural activation. Methods: Participants (N = 17; 6 female) completed measures of alcohol use and severity and a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of a delay discounting task. Results: Alcohol dependence severity was negatively associated with activation in superior frontal gyrus during impulsive relative to delayed decisions, and positively associated with activation in paracingulate gyrus and frontal pole in delayed relative to impulsive decisions...
March 18, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333537/self-control-depletion-and-nicotine-deprivation-as-precipitants-of-smoking-cessation-failure-a-human-laboratory-model
#18
Bryan W Heckman, David A MacQueen, Nicole S Marquinez, James MacKillop, Warren K Bickel, Thomas H Brandon
OBJECTIVE: The need to understand potential precipitants of smoking relapse is exemplified by relapse rates as high as 95%. The Self-Control Strength model, which proposes that self-control is dependent upon limited resources and susceptible to fatigue, may offer insight into relapse processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that self-control depletion (SCD), produced from engagement in emotional suppression, would serve as a novel antecedent for cessation failure, as indexed by a validated laboratory analogue of smoking lapse and relapse...
April 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321198/the-vivid-present-visualization-abilities-are-associated-with-steep-discounting-of-future-rewards
#19
Trishala Parthasarathi, Mairead H McConnell, Jeffrey Luery, Joseph W Kable
Humans and other animals discount the value of future rewards, a phenomenon known as delay discounting. Individuals vary widely in the extent to which they discount future rewards, and these tendencies have been associated with important life outcomes. Recent studies have demonstrated that imagining the future reduces subsequent discounting behavior, but no research to date has examined whether a similar principle applies at the trait level, and whether training visualization changes discounting. The current study examined if individual differences in visualization abilities are linked to individual differences in discounting and whether practicing visualization can change discounting behaviors in a lasting way...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317212/binge-drinking-and-family-history-of-alcoholism-are-associated-with-an-altered-developmental-trajectory-of-impulsive-choice-across-adolescence
#20
Scott A Jones, Joel S Steele, Bonnie J Nagel
AIMS: To test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD), and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more lifetime drinks is associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age. DESIGN: Alcohol-naïve adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up...
March 20, 2017: Addiction
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