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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927583/differences-in-decision-making-as-a-function-of-drug-of-choice
#1
REVIEW
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Vijay A Ramchandani, Martin P Paulus, Scott D Lane
Poor decision-making is a central feature of all substance use disorders (SUD), but substances vary in the legal and health consequences associated with their use. For example, while the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are often years away, the consequences of heroin abuse can be fatal in mere hours. It remains unclear if users of these substances show decision-making patterns that differ with the relative riskiness of their drug of choice. To address this question, we reviewed studies that compared decision-making of individuals using different substances...
September 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913698/reduced-value-driven-attentional-capture-among-children-with-adhd-compared-to-typically-developing-controls
#2
Anthony W Sali, Brian A Anderson, Steven Yantis, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
The current study examined whether children with ADHD were more distracted by a stimulus previously associated with reward, but currently goal-irrelevant, than their typically-developing peers. In addition, we also probed the associated cognitive and motivational mechanisms by examining correlations with other behavioral tasks. Participants included 8-12 year-old children with ADHD (n = 30) and typically developing controls (n = 26). Children were instructed to visually search for color-defined targets and received monetary rewards for accurate responses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913688/the-effects-of-condom-availability-on-college-women-s-sexual-discounting
#3
Shea M Lemley, David P Jarmolowicz, Daniel Parkhurst, Mark A Celio
College students commonly engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as casual sexual encounters and inconsistent condom use. Discounting paradigms that examine how individuals devalue rewards due to their delay or uncertainty have been used to improve our understanding of behavioral problems, including sexual risk. The current study assessed relations between college women's sexual partners discounting and risky sexual behavior. In this study, college women (N = 42) completed two sexual partners delay discounting tasks that assessed how choices among hypothetical sexual partners changed across a parametric range of delays in two conditions: condom availability and condom unavailability...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910128/future-so-bright-delay-discounting-and-consideration-of-future-consequences-predict-academic-performance-among-college-drinkers
#4
Samuel F Acuff, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Brian Borsari, Matthew P Martens, James G Murphy
College student drinking is a major public health concern and can result in a range of negative consequences, from acute health risks to decreased academic performance and drop out. Harm reduction interventions have been developed to reduce problems associated with drinking but there is a need to identify specific risk/protective factors related to academic performance among college drinkers. Behavioral economics suggests that chronic alcohol misuse reflects a dysregulated behavioral process or reinforcer pathology-alcohol is overvalued and the value of prosocial rewards are sharply discounted due, in part, to their delay...
September 14, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898965/late-boosting-phenomenon-in-tst-conversion-among-health-care-workers
#5
W H Farah, L E Breeher, R D Newcomb, M H Murad, A I S Vaughn, P T Hagen, R G Molella
Background: Available information is insufficient to guide determination of whether tuberculin skin test (TST) conversions of health care workers (HCWs) within 2 years of two-step testing are related to occupational exposures or to other causes, including late boosting. Aims: To describe the epidemiologic factors of TST conversion in HCWs, comparing early TST conversion (≤2 years after two-step testing) with late conversion to possibly distinguish late boosting phenomenon from occupational TST conversion...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877515/neural-congruence-between-intertemporal-and-interpersonal-self-control-evidence-from-delay-and-social-discounting
#6
Paul F Hill, Richard Yi, R Nathan Spreng, Rachel A Diana
Behavioral studies using delay and social discounting as indices of self-control and altruism, respectively, have revealed functional similarities between farsighted and social decisions. However, neural evidence for this functional link is lacking. Twenty-five young adults completed a delay and social discounting task during fMRI scanning. A spatiotemporal partial least squares analysis revealed that both forms of discounting were well characterized by a pattern of brain activity in areas comprising frontoparietal control, default, and mesolimbic reward networks...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868576/choice-between-delayed-food-and-immediate-opioids-in-rats-treatment-effects-and-individual-differences
#7
Leigh V Panlilio, Maria E Secci, Charles W Schindler, Charles W Bradberry
RATIONALE: Addiction involves maladaptive choice behavior in which immediate drug effects are valued more than delayed nondrug rewards. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To model this behavior and extend our earlier work with the prescription opioid oxycodone, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the short-acting opioid remifentanil and delayed delivery of highly palatable food pellets. Treatment drugs were tested on a baseline where remifentanil was preferred over food...
September 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862671/delay-discounting-as-an-index-of-sustainable-behavior-devaluation-of-future-air-quality-and-implications-for-public-health
#8
Meredith S Berry, Norma P Nickerson, Amy L Odum
Poor air quality and resulting annual deaths represent significant public health concerns. Recently, rapid delay discounting (the devaluation of future outcomes) of air quality has been considered a potential barrier for engaging in long term, sustainable behaviors that might help to reduce emissions (e.g., reducing private car use, societal support for clean air initiatives). Delay discounting has been shown to be predictive of real world behavior outside of laboratory settings, and therefore may offer an important framework beyond traditional variables thought to measure sustainable behavior such as importance of an environmental issue, or environmental attitudes/values, although more research is needed in this area...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860514/delay-discounting-is-associated-with-the-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-late-adolescence
#9
Song Wang, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Qiyong Gong
As a component of self-regulation, delay discounting (DD) refers to an individual's tendency to prefer smaller-but-sooner rewards over larger-but-later rewards and plays an essential role in many aspects of human behavior. Although numerous studies have examined the neural underpinnings of DD in adults, there are far fewer studies focusing on the neurobiological correlates underlying DD in adolescents. Here, we investigated the associations between individual differences in DD and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in 228 high school students using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851586/clinical-models-of-decision-making-in-addiction
#10
REVIEW
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Brent A Kaplan
As research on decision making in addiction accumulates, it is increasingly clear that decision-making processes are dysfunctional in addiction and that this dysfunction may be fundamental to the initiation and maintenance of addictive behavior. How drug-dependent individuals value and choose among drug and nondrug rewards is consistently different from non-dependent individuals. The present review focuses on the assessment of decision-making in addiction. We cover the common behavioral tasks that have shown to be fruitful in decision-making research and highlight analytical and graphical considerations, when available, to facilitate comparisons within and among studies...
August 26, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844557/five-factor-model-personality-traits-relate-to-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-but-not-to-their-distinct-neurocognitive-profiles
#11
Fiona E Van Dijk, Jeannette Mostert, Jeffrey Glennon, Marten Onnink, Janneke Dammers, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Cornelis Kan, Robbert Jan Verkes, Martine Hoogman, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar
Deficits in multiple neuropsychological domains and specific personality profiles have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we investigated whether personality traits are related to neurocognitive profiles in adults with ADHD. Neuropsychological performance and Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits were measured in adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy controls (n = 132). Three neuropsychological profiles, derived from previous community detection analyses, were investigated for personality trait differences...
August 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844008/delay-discounting-is-predicted-by-scale-free-dynamics-of-default-mode-network-and-salience-network
#12
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) is frequently used as a powerful technology to detect individual differences in many cognitive functions. Recently, some studies have explored the association between scale-free dynamic properties of resting-state brain activation and individual personality traits. However, little is known about whether the scale-free dynamics of resting-state function networks is associated with delay discounting. To address this question, we calculated the Hurst exponent which quantifies long-term memory of the time series in resting-state networks (RSNs) identified via independent component analysis (ICA) and examined what relationship between delay discounting and the Hurst exponent of RSNs is...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843539/neuroanatomical-foundations-of-delayed-reward-discounting-decision-making
#13
Max M Owens, Joshua C Gray, Michael T Amlung, Assaf Oshri, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
Resolving tradeoffs between smaller immediate rewards and larger delayed rewards is ubiquitous in daily life and steep discounting of future rewards is associated with several psychiatric conditions. This form of decision-making is referred to as delayed reward discounting (DRD) and the features of brain structure associated with DRD are not well understood. The current study characterized the relationship between gray matter volume (GMV) and DRD in a sample of 1038 healthy adults (54.7% female) using cortical parcellation, subcortical segmentation, and voxelwise cortical surface-based group analyses...
August 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841271/who-seeks-bariatric-surgery-psychosocial-functioning-among-adolescent-candidates-other-treatment-seeking-adolescents-with-obesity-and-healthy-controls
#14
C C Call, M J Devlin, I Fennoy, J L Zitsman, B T Walsh, R Sysko
Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range...
August 25, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826495/anatomical-and-functional-organization-of-the-human-substantia-nigra-and-its-connections
#15
Yu Zhang, Kevin Michel-Herve Larcher, Bratislav Misic, Alain Dagher
We investigated the anatomical and functional organization of the human substantia nigra (SN) using diffusion and functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project. We identified a tripartite connectivity-based parcellation of SN with a limbic, cognitive, motor arrangement. The medial SN connects with limbic striatal and cortical regions and encodes value (greater response to monetary wins than losses during fMRI), while the ventral SN connects with associative regions of cortex and striatum and encodes salience (equal response to wins and losses)...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815629/impulsive-decision-making-in-young-adult-social-drinkers-and-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#16
Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Christian Sommer, Julian Birkenstock, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
BACKGROUND: Impulsive decision making relates to problematic substance use. Specifically, altered delay discounting has been suggested as a behavioral marker for addiction, while other relevant facets of choice impulsivity such as probability discounting or loss aversion are clearly understudied. METHODS: Two studies were performed collecting behavioral data on choice impulsivity with a value-based decision-making battery providing estimates of delay discounting, probability discounting for gains and losses, and loss aversion...
August 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810196/tobacco-demand-delay-discounting-and-smoking-topography-among-smokers-with-and-without-psychopathology
#17
Samantha G Farris, Elizabeth R Aston, Ana M Abrantes, Michael J Zvolensky
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808356/the-gist-of-delay-of-gratification-understanding-and-predicting-problem-behaviors
#18
Valerie F Reyna, Evan A Wilhelms
Delay of gratification captures elements of temptation and self-denial that characterize real-life problems with money and other problem behaviors such as unhealthy risk taking. According to fuzzy-trace theory, decision makers mentally represent social values such as delay of gratification in a coarse but meaningful form of memory called "gist." Applying this theory, we developed a gist measure of delay of gratification that does not involve quantitative trade-offs (as delay discounting does) and hypothesize that this construct explains unique variance beyond sensation seeking and inhibition in accounting for problem behaviors...
April 2017: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803942/an-adaptive-individualized-fmri-delay-discounting-procedure-to-increase-flexibility-and-optimize-scanner-time
#19
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Anders Eklund, Warren K Bickel, Stephen M LaConte
Research on the rate at which people discount the value of future rewards has become increasingly prevalent as discount rate has been shown to be associated with many unhealthy patterns of behavior such as drug abuse, gambling, and overeating. fMRI research points to a fronto-parietal-limbic pathway that is active during decisions between smaller amounts of money now and larger amounts available after a delay. Researchers in this area have used different variants of delay discounting tasks and reported various contrasts between choice trials of different types from these tasks...
August 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801245/episodic-future-thinking-and-future-based-decision-making-in-a-case-of-retrograde-amnesia
#20
Flavia De Luca, Francesca Benuzzi, Elena Bertossi, Davide Braghittoni, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Ciaramelli
We investigated episodic future thinking (EFT) and future-based cognition and decision-making in patient SG, who developed a dense retrograde amnesia following hypoxia due to a cardiac arrest. Despite intact general cognitive and executive functioning, SG was unable to remember events from his entire lifetime. He had, however, relatively spared anterograde memory and general semantic knowledge. Voxel-based morphometry detected a reduction of gray matter in the thalamus, cerebellum and fusiform gyrus bilaterally, and, at a reduced threshold, in several regions of the autobiographical memory network, including the hippocampi...
August 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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