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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#1
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131849/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-care-shows-a-clear-benefit-when-transmission-risk-is-considered-in-the-calculations-a-message-for-central-and-eastern-europe
#2
Justyna D Kowalska, Grzegorz Wójcik, Jakub Rutkowski, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Ewa Siewaszewicz
BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic remains a major global health issue. Data from cost-effectiveness analyses base on CD4+ count and morbidity in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection. The approach adopted in these analyses includes many other factors, previously not investigated. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of sexual HIV transmission due to delayed cART on the cost-effectiveness of care. METHODS: A lifetime Markov model (1-month cycle) was developed to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALY) for a 1- and 3-year delay in starting cART (as compared to starting immediately at linkage to care) lifetime costs, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128305/methamphetamine-induced-impulsivity-during-chronic-methamphetamine-treatment-in-rats-effects-of-the-taar-1-agonist-ro5263397
#3
Zhaoxia Xue, Justin N Siemian, Bernard N Johnson, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
Impulsivity is an important personality trait associated with several clinical syndromes including drug abuse. While repeated drug exposure is known to increase certain behavioral responses, such as locomotion, to subsequent drug exposure, few studies have examined whether such sensitization develops for impulsive behavior. In the current study we tested the effects of methamphetamine acutely, during the course of, and upon discontinuation of chronic methamphetamine treatment on impulsive behavior in two models, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and the delay-discounting task which measure impulsive action and impulsive choice, respectively...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127026/resource-forecasting-differential-effects-of-glucose-taste-and-ingestion-on-delay-discounting-and-self-control
#4
X T Wang, Ryan N Reed, Lee A Baugh, Kelene A Fercho
We tested a novel hypothesis that glucose taste acts as a signal for resource acquisition, motivating preference for immediate rewards while actual glucose ingestion prompts resource conservation, promoting future-orientated self-regulation. In Study 1, participants were engaged in a delay-discounting task and a grip-control task before and after a beverage intervention (glucose drink, water drink, or glucose mouth-rinse). Glucose ingestion decreased delay discounting, making larger-and-later rewards more attractive...
November 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120916/impulsivity-in-personality-disorders-current-views-and-future-directions
#5
Catherine McHugh, Sivasankaran Balaratnasingam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impulsivity is considered a trans-diagnostic feature of many mental disorders, yet our understanding of the concept and approaches to measurement have evolved significantly with advances in neuroimaging. This review will provide an overview of impulsivity as it is currently understood, its association with personality disorder and implications for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Impulsivity is now considered to involve failure of inhibitory control, either motor or cognitive, and deficits of the reward valuation system...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120861/preventing-relapse-to-smoking-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-feasibility-and-potential-efficacy
#6
Christine E Sheffer, Warren K Bickel, Thomas H Brandon, Christopher T Franck, Darwin Deen, Luana Panissidi, Syed Amir Abdali, Jami C Pittman, Sara E Lunden, Neelam Prashad, Ria Malhotra, Antonio Mantovani
Many smokers attempt to quit every year, but 90% relapse within 12 months. Converging evidence suggests relapse is associated with insufficient activation of the prefrontal cortex. Delay discounting rate reflects relative activity in brain regions associated with relapse. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) increases cortical excitability and reduces delay discounting rates, but little is known about feasibility, tolerability, and potential efficacy for smoking cessation...
November 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114992/working-memory-predicts-methamphetamine-hair-concentration-over-the-course-of-treatment-moderating-effect-of-impulsivity-and-implications-for-dual-systems-model
#7
Adam J Rubenis, Rebecca E Fitzpatrick, Dan I Lubman, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
High impulsivity and poor executive function are characteristic of methamphetamine use disorder. High arousal in the impulsive system has been proposed to compromise the executive system's regulating ability (i.e. the dual-systems model). While interaction between these variables may partly explain poor treatment outcomes associated with methamphetamine use disorder, previous research has tended to examine each factor separately. We investigated whether high impulsivity (measured with an impulsive choice task) and poor executive function (measured with a working memory task) predict methamphetamine use (determined by hair sample) in the 6 weeks following treatment commencement...
November 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107202/defining-the-phenotype-of-young-adults-with-family-histories-of-alcohol-and-other-substance-use-disorders-studies-from-the-family-health-patterns-project
#8
Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Andrew J Cohoon, William R Lovallo
Individuals with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased risk for developing substance use disorders themselves relative to those with no such histories (FH-). Here we sought to identify key characteristics associated with FH+ status and alcohol and other drug use disorder status in a large cohort of FH+ and FH- young adults. We conducted principal component analyses on demographic, temperament, and cognitive measures differentiating 506 FH+ and 528 FH- young adults. Three principal components were identified, and these component scores were then used to predict the odds of being FH+ and the odds of having an alcohol or other drug use disorder...
October 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104320/earning-spending-and-drug-use-in-a-therapeutic-workplace
#9
Shrinidhi Subramaniam, Anthony DeFulio, Brantley P Jarvis, August F Holtyn, Kenneth Silverman
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing health problem that is associated with the degree to which individuals choose small, immediate monetary outcomes over larger, delayed outcomes. This study was a secondary analysis exploring the relation between financial choices and drug use in opioid-dependent adults in a therapeutic workplace intervention. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which access to paid job training was contingent upon naltrexone adherence (N = 35) or independent of naltrexone adherence (N = 32)...
June 2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078303/search-predicts-and-changes-patience-in-intertemporal-choice
#10
Crystal Reeck, Daniel Wall, Eric J Johnson
Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people's patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071040/cost-effectiveness-of-timely-versus-delayed-primary-total-hip-replacement-in-germany-a-social-health-insurance-perspective
#11
Ruben E Mujica-Mota, Leala K Watson, Rosanna Tarricone, Marcus Jäger
Without clinical guideline on the optimal timing for primary total hip replacement (THR), patients often receive the operation with delay. Delaying THR may negatively affect long-term health-related quality of life, but its economic effects are unclear. We evaluated the costs and health benefits of timely primary THR for functionally independent adult patients with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) compared to non-surgical therapy followed by THR after progression to functional dependence (delayed THR), and non-surgical therapy alone (Medical Therapy), from a German Social Health Insurance (SHI) perspective...
September 30, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067887/effects-of-a-cafeteria-diet-on-delay-discounting-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats-alterations-on-dopaminergic-sensitivity
#12
Stephen H Robertson, Erin B Rasmussen
Diet-induced obesity is a laboratory procedure in which nonhuman animals are chronically exposed to a high-fat, high-sugar diet (i.e. cafeteria diet), which results in weight gain, altered sensitivity to reward, and alterations in the dopamine D2 system. To date, few (if any) studies have examined age-related diet-induced obesity effects in a rat model or have used an impulsive choice task to characterize diet-induced behavioral alterations in reward processes. We exposed rats to a cafeteria-style diet for eight weeks starting at age 21 or 70 days...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057603/delay-discounting-of-reward-and-impulsivity-in-eating-disorders-from-anorexia-nervosa-to-binge-eating-disorder
#13
Trevor Steward, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Zaida Agüera, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Evidence points to eating disorder patients displaying altered rates of delay discounting (one's degree of preference for immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards). Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are believed to have an increased capacity to delay reward, which reflects their ability to override the drive to eat. Contrarily, binge eating disorder (BED) patients are associated with a reduced predisposition to delay gratification. Here, we investigated monetary delay discounting and impulsivity in 80 adult women with EDs (56 AN and 24 BED), diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, and 80 healthy controls...
November 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056767/cross-commodity-delay-discounting-of-alcohol-and-money-in-alcohol-users
#14
Lara N Moody, Allison N Tegge, Warren K Bickel
Despite real-world implications, the pattern of delay discounting in alcohol users when the commodities now and later differ has not been well characterized. In this study, 60 participants on Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess severity of use and completed four delay discounting tasks between hypothetical, equivalent amounts of alcohol and money available at five delays. The tasks included two cross-commodity (alcohol now-money later and money now-alcohol later) and two same-commodity (money now-money later and alcohol now-alcohol later) conditions...
June 2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#15
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
October 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031755/allocating-provider-resources-to-diagnose-and-treat-restless-legs-syndrome-a-cost-utility-analysis
#16
William V Padula, Charles E Phelps, Dane Moran, Christopher Earley
OBJECTIVES: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder that is frequently misdiagnosed, resulting in delays in proper treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of training primary care providers (PCP) in early and accurate diagnosis of RLS. METHODS: We used a Markov model to compare two strategies: one where PCPs received training to diagnose RLS (informed care) and one where PCPs did not receive training (standard care)...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028956/age-differences-in-the-neural-mechanisms-of-intertemporal-choice-under-subjective-decision-conflict
#17
Ben Eppinger, Hauke R Heekeren, Shu-Chen Li
Older decision-makers may capitalize on their greater experiences in financial decisions and by this offset decline in cognitive abilities. However, this pattern of results should reverse in situations that place high demands on cognitive control functions. In this study, we investigated how decision conflict affects the neural mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making in younger and older adults. To individually adjust the level of decision conflict we determined the indifference point (IDP) in intertemporal decision-making for each participant...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021315/individual-ant-workers-show-self-control
#18
Stephanie Wendt, Tomer J Czaczkes
Often, the first option is not the best. Self-control can allow humans and animals to improve resource intake under such conditions. Self-control in animals is often investigated using intertemporal choice tasks-choosing a smaller reward immediately or a larger reward after a delay. However, intertemporal choice tasks may underestimate self-control, as test subjects may not fully understand the task. Vertebrates show much greater apparent self-control in more natural foraging contexts and spatial discounting tasks than in intertemporal choice tasks...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992268/propranolol-reduces-reference-dependence-in-intertemporal-choice
#19
Karolina M Lempert, Sandra F Lackovic, Russell H Tobe, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988149/neural-dysfunction-during-temporal-discounting-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Clodagh Murphy, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Both Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are associated with choice impulsivity, i.e. the tendency to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. However, the extent to which this impulsivity is mediated by shared or distinct underlying neural mechanisms is unclear. Twenty-six boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 matched controls (aged 12-18) completed an fMRI version of an individually adjusted temporal discounting (TD) task which requires choosing between a variable amount of money now or £100 in one week, one month or one year...
November 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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