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Delay discounting

Warren K Bickel, Lara N Moody, Mikhail Koffarnus, J Graham Thomas, Rena Wing
Long-term weight loss maintenance is likely to require strong self-control in order to sustain changes in behavior patterns. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that those who have successfully maintained weight loss may have superior self-control compared to control participants. Self-control was assessed using a delay discounting task through a webbased assessment of members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR: N = 757; non-obese = 605; obese = 152) and control participants (Control N = 443; nonobese = 236; obese = 207) from Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Wan-Sen Yan, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yan Lan, Zhi-Ming Li, Yong-Hui Li
Binge Eating Disorder (BED), considered a public health problem because of its impact on psychiatric, physical, and social functioning, merits much attention given its elevation to an independent diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Similar with substance use disorders, some neuropsychological and personality constructs are potentially implicated in the onset and development of BED, in which poor decision-making has been suggested to facilitate overeating and BED...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, H Crudgington, A C Davies, J B Stroud, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Samuel F Acuff, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Kristoffer S Berlin, James G Murphy
Heavy drinking among college students is a significant public health concern that can lead to profound social and health consequences, including alcohol use disorder. Behavioral economics posits that low future orientation and high valuation of alcohol (alcohol demand) combined with deficits in alternative reinforcement increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse (Bickel et al., 2011). Despite this, no study has examined the incremental utility of all three variables simultaneously in a comprehensive model METHOD: The current study uses structural equation modeling to test the associations between behavioral economic variables - alcohol demand (latent), future orientation (measured with a delay discounting task and the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) scale), and proportionate substance-related reinforcement - and alcohol consumption and problems among 393 heavy drinking college students...
May 14, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Anita Pandit, Ellen M Schmidt, Johanna R Foerster, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
In the version of this article initially published, the consortium authorship was not presented correctly. The 23andMe Research Team was listed as the last author, rather than the fourth, and a line directing readers to the Supplementary Note for a list of members did appear but was not directly associated with the consortium name. Also, the Supplementary Note description stated that both member names and affiliations were included; in fact, only names are given. Finally, the URL for S-PrediXcan was given in the Methods as https://github...
May 11, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Jillian M Rung, Thomas M Argyle, Jodi L Siri, Gregory J Madden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Lee Hogarth, Lorna Hardy
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is characterised by persistent drinking despite health, social and economic costs. Behavioural economics has proposed two explanations for the persistence of alcohol use despite costs. Dependent individuals may (a) ascribe excessively high value to alcohol, such that costs associated with alcohol are exceeded, and/or (b) they may discount (neglect) the costs associated with alcohol. METHODS: To test these predictions, the current study recruited 127 student drinkers who reported varied alcohol use disorder symptom severity in the Alcohol Use Disorders Inventory Test (AUDIT; mean = 11...
May 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Sina Kohl, Ricci Hannah, Lorenzo Rocchi, Camilla L Nord, John Rothwell, Valerie Voon
BACKGROUND: The ability to stop a suboptimal response is integral to decision making and is commonly impaired across psychiatric disorders. Cortical paired associative stimulation (cPAS) is a form of transcranial magnetic stimulation in which paired pulses can induce plasticity at cortical synapses. Here we used cPAS protocols to target cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks by using different intervals between the paired pulses in an attempt to modify response inhibition. METHODS: A total of 25 healthy volunteers underwent four cPAS sessions in random order 1 week apart: right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) stimulation preceding right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) stimulation by 10 or 4 ms and pre-SMA stimulation preceding IFC stimulation by 10 or 4 ms...
April 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Stephanie M Manasse, Rebecca J Crochiere, Diane H Dallal, Edward W Lieber, Leah M Schumacher, Ross D Crosby, Meghan L Butryn, Evan M Forman
Suboptimal outcomes from behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatments are partially attributable to accumulated instances of non-adherence to dietary prescriptions (i.e., dietary lapses). Results identifying negative internal triggers for dietary lapses are inconsistent, potentially due to individual differences that impact how individuals respond to cues. Impulsivity is one factor that likely influences reactivity to internal states. We examined three dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, inhibitory control, and negative urgency) as moderators of the relation between affective and physical states and subsequent dietary lapses at the beginning of BWL...
April 28, 2018: Appetite
Mejda Wahab, Leigh V Panlilio, Marcello Solinas
RATIONALE: Delay-discounting procedures involving choice between small immediate rewards and large delayed rewards are used to study impulsivity in rodents. Improving existing procedures may provide new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying decision-making processes. OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel delay-discounting procedure that adjusts the delay value within individual sessions based on the rat's most recent choices. METHODS: Compared to previously developed procedure, we required a more consistent demonstration of preference, five consecutive choices of the large or small reward, a criterion that is more likely to reflect deliberate choice by the animal, as opposed to two consecutive choices...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Addiction-like symptoms in relation to excessive and compulsive social media use are common in the general population. Because they can lead to various adverse effects, there is a growing need to understand the brain systems and processes that are involved in potential social media addiction. We focus on the morphology of the posterior subdivision of the insular cortex (i.e., the insula), because it has been shown to be instrumental to supporting the maintenance of substance addictions and problematic behaviors...
April 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Colin T Mahoney, Steven R Lawyer
Impulsivity is an important construct for understanding sexual behaviors, but behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity often are not correlated. One possible explanation for this is that there is little shared variance in the measures because behavioral measures index impulsivity by asking questions about monetary preferences, while self-report measures index impulsivity by asking about a broad range of real-world outcomes (including those of a sexual nature) largely unrelated to money-related preferences...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Tian Li, Yuxin Tan, Xianmin Gong, Shufei Yin, Fangshu Qiu, Xue Hu
Future time perspective (FTP) modulates individuals' temporal orientation in selecting their motivations and goals, which widely influences their cognitions and behaviors. However, it remains unclear how FTP exactly affects intertemporal choice. To clarify the effect of FTP on intertemporal choice, 90 college students ( M age = 21.70, SD = 1.23) were randomly assigned to the limited FTP condition (16 males, 29 females) and the open-ended FTP condition (17 males, 28 females). In the limited FTP condition, participants were instructed to imagine their states of being 70 years old, whereas in the open-ended FTP condition, they were instructed to describe their current states...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Guy A Higgins, Leo B Silenieks, Cam MacMillan, Fiona D Zeeb, Sandy Thevarkunnel
Previous studies demonstrated that NMDA receptor antagonists such as dizocilpine (MK801) and the GluN2B NMDA antagonist Ro 63-1908 promote impulsive action (motor impulsivity). The effects of these treatments on impulsive choice and decision-making is less well characterized. Two experiments were undertaken. In the first experiment, given evidence for delay order as a factor in choice selection, the effect of dizocilpine was examined in a delay discounting task with separate groups of male Long-Evans rats trained to a schedule of either ascending (i...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ayako Todokoro, Saori C Tanaka, Yuki Kawakubo, Noriaki Yahata, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Yukika Nishimura, Yukiko Kano, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting, i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward, is altered in adults with ADHD...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Carmelo M Vicario, Kim Felmingham
Research has revealed reduced temporal discounting (i.e., increased capacity to delay reward) and altered interoceptive awareness in anorexia nervosa (AN). In line with the research linking temporal underestimation with a reduced tendency to devalue a reward and reduced interoceptive awareness, we tested the hypothesis that time duration might be underestimated in AN. Our findings revealed that patients with AN displayed lower timing accuracy in the form of timing underestimation compared with controls. These results were not predicted by clinical, demographic factors, attention, and working memory performance of the participants...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Gustavo Gonzalez-Cuevas, Remi Martin-Fardon, Tony M Kerr, David G Stouffer, Loren H Parsons, Dana C Hammell, Stan L Banks, Audra L Stinchcomb, Friedbert Weiss
Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, has received attention for therapeutic potential in treating neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Recently, CBD has also been explored for potential in treating drug addiction. Substance use disorders are chronically relapsing conditions and relapse risk persists for multiple reasons including craving induced by drug contexts, susceptibility to stress, elevated anxiety, and impaired impulse control. Here, we evaluated the "anti-relapse" potential of a transdermal CBD preparation in animal models of drug seeking, anxiety and impulsivity...
March 22, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Casey K Gardiner, Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Arielle S Gillman, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Angela D Bryan
Background: Identifying cognitive and neural mechanisms of decision making in adolescence can enhance understanding of, and interventions to reduce, risky health behaviors in adolescence. Delay discounting, or the propensity to discount the magnitude of temporally distal rewards, has been associated with diverse health risk behaviors, including risky sex. This cognitive process involves recruitment of reward and cognitive control brain regions, which develop on different trajectories in adolescence and are also implicated in real-world risky decision making...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
C Renee Renda, Jillian M Rung, Jay E Hinnenkamp, Stephanie N Lenzini, Gregory J Madden
Impulsive choice describes preference for smaller, sooner rewards over larger, later rewards. Excessive delay discounting (i.e., rapid devaluation of delayed rewards) underlies some impulsive choices, and is observed in many maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, gambling). Interventions designed to reduce delay discounting may provide therapeutic gains. One such intervention provides rats with extended training with delayed reinforcers. When compared to a group given extended training with immediate reinforcers, delay-exposed rats make significantly fewer impulsive choices...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Gideon P Naudé, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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