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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643142/temporal-discounting-of-aversive-consequences-in-rats
#1
William Rodríguez, Arturo Bouzas, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has extensively evaluated the impact of delay on the value of positive reinforcers, but the study of its impact on the value of aversive consequences is scarce. The present study employed a modification of Evenden and Ryan's procedure (1996, Psychopharmacology, 128(2), 161-170) to obtain data on temporal discounting of an aversive consequence, with rats as experimental subjects. In the first phase of the procedure, rats chose between one-pellet and four-pellet alternatives; when subjects developed preference for the larger-amount alternative, a shock was added to it, resulting in a loss of preference...
June 22, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627925/will-delay-discounting-predict-intention-to-quit-smoking
#2
Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Intention to quit cigarette smoking is significantly associated with making quitting attempts and actual quitting. Delay discounting is significantly associated with smoking initiation and success in quitting. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking. In 2 separate observational, cross-sectional studies, the current investigation examines the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking within groups of smokers...
June 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621556/exposure-to-sexual-stimuli-induces-greater-discounting-leading-to-increased-involvement-in-cyber-delinquency-among-men
#3
Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences...
June 16, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#4
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606210/impulsivity-as-a-mechanism-linking-child-abuse-and-neglect-with-substance-use-in-adolescence-and-adulthood
#5
Assaf Oshri, Steve M Kogan, Josephine A Kwon, K A S Wickrama, Lauren Vanderbroek, Abraham A Palmer, James MacKillop
Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of youth (Study 1, N = 9,421) and (b) a cross-sectional sample of adults (Study 2, N = 1,011)...
June 13, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599145/telomere-length-in-alcohol-dependence-a-role-for-impulsive-choice-and-childhood-maltreatment
#6
Jee In Kang, Syung Shick Hwang, Jong Rak Choi, Seung-Tae Lee, Jieun Kim, In Sik Hwang, Hae Won Kim, Chan-Hyung Kim, Se Joo Kim
Telomere shortening, a marker of cellular aging, has been considered to be linked with psychosocial stress as well as with chronic alcohol consumption, possibly mediated by oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Recent findings suggested that early life adversity on telomere dynamics may be related to impulsive choice. To further our understanding of the association of impulsive choice and childhood trauma on telomere length, we examined whether delayed discounting and childhood trauma or their interaction is related to leukocyte telomere length, while controlling for multiple potential confounding variables, in patients with alcohol dependence who are considered to have higher impulsive choice and shorter telomere length...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593144/schwannoma-of-the-femur-a-rare-case-report
#7
Fahad Al-Lhedan
Schwannoma is a benign tumor derived from Schwann cells that cover myelinated nerve fibers (1). Among primary bone tumors, intraosseous schwannoma accounts for less than 0.2% (2). We are reporting a rare case of an 18-year-old female presented with swelling in the posterior right thigh. The patient was asymptomatic and this was incidentally discovered by her massage therapist. However, the swelling was gradually growing since then. The plain radiograph findings were suggestive of a benign bone tumor. MRI with gadolinium was performed for further evaluation but it demonstrated suspicious features as evidenced by the extra osseous enhancing soft tissue component...
September 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586347/what-makes-a-reach-movement-effortful-physical-effort-discounting-supports-common-minimization-principles-in-decision-making-and-motor-control
#8
Pierre Morel, Philipp Ulbrich, Alexander Gail
When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585114/distinct-roles-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-lateral-thalamus-in-a-rat-model-of-decisional-impulsivity
#9
Zhiyan Wang, Shengxiang Liang, Shuangshuang Yu, Tong Xie, Baicheng Wang, Junkai Wang, Yijing Li, Baoci Shan, Cailian Cui
The thalamus and central dopamine signaling have been shown to play important roles in high-level cognitive processes including impulsivity. However, little is known about the role of dopamine receptors in the thalamus in decisional impulsivity. In the present study, rats were tested using a delay discounting task and divided into three groups: high impulsivity (HI), medium impulsivity (MI), and low impulsivity (LI). Subsequent in vivo voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the HI rats displayed a markedly reduced density of gray matter in the lateral thalamus compared with the LI rats...
June 5, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584929/steep-effort-discounting-of-a-preferred-reward-over-a-freely-available-option-in-prolonged-methamphetamine-withdrawal-in-male-rats
#10
Andrew B Thompson, Julian Gerson, Alexandra Stolyarova, Amador Bugarin, Evan E Hart, J David Jentsch, Alicia Izquierdo
RATIONALE: Drug addiction can be described as aberrant allocation of effort toward acquiring drug, despite associated costs. It is unclear if this behavioral pattern results from an overvaluation of reward or to an altered sensitivity to costs. OBJECTIVE: Present experiments assessed reward sensitivity and effortful choice in rats following 1 week of withdrawal from methamphetamine (mAMPH). METHODS: Rats were treated with either saline or an escalating dose mAMPH regimen, then tested after a week without the drug...
June 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573681/projected-long-term-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-treated-with-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-versus-conventional-insulin-aspart-in-the-uk-setting
#11
D Russell-Jones, S Heller, S Buchs, A Sandberg, W J Valentine, B Hunt
AIMS: Many patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) fail to achieve optimal glycemic control and mealtime insulins that more closely match physiological insulin secretion can help improve treatment. In the onset 1 trial, fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) was shown to improve glycemic control in patients with T1DM compared with conventional insulin aspart (insulin aspart). In the UK, faster aspart and insulin aspart are associated with the same acquisition cost, and therefore the present analysis assessed the impact of faster aspart versus insulin aspart on long-term clinical outcomes and costs for patients with T1DM in the UK setting...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554851/executive-function-in-childhood-obesity-promising-intervention-strategies-to-optimize-treatment-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Jacqueline F Hayes, Dawn M Eichen, Deanna M Barch, Denise E Wilfley
Executive functions (EFs) are hypothesized to play a role in the development and maintenance of obesity due to their role in self-regulatory processes that manage energy-balance behaviors. Children with obesity have well-documented deficits in EF, which may impede effectiveness of current, evidence-based treatments. This review examines top-down EF processes (e.g., inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility), as well as bottom-up automatic processes that interact with EFs (e.g., attentional bias, delay discounting) and their relation to weight-loss treatment success in children...
May 26, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548880/modeling-choices-in-delay-discounting
#13
Dirk U Wulff, Wouter van den Bos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546648/differences-in-delay-but-not-probability-discounting-in-current-smokers-e-cigarette-users-and-never-smokers
#14
Wojciech Białaszek, Przemysław Marcowski, David J Cox
Steeper delay discounting in substance abuse populations, compared to non-abusing populations, has been well-established in prior studies. Despite the growing interest in e-cigarettes as a novel and relatively understudied form of nicotine consumption, relatively little is known as to how e-cigarette users discount rewards compared to traditional cigarette smokers and never smokers. In the present study, we measured delay and probability discounting rates, as well as perceived risk inherent to a delayed reward, in current traditional cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and never smokers...
2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542259/impact-of-construal-level-manipulations-on-delay-discounting
#15
Richard Yi, Allison Stuppy-Sullivan, Alison Pickover, Reid D Landes
Construal Level Theory states that psychologically proximal outcomes are construed concretely while psychologically distal outcomes are construed abstractly. Previous research suggests that the principles of Construal Level Theory can be applied to enhance self-control, as measured by delay discounting. The present studies replicate and expand on this work by examining whether theory-informed priming manipulations lead to delay discounting reductions in a repeated-measures design. Study 1 conceptually replicated previous work, with reduced delay discounting observed as a function of thinking abstractly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508382/think-fast-rapid-assessment-of-the-effects-of-episodic-future-thinking-on-delay-discounting-in-overweight-obese-participants
#16
Jeffrey S Stein, Yan Yan Sze, Liqa Athamneh, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
Accumulating laboratory-based evidence indicates that reducing delay discounting (devaluation of delayed outcomes) with the use of episodic future thinking (EFT; mental simulation of future events) improves dietary decision-making and other maladaptive behaviors. Recent work has adapted EFT for use in the natural environment to aid in dietary and weight control by engaging participants in EFT repeatedly throughout the day. These efforts may benefit from minimizing the amount of time required for measurement and implementation of EFT...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501421/-what-time-is-my-next-meal-delay-discounting-individuals-choose-smaller-portions-under-conditions-of-uncertainty
#17
Annie R Zimmerman, Danielle Ferriday, Sarah R Davies, Ashley A Martin, Peter J Rogers, Alice Mason, Jeffrey M Brunstrom
'Dietary' delay discounting is typically framed as a trade-off between immediate rewards and long-term health concerns. Our contention is that prospective thinking also occurs over shorter periods, and is engaged to select portion sizes based on the interval between meals (inter-meal interval; IMI). We sought to assess the extent to which the length of an IMI influences portion-size selection. We predicted that delay discounters would show 'IMI insensitivity' (relative lack of concern about hunger or fullness between meals)...
May 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500504/delay-discounting-and-parental-monitoring-in-adolescents-with-poorly-controlled-type-1-diabetes
#18
Amy Hughes Lansing, Catherine Stanger, Rebecca Crochiere, Ann Carracher, Alan Budney
In a sample of adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, this study examined if delay discounting, the extent to which individuals prefer immediate over delayed rewards, was associated with severity of non-adherence and poor glycemic control, and if parental monitoring of diabetes management moderated those associations. Sixty-one adolescents (M age = 15.08 years, SD 1.43) with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes completed a delayed discounting task and an HbA1c blood test. Adherence was assessed via self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data from adolescents' glucometers...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500481/pathways-linking-adverse-childhood-experiences-to-cigarette-smoking-among-young-black-men-a-prospective-analysis-of-the-role-of-sleep-problems-and-delayed-reward-discounting
#19
Assaf Oshri, Steven Kogan, Sihong Liu, Lawrence Sweet, James Mackillop
BACKGROUND: African American men experience increases in smoking during the young adult transition. Exposure to childhood adversity, a risk factor which disproportionately affects African American men, has been identified as a robust precursor to health risk behavior in general and cigarette smoking in particular. The intermediate mechanisms that transmit the influence of early adversity to smoking behavior are not well understood. PURPOSE: We tested a model of the escalation of smoking behaviors among young adult African American men, investigating sleep disturbance and delayed reward discounting as intermediate factors linking adverse childhood experiences with smoking...
May 12, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499887/what-is-the-impact-on-the-healthcare-system-if-access-to-bariatric-surgery-is-delayed
#20
Ricardo V Cohen, Alexandre Luque, Silvio Junqueira, Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro, Carel W Le Roux
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been available as part of the Brazilian Public Health System for patients with body mass index>40 kg/m(2) (or>35 kg/m(2) with co-morbidities) since 1999. However, access to surgery is challenging, with eligible patients waiting up to 7 years before surgery. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare costs and effectiveness of different waiting times before surgery versus prompt surgery. SETTINGS: Public practice...
March 31, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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