Read by QxMD icon Read

Delay discounting

Simone Kühn, Dimitrij Tycho Kugler, Katharina Schmalen, Markus Weichenberger, Charlotte Witt, Jürgen Gallinat
It is a widespread concern that violent video games promote aggression, reduce pro-social behaviour, increase impulsivity and interfere with cognition as well as mood in its players. Previous experimental studies have focussed on short-term effects of violent video gameplay on aggression, yet there are reasons to believe that these effects are mostly the result of priming. In contrast, the present study is the first to investigate the effects of long-term violent video gameplay using a large battery of tests spanning questionnaires, behavioural measures of aggression, sexist attitudes, empathy and interpersonal competencies, impulsivity-related constructs (such as sensation seeking, boredom proneness, risk taking, delay discounting), mental health (depressivity, anxiety) as well as executive control functions, before and after 2 months of gameplay...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Sarah E Snider, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Stephen M LaConte, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Episodic thinking, whether past or future, uses similar neural machinery, and individuals with alcohol dependence have clear challenges with both. Moreover, alcohol-dependent individuals' narrowed temporal window likely gives rise to greater valuation of immediate rewards. We aimed to strengthen working memory (WM) in alcohol-dependent individuals and measure performance on near-transfer (novel WM) and far-transfer delay discounting (DD) tasks, including episodic future thinking (EFT) performance...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
James F Boswell, Michael J Constantino, Jennifer M Oswald, Matteo Bugatti, Brien Goodwin, Recai Yucel
BACKGROUND: Research demonstrates significant variability in mental health clinicians' overall and domain-specific effectiveness with their patients. Despite calls to increase patient access to performance information, little is known about patients' relative valuing of this information in the context of other treatment factors. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to obtain an understanding of patients' relative valuing of provider performance track records and other therapist and treatment characteristics for their mental health care decision making...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
L R Rodriguez, K L Hendrickson, E B Rasmussen
Probability discounting (PD) measures risky choice patterns between smaller, more certain vs. larger, less certain outcomes. PD is associated with obesity as well as higher intake of foods high in fat and sugar. We developed and validated a brief PD task specifically for food-related choices-the Probabilistic Food Choice Questionnaire (PFCQ). We also validated a brief, existing PD monetary measure, the Probabilistic Monetary Choice Questionnaire (PMCQ) by comparing it to a titrating PD task. Participants (N = 110) were randomly assigned to either a food or money condition...
February 27, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Shawn P Gilroy, Donald A Hantula
A novel method for analyzing delay discounting data is proposed. This newer metric, a model-based Area Under Curve (AUC) combining approximate Bayesian model selection and numerical integration, was compared to the point-based AUC methods developed by Myerson, Green, and Warusawitharana (2001) and extended by Borges, Kuang, Milhorn, and Yi (2016). Using data from computer simulation and a published study, comparisons of these methods indicated that a model-based form of AUC offered a more consistent and statistically robust measurement of area than provided by using point-based methods alone...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jeroen Van Dessel, Sarah Morsink, Saskia Van der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Matthijs Moerkerke, Margaux Grandelis, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Marina Danckaerts
Impulsivity is a core feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been conceptualized in a number of different ways. In the current article, we examine how the new concept of "waiting impulsivity", which refers to premature responding before a scheduled target appears, adds to our understanding of impulsivity in ADHD. Sixty children (8-12 years old; 30 ADHD; 30 typically developing controls) completed the 4-choice serial reaction time task, a measure of waiting impulsivity, alongside tasks measuring inhibitory control and temporal discounting and questionnaires measuring behavioral disorder symptoms, delay aversion, and various aspects of impulsivity...
February 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn, Marion Rivalan, Aurélie Fitoussi, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
Several impulse control disorders such as ADHD, mania, personality disorders or substance abuse share common behavioural traits, like impulsiveness, risk-taking or inflexible behaviour. These disorders are treated with drugs targeting dopamine (DA) and/or serotonin (5-HT). However, the patient's monoamine imbalance that these neurotransmitters compensate is unclear. This study aims to investigate the patterns of DA and 5-HT metabolisms at rest within selected brain regions related to inter-individual variability in six main components of impulsivity/compulsivity (anticipatory hyperactivity, premature responses, delay discounting, risk-taking, perseveration, flexibility)...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Kouhei Nishitomi, Koji Yano, Mika Kobayashi, Kohei Jino, Takuya Kano, Naotaka Horiguchi, Shunji Shinohara, Minoru Hasegawa
Impulsive choice behavior, which can be assessed using the delay discounting task, is a characteristic of various psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Guanfacine is a selective α2A -adrenergic receptor agonist that is clinically effective in treating ADHD. However, there is no clear evidence that systemic guanfacine administration reduces impulsive choice behavior in the delay discounting task in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of systemic guanfacine administration on food-motivated impulsive choice behavior in rats and the neuronal mechanism underlying this effect...
February 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Michael E Young
Multilevel modeling provides the ability to simultaneously evaluate the discounting of individuals and groups by examining choices between smaller sooner and larger later rewards. A multilevel logistic regression approach is advocated in which sensitivity to relative reward magnitude and relative delay are considered as separate contributors to choice. Examples of how to fit choice data using multilevel logistic models are provided to help researchers in the adoption of these methods.
February 23, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Carissa van den Berk-Clark, Joel Myerson, Leonard Green, Richard A Grucza
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traumatic events is surprisingly common, yet little is known about its effect on decision making beyond the fact that those with post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to have substance-abuse problems. We examined the effects of exposure to severe trauma on decision making in low-income, urban African Americans, a group especially likely to have had such traumatic experiences. METHOD: Participants completed three decision-making tasks that assessed the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards and payments and of probabilistic rewards...
February 21, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Rebecca G Fortgang, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
High rates of both problem and pathological gambling (PPG) and substance-use disorders (SUDs) have been reported in schizophrenia, and yet PPG frequently goes undetected in clinical practice and unexamined in research. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between PPG and SUDs in a large sample of patients across several factors related to both gambling and substance use, including poly-substance use. Additionally, delay discounting is a form of impulsivity known to positively associate with both PPG and SUDs and thought to underlie mechanisms of addiction in both contexts...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Sarah L Karalunas, Elizabeth Hawkey, Hanna Gustafsson, Meghan Miller, Marybeth Langhorst, Michaela Cordova, Damien Fair, Joel T Nigg
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are commonly comorbid, share genetic liability, and often exhibit overlapping cognitive impairments. Clarification of shared and distinct cognitive effects while considering comorbid symptoms across disorders has been lacking. In the current study, children ages 7-15 years assigned to three diagnostic groups:ADHD (n = 509), ASD (n = 97), and controls (n = 301) completed measures spanning the cognitive domains of attention/arousal, working memory, set-shifting, inhibition, and response variability...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Hugo E Reyes-Huerta, Cristiano Dos Santos, Kalina Martínez
Impulsivity has been related to different features of addictive behaviors. Growing data, generated in separated lines of research, suggest that different processes underlying impulsivity are associated to relapse in alcohol drinking. Considering the evidence, relapse can be understood as an impulsive choice or as an impulsive action. In the first case, the return to drinking behavior is a consequence of insensitive to delayed consequence, that is, to the discounting of delayed rewards. In the second case, relapse is a consequence of failures to inhibit prepotent responses...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Johanna Klement, Britta Kubera, Jonas Eggeling, Christin Rädel, Christin Wagner, Soyoung Q Park, Achim Peters
BACKGROUND: Delay discounting as a measure of impulsivity has been shown to be higher in obesity with an association of increased food intake. Moreover, obese humans showed a higher wanting for high-calorie food than lean men when blood glucose concentrations were low. First studies linking blood glucose levels to delay discounting yielded mixed results. We hypothesized that obese people - in comparison to lean men - have a relative lack of energy, especially when blood glucose levels are low, that results in higher levels of delay discounting, food intake and hormonal counterregulation...
January 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jeb Jones, Jodie L Guest, Patrick S Sullivan, Jessica M Sales, Samuel M Jenness, Michael R Kramer
Delay discounting is a measure of impulsivity that has been found to be associated with numerous health-related outcomes. To the extent that delay discounting is associated with sexual risk-taking, it might serve as a marker for HIV risk or as the basis for novel HIV prevention interventions. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between monetary and sexual delay discounting and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) in a cross-sectional sample of men who have sex with men. Based on previous findings, we examined whether these associations were age-dependent...
February 4, 2018: AIDS Care
Steve J Edwards, Victoria Wakefield, Peter Cain, Charlotta Karner, Kayleigh Kew, Mariana Bacelar, Natalie Masento, Fatima Salih
BACKGROUND: Several therapies have recently been approved for use in the NHS for pretreated advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (amRCC), but there is a lack of comparative evidence to guide decisions between them. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of axitinib (Inlyta®, Pfizer Inc., NY, USA), cabozantinib (Cabometyx®, Ipsen, Slough, UK), everolimus (Afinitor®, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), nivolumab (Opdivo®, Bristol-Myers Squibb, NY, USA), sunitinib (Sutent®, Pfizer, Inc...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Kathleen R Smith, Steven R Lawyer, Joshua K Swift
Delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD) are behavioral measures of choice that index sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic outcomes, which are associated with a range of negative health-related outcomes. Patterns of discounting tend to be predictable, where preferences for immediate (vs. delayed) and certain (vs. probabilistic) rewards change as a function of delay and probability. However, some participants yield nonsystematic response patterns (NSR) that cannot be accounted for by theories of choice and could have implications for the validity of discounting-related experiments...
February 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Decision-making about rewards, which requires us to choose between different time points, generally refers to intertemporal choice. Converging evidence suggests that some of the brain networks recruited in the delay discounting task have been well characterized for intertemporal choice. However, little is known about how the connectivity patterns of these large-scale brain networks are associated with delay discounting. Here, we use a resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) and a graph theoretical analysis to address this question...
January 27, 2018: Biological Psychology
Canan B Peisker, Thomas Schüller, Jan Peters, Ben J Wagner, Leonhard Schilbach, Ulf J Müller, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Jens Kuhn
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shows first promising results in patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD), a patient group known to have deficits in self-control. One facet of self-control is the ability to forego smaller sooner rewards in favor of larger later rewards (delay discounting, DD). The NAc has been suggested to integrate motivational information to guide behavior while the consequences of NAc-DBS on DD are unknown. To this end, nine patients with SUD performed a DD task with DBS on and after a 24 h DBS off period...
January 27, 2018: Brain Sciences
Xianchun Li, Di Yuan, Ying Fan, Chao Yan, Liangcai Gao
Intertemporal choice refers to the choice between receiving a small immediate reward or a large delayed one. Previous studies have indicated that time perception plays a critical role in the intertemporal choice, and it could be affected by the features of the target stimulus in the time reproduction task, such as speed of movement and state of motion. However, there is no evidence about whether backward or forward motion perception could alter the intertemporal choice. Thus, in our current study, 29 participants were asked to perform two tasks in a random order...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"