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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548880/modeling-choices-in-delay-discounting
#1
Dirk U Wulff, Wouter van den Bos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546648/differences-in-delay-but-not-probability-discounting-in-current-smokers-e-cigarette-users-and-never-smokers
#2
Wojciech Białaszek, Przemysław Marcowski, David J Cox
Steeper delay discounting in substance abuse populations, compared to non-abusing populations, has been well-established in prior studies. Despite the growing interest in e-cigarettes as a novel and relatively understudied form of nicotine consumption, relatively little is known as to how e-cigarette users discount rewards compared to traditional cigarette smokers and never smokers. In the present study, we measured delay and probability discounting rates, as well as perceived risk inherent to a delayed reward, in current traditional cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and never smokers...
2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542259/impact-of-construal-level-manipulations-on-delay-discounting
#3
Richard Yi, Allison Stuppy-Sullivan, Alison Pickover, Reid D Landes
Construal Level Theory states that psychologically proximal outcomes are construed concretely while psychologically distal outcomes are construed abstractly. Previous research suggests that the principles of Construal Level Theory can be applied to enhance self-control, as measured by delay discounting. The present studies replicate and expand on this work by examining whether theory-informed priming manipulations lead to delay discounting reductions in a repeated-measures design. Study 1 conceptually replicated previous work, with reduced delay discounting observed as a function of thinking abstractly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508382/think-fast-rapid-assessment-of-the-effects-of-episodic-future-thinking-on-delay-discounting-in-overweight-obese-participants
#4
Jeffrey S Stein, Yan Yan Sze, Liqa Athamneh, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
Accumulating laboratory-based evidence indicates that reducing delay discounting (devaluation of delayed outcomes) with the use of episodic future thinking (EFT; mental simulation of future events) improves dietary decision-making and other maladaptive behaviors. Recent work has adapted EFT for use in the natural environment to aid in dietary and weight control by engaging participants in EFT repeatedly throughout the day. These efforts may benefit from minimizing the amount of time required for measurement and implementation of EFT...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501421/-what-time-is-my-next-meal-delay-discounting-individuals-choose-smaller-portions-under-conditions-of-uncertainty
#5
Annie R Zimmerman, Danielle Ferriday, Sarah R Davies, Ashley A Martin, Peter J Rogers, Alice Mason, Jeffrey M Brunstrom
'Dietary' delay discounting is typically framed as a trade-off between immediate rewards and long-term health concerns. Our contention is that prospective thinking also occurs over shorter periods, and is engaged to select portion sizes based on the interval between meals (inter-meal interval; IMI). We sought to assess the extent to which the length of an IMI influences portion-size selection. We predicted that delay discounters would show 'IMI insensitivity' (relative lack of concern about hunger or fullness between meals)...
May 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500504/delay-discounting-and-parental-monitoring-in-adolescents-with-poorly-controlled-type-1-diabetes
#6
Amy Hughes Lansing, Catherine Stanger, Rebecca Crochiere, Ann Carracher, Alan Budney
In a sample of adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, this study examined if delay discounting, the extent to which individuals prefer immediate over delayed rewards, was associated with severity of non-adherence and poor glycemic control, and if parental monitoring of diabetes management moderated those associations. Sixty-one adolescents (M age = 15.08 years, SD 1.43) with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes completed a delayed discounting task and an HbA1c blood test. Adherence was assessed via self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data from adolescents' glucometers...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500481/pathways-linking-adverse-childhood-experiences-to-cigarette-smoking-among-young-black-men-a-prospective-analysis-of-the-role-of-sleep-problems-and-delayed-reward-discounting
#7
Assaf Oshri, Steven Kogan, Sihong Liu, Lawrence Sweet, James Mackillop
BACKGROUND: African American men experience increases in smoking during the young adult transition. Exposure to childhood adversity, a risk factor which disproportionately affects African American men, has been identified as a robust precursor to health risk behavior in general and cigarette smoking in particular. The intermediate mechanisms that transmit the influence of early adversity to smoking behavior are not well understood. PURPOSE: We tested a model of the escalation of smoking behaviors among young adult African American men, investigating sleep disturbance and delayed reward discounting as intermediate factors linking adverse childhood experiences with smoking...
May 12, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499887/what-is-the-impact-on-the-healthcare-system-if-access-to-bariatric-surgery-is-delayed
#8
Ricardo V Cohen, Alexandre Luque, Silvio Junqueira, Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro, Carel W Le Roux
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been available as part of the Brazilian Public Health System for patients with body mass index>40 kg/m(2) (or>35 kg/m(2) with co-morbidities) since 1999. However, access to surgery is challenging, with eligible patients waiting up to 7 years before surgery. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare costs and effectiveness of different waiting times before surgery versus prompt surgery. SETTINGS: Public practice...
March 31, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498515/brain-structure-linking-delay-discounting-and-academic-performance
#9
Song Wang, Feng Kong, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Qiyong Gong
As a component of self-discipline, delay discounting refers to the ability to wait longer for preferred rewards and plays a pivotal role in shaping students' academic performance. However, the neural basis of the association between delay discounting and academic performance remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the neuroanatomical substrates underlying delay discounting and academic performance in 214 adolescents via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by performing structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI)...
May 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494412/long-term-reliability-and-stability-of-behavioral-measures-among-adolescents-the-delay-discounting-and-stroop-tasks
#10
Víctor Martínez-Loredo, José Ramón Fernández-Hermida, José Luis Carballo, Sergio Fernández-Artamendi
Delay Discounting (DD) and the Stroop test are two fundamental tasks for the assessment of impulsivity and inhibitory control, core features of several behavioral disorders. Although the study of reliability and temporal stability is important, only studies with adults and small samples have been carried out. The aim of this study is to assess the one-year reliability and temporal stability of both tasks among adolescents. A total of 1375 adolescents (M = 13.08 years old, SD = 0.51) made up the final sample (53...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487067/selective-and-interactive-effects-of-d2-receptor-antagonism-and-positive-allosteric-mglur4-modulation-on-waiting-impulsivity
#11
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Janet R Nicholson, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
BACKGROUND: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and dopamine D2 receptors are specifically expressed within the indirect pathway neurons of the striato-pallidal-subthalamic pathway. This unique expression profile suggests that mGluR4 and D2 receptors may play a cooperative role in the regulation and inhibitory control of behaviour. We investigated this possibility by testing the effects of a functionally-characterised positive allosteric mGluR4 modulator, 4-((E)-styryl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamine (Cpd11), both alone and in combination with the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, on two distinct forms of impulsivity...
May 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486708/withdrawal-related-changes-in-delay-discounting-predict-short-term-smoking-abstinence
#12
Rickie Miglin, Joseph W Kable, Maureen E Bowers, Rebecca L Ashare
Introduction: Impulsive decision making is associated with smoking behavior and reflects preferences for smaller, immediate rewards and intolerance of temporal delays. Nicotine withdrawal may alter impulsive decision making and time perception. However, little is known about whether withdrawal-related changes in decision making and time perception predict smoking relapse. Methods: Forty-five smokers (14 female) completed two laboratory sessions, one following 24-hour abstinence and one smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced; biochemically verified abstinence)...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486707/does-tobacco-abstinence-decrease-reward-sensitivity-a-human-laboratory-test
#13
John R Hughes, Alan J Budney, Sharon R Muellers, Dustin C Lee, Peter W Callas, Stacey C Sigmon, James R Fingar, Jeff Priest
Introduction: Animal studies report abstinence from nicotine makes rewards less rewarding; however, the results of human tests of the effects of cessation on reward sensitivity are mixed. The current study tested reward sensitivity in abstinent smokers using more rigorous methods than most prior studies. Methods: A human laboratory study compared outcomes for 1 week prior to quitting to those during 4 weeks postquit. The study used smokers trying to quit, objective and subjective measures, multiple measures during smoking and abstinence, and monetary rewards to increase the prevalence of abstinence...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485671/biased-and-less-sensitive-a-gamified-approach-to-delay-discounting-in-heroin-addiction
#14
Stefan Scherbaum, Paul Haber, Kirsten Morley, Dylan Underhill, Ahmed A Moustafa
INTRODUCTION: People with addiction will continue to use drugs despite adverse long-term consequences. We hypothesized (a) that this deficit persists during substitution treatment, and (b) that this deficit might be related not only to a desire for immediate gratification, but also to a lower sensitivity for optimal decision making. We investigated how individuals with a history of heroin addiction perform (compared to healthy controls) in a virtual reality delay discounting task. This novel task adds to established measures of delay discounting an assessment of the optimality of decisions, especially in how far decisions are influenced by a general choice bias and/or a reduced sensitivity to the relative value of the two alternative rewards...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481903/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-delay-discounting-and-risky-financial-behaviors-a-preliminary-analysis-of-self-report-data
#15
Theodore P Beauchaine, Itzhak Ben-David, Aner Sela
Delay discounting-often referred to as hyperbolic discounting in the financial literature-is defined by a consistent preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards, and by failure of future consequences to curtail current consummatory behaviors. Previous research demonstrates (1) excessive delay discounting among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (2) common neural substrates of delay discounting and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD, and (3) associations between delay discounting and both debt burden and high interest rate borrowing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467023/the-discounting-model-selector-statistical-software-for-delay-discounting-applications
#16
Shawn P Gilroy, Christopher T Franck, Donald A Hantula
Original, open-source computer software was developed and validated against established delay discounting methods in the literature. The software executed approximate Bayesian model selection methods from user-supplied temporal discounting data and computed the effective delay 50 (ED50) from the best performing model. Software was custom-designed to enable behavior analysts to conveniently apply recent statistical methods to temporal discounting data with the aid of a graphical user interface (GUI). The results of independent validation of the approximate Bayesian model selection methods indicated that the program provided results identical to that of the original source paper and its methods...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465167/the-neural-basis-of-delay-discounting-a-review-and-preliminary-model
#17
REVIEW
Ralph Frost, Neil McNaughton
The phenomenology of delay discounting (e.g. shape of the discount function; relation to mental health) has been reviewed in detail previously, but not its neural substrates. Its neuropsychology is crucial for both theory and clinical practice. So, here, we review the neural underpinnings of delay discounting. We introduce its objective summary measures; provide an atheoretical summary of current findings - linking brain regions to each objectively measurable variable; and then provide a preliminary five-stage summary model of cognitive processing; followed by a mapping of parameters to the flow of information through neural systems...
April 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459263/-cumulative-weighing-of-time-in-intertemporal-tradeoffs-correction-to-scholten-read-and-sanborn-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cumulative weighing of time in intertemporal tradeoffs" by Marc Scholten, Daniel Read and Adam Sanborn (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Sep], Vol 145[9], 1177-1205). In the article, there was an error in Table 1. The preference for faster accumulation read {1,000, 0, 1,000} > {0, 500, 0}. It should read {0, 1,000, 0} > {500, 0, 500}. In addition, in the section Descriptive Accuracy, all the equations with the inequality ">" should read "≥" instead. The impact of this change is that, when considering the best model for each participant, as measured by Bayes Factors, the absolute goodness of fit, as measured by Bayesian p-values, were better than reported in both Table A2 and the text...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451642/impulsive-rats-exhibit-blunted-dopamine-release-dynamics-during-a-delay-discounting-task-independent-of-cocaine-history
#19
Travis M Moschak, Regina M Carelli
The inability to wait for a large, delayed reward when faced with a small, immediate one, known as delay discounting, has been implicated in a number of disorders including substance abuse. Individual differences in impulsivity on the delay discounting task are reflected in differences in neural function, including in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. We examined the role of a history of cocaine self-administration, as well as individual differences in impulsivity, on rapid dopamine (DA) release dynamics in the NAc core...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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