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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728645/elevated-behavioral-economic-demand-for-alcohol-in-a-community-sample-of-heavy-drinking-smokers
#1
Michael Amlung, James MacKillop, Peter M Monti, Robert Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smokers are more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels and experience poorer response to treatment for alcohol problems than are nonsmokers. One previous study in university students suggests that a potential reason for the high overlap between alcohol and tobacco use is that concurrent smoking is associated with overvaluation of alcohol, as reflected in elevated behavioral economic demand. The present study sought to extend these initial findings in a community sample with heavier levels of alcohol and tobacco use...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725282/addiction-and-the-brain-development-not-disease
#2
Marc Lewis
I review the brain disease model of addiction promoted by medical, scientific, and clinical authorities in the US and elsewhere. I then show that the disease model is flawed because brain changes in addiction are similar to those generally observed when recurrent, highly motivated goal seeking results in the development of deep habits, Pavlovian learning, and prefrontal disengagement. This analysis relies on concepts of self-organization, neuroplasticity, personality development, and delay discounting. It also highlights neural and behavioral parallels between substance addictions, behavioral addictions, normative compulsive behaviors, and falling in love...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714718/multiple-sclerosis-reduces-sensitivity-to-immediate-reward-during-decision-making
#3
Elisabetta Grippa, Manuela Sellitto, Cristina Scarpazza, Flavia Mattioli, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often face important health-related and financial decisions that involve trade-offs between short-term and long-term benefits, yet decision making is rarely studied in MS patients. The temporal discounting paradigm is a useful tool for investigating such time-dependent choices in humans. Here, we investigated whether patients with relapsing-remitting MS differed from healthy controls when making choices between hypothetical monetary rewards available at different points in time...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710870/self-changing-behaviour-in-smoking-cessation-linked-to-trait-and-cognitive-impulsivity
#4
Jaume Celma-Merola, Francesc Abella-Pons, Fernanda Mata, Gerard Pedra-Pagés, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To compare impulsivity, measured using self-report and cognitive tasks in people who ceased smoking without treatment (self-changers) with each of the following groups: (i) smoking non-treatment seekers, (ii) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent, and (iii) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: The smoking cessation unit of a public general hospital, Hospital de Santa Maria, in Lleida, Spain...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694338/no-effect-of-commercial-cognitive-training-on-neural-activity-during-decision-making
#5
Joseph W Kable, M Kathleen Caulfield, Mary Falcone, Mairead McConnell, Leah Bernardo, Trishala Parthasarathi, Nicole Cooper, Rebecca Ashare, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Robert Hornik, Paul Diefenbach, Frank J Lee, Caryn Lerman
Increased preference for immediate over delayed and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693555/delay-discounting-differences-in-brain-activation-connectivity-and-structure-in-individuals-with-addiction-a-systematic-review-protocol
#6
Max M Owens, Michael T Amlung, Steven R H Beach, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Delayed reward discounting (DRD), the degree to which future rewards are discounted relative to immediate rewards, is used as an index of impulsive decision-making and has been associated with a number of problematic health behaviors. Given the robust behavioral association between DRD and addictive behavior, there is an expanding literature investigating the differences in the functional and structural correlates of DRD in the brain between addicted and healthy individuals...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686562/-impulsivity-as-an-immediate-factor-between-addictive-disorders-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
H Lazaratou, A Palaiologou, D Anagnostopoulos
Impulsivity is a behavior in everyday life of mentally healthy individuals. But in some cases the degree of impulsivity begins to create negative effects on one's life and acquires pathological connotation. Two clinical entities in which can be observed a high degree of impulsivity is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Addictive disorders. In these disorders, both impulsive act and impulsive choice are observed. According to some researchers, genetic factors are involved in the control of impulsivity...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666892/pharmacotherapies-for-decreasing-maladaptive-choice-in-drug-addiction-targeting-the-behavior-and-the-drug
#8
REVIEW
Frank N Perkins, Kevin B Freeman
Drug addiction can be conceptualized as a disorder of maladaptive decision making in which drugs are chosen at the expense of pro-social, nondrug alternatives. The study of decision making in drug addiction has focused largely on the role of impulsivity as a facilitator of addiction, in particular the tendency for drug abusers to choose small, immediate gains over larger but delayed outcomes (i.e., delay discounting). A parallel line of work, also focused on decision making in drug addiction, has focused on identifying the determinants underlying the choice to take drugs over nondrug alternatives (i...
June 27, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645750/the-effect-of-future-time-perspective-on-delay-discounting-is-mediated-by-the-gray-matter-volume-of-vmpfc
#9
Yiqun Guo, Zhiyi Chen, Tingyong Feng
Although several previous studies have shown that individuals' attitude towards time could affect their intertemporal preference, little is known about the neural basis of the relation between time perspective (TP) and delay discounting. In the present study, we quantified the gray matter (GM) cortical volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods to investigate the effect of TP on delay discounting (DD) across two independent samples. For group 1 (102 healthy college students; 46 male; 20.40 ± 1.87 years), behavioral results showed that only Future TP was a significant predictor of DD, and higher scores on Future TP were related to lower discounting rates...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643142/temporal-discounting-of-aversive-consequences-in-rats
#10
William Rodríguez, Arturo Bouzas, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has extensively evaluated the impact of delay on the value of positive reinforcers, but the study of its impact on the value of aversive consequences is scarce. The present study employed a modification of Evenden and Ryan's procedure (1996, Psychopharmacology, 128(2), 161-170) to obtain data on temporal discounting of an aversive consequence, with rats as experimental subjects. In the first phase of the procedure, rats chose between one-pellet and four-pellet alternatives; when subjects developed preference for the larger-amount alternative, a shock was added to it, resulting in a loss of preference...
June 22, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627925/will-delay-discounting-predict-intention-to-quit-smoking
#11
Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Intention to quit cigarette smoking is significantly associated with making quitting attempts and actual quitting. Delay discounting is significantly associated with smoking initiation and success in quitting. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking. In 2 separate observational, cross-sectional studies, the current investigation examines the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking within groups of smokers...
June 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621556/exposure-to-sexual-stimuli-induces-greater-discounting-leading-to-increased-involvement-in-cyber-delinquency-among-men
#12
Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences...
June 16, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#13
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606210/impulsivity-as-a-mechanism-linking-child-abuse-and-neglect-with-substance-use-in-adolescence-and-adulthood
#14
Assaf Oshri, Steve M Kogan, Josephine A Kwon, K A S Wickrama, Lauren Vanderbroek, Abraham A Palmer, James MacKillop
Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of youth (Study 1, N = 9,421) and (b) a cross-sectional sample of adults (Study 2, N = 1,011)...
June 13, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599145/telomere-length-in-alcohol-dependence-a-role-for-impulsive-choice-and-childhood-maltreatment
#15
Jee In Kang, Syung Shick Hwang, Jong Rak Choi, Seung-Tae Lee, Jieun Kim, In Sik Hwang, Hae Won Kim, Chan-Hyung Kim, Se Joo Kim
Telomere shortening, a marker of cellular aging, has been considered to be linked with psychosocial stress as well as with chronic alcohol consumption, possibly mediated by oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Recent findings suggested that early life adversity on telomere dynamics may be related to impulsive choice. To further our understanding of the association of impulsive choice and childhood trauma on telomere length, we examined whether delayed discounting and childhood trauma or their interaction is related to leukocyte telomere length, while controlling for multiple potential confounding variables, in patients with alcohol dependence who are considered to have higher impulsive choice and shorter telomere length...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593144/schwannoma-of-the-femur-a-rare-case-report
#16
Fahad Al-Lhedan
Schwannoma is a benign tumor derived from Schwann cells that cover myelinated nerve fibers (1). Among primary bone tumors, intraosseous schwannoma accounts for less than 0.2% (2). We are reporting a rare case of an 18-year-old female presented with swelling in the posterior right thigh. The patient was asymptomatic and this was incidentally discovered by her massage therapist. However, the swelling was gradually growing since then. The plain radiograph findings were suggestive of a benign bone tumor. MRI with gadolinium was performed for further evaluation but it demonstrated suspicious features as evidenced by the extra osseous enhancing soft tissue component...
September 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586347/what-makes-a-reach-movement-effortful-physical-effort-discounting-supports-common-minimization-principles-in-decision-making-and-motor-control
#17
Pierre Morel, Philipp Ulbrich, Alexander Gail
When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585114/distinct-roles-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-lateral-thalamus-in-a-rat-model-of-decisional-impulsivity
#18
Zhiyan Wang, Shengxiang Liang, Shuangshuang Yu, Tong Xie, Baicheng Wang, Junkai Wang, Yijing Li, Baoci Shan, Cailian Cui
The thalamus and central dopamine signaling have been shown to play important roles in high-level cognitive processes including impulsivity. However, little is known about the role of dopamine receptors in the thalamus in decisional impulsivity. In the present study, rats were tested using a delay discounting task and divided into three groups: high impulsivity (HI), medium impulsivity (MI), and low impulsivity (LI). Subsequent in vivo voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the HI rats displayed a markedly reduced density of gray matter in the lateral thalamus compared with the LI rats...
August 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584929/steep-effort-discounting-of-a-preferred-reward-over-a-freely-available-option-in-prolonged-methamphetamine-withdrawal-in-male-rats
#19
Andrew B Thompson, Julian Gerson, Alexandra Stolyarova, Amador Bugarin, Evan E Hart, J David Jentsch, Alicia Izquierdo
RATIONALE: Drug addiction can be described as aberrant allocation of effort toward acquiring drug, despite associated costs. It is unclear if this behavioral pattern results from an overvaluation of reward or to an altered sensitivity to costs. OBJECTIVE: Present experiments assessed reward sensitivity and effortful choice in rats following 1 week of withdrawal from methamphetamine (mAMPH). METHODS: Rats were treated with either saline or an escalating dose mAMPH regimen, then tested after a week without the drug...
June 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573681/projected-long-term-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-treated-with-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-versus-conventional-insulin-aspart-in-the-uk-setting
#20
D Russell-Jones, S Heller, S Buchs, A Sandberg, W J Valentine, B Hunt
AIMS: Many patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) fail to achieve optimal glycemic control and mealtime insulins that more closely match physiological insulin secretion can help improve treatment. In the onset 1 trial, fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) was shown to improve glycemic control in patients with T1DM compared with conventional insulin aspart (insulin aspart). In the UK, faster aspart and insulin aspart are associated with the same acquisition cost, and therefore the present analysis assessed the impact of faster aspart versus insulin aspart on long-term clinical outcomes and costs for patients with T1DM in the UK setting...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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