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Delay discounting

Jillian Mullen, Charles W Mathias, Tara E Karns, Yuanyuan Liang, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, John D Roache, Richard J Lamb, Donald M Dougherty
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if behavioral impulsivity under multiple conditions (baseline, after alcohol consumption or after serotonin depletion) predicted naturalistic alcohol use or treatment outcomes from a moderation-based contingency management intervention. METHOD: The current data analysis pulls information from three phases of a large study: 1) Phase 1 examined baseline and the effects of alcohol use and serotonin depletion on three types of behavioral impulsivity: response initiation (IMT task), response inhibition (GoStop task), and delay discounting (SKIP task); 2) Phase 2 involved 28 days of naturalistic drinking; and 3) Phase 3 involved 3 months of contingency management...
September 2016: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
Bethany L Stangl, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Molly R Zametkin, Megan E Cooke, Martin H Plawecki, Sean O'Connor, Vijay A Ramchandani
BACKGROUND: Self-administration is a hallmark of all addictive drugs, including alcohol. Human laboratory models of alcohol self-administration have characterized alcohol-seeking behavior, and served as surrogate measures of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders. Intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) is a novel method that assess alcohol exposure driven primarily by the pharmacological response to alcohol, and may have utility in characterizing unique behavioral and personality correlates of alcohol-seeking and consumption...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jacob N S Jackson, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have investigated delay discounting, a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, and its relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with mixed findings. The current meta-analysis synthesizes the literature on the relationship between monetary delay discounting and ADHD in studies using case-control designs. Specifically, the objectives were: 1) to characterize the aggregated differences in monetary delay discounting between individuals with ADHD (cases) and controls in studies using categorical case-control designs; 2) to examine potential differences based on sample age (<18 vs...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Qinghua He, Mei Chen, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue, Tingyong Feng, Antoine Bechara
Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC) task. Three experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (N = 41) to study the left DLPFC, Experiment 2 (N = 49) to study the right DLPFC, and Experiment 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Experiment 1) to switch the experimental and control conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
David P Jarmolowicz, Derek D Reed, Amanda S Bruce, Delwyn Catley, Sharon Lynch, Kathy Goggin, Seung-Lark Lim, Lauren Strober, Morgan Glusman, Abigail N Norouzinia, Jared M Bruce
Much like delay discounting, probability discounting may be related to a host of pro-health behaviors. In a recent report, a Medical Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) was developed that leveraged this insights of probability discounting to both describe ways that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients weigh costs and benefits when making adherence choices, and predicted their self-reported treatment adherence. The current re-analysis of those data use a novel EP50 measure as a framework of a model that predicted the cost/benefit ratios necessary for the choices of typically non-adherent patients to become indistinguishable from those of typically adherent patients (and vice versa)...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Anahí Collado, Patrick S Johnson, Jennifer M Loya, Matthew W Johnson, Richard Yi
The study examined sexual delay discounting, or the devaluation of condom-protected sex in the face of delay, as a risk factor for sexually transmitted infection (STI) among college students. Participants (143 females, 117 males) completed the sexual delay discounting task (Johnson & Bruner, 2012) and questionnaires of risky sexual behavior, risk perception, and knowledge. Participants exhibited steeper sexual delay discounting (above and beyond general likelihood of having unprotected sex) when partners were viewed as more desirable or less likely to have a STI, with males demonstrating greater sexual delay discounting than females across most conditions...
October 3, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Teri M Furlong, Jhodie R Duncan, Laura H Corbit, Caroline D Rae, Benjamin D Rowlands, Anthony D Maher, Fatima A Nasrallah, Carol J Milligan, Steven Petrou, Andrew J Lawrence, Bernard W Balleine
Toluene is a commonly abused inhalant that is easily accessible to adolescents. Despite the increasing incidence of use, our understanding of its long-term impact remains limited. Here we used a range of techniques to examine the acute and chronic effects of toluene exposure on glutameteric and GABAergic function, and on indices of psychological function in adult rats after adolescent exposure. Metabolomics conducted on cortical tissue established that acute exposure to toluene produces alterations in cellular metabolism indicative of a glutamatergic and GABAergic profile...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yifan Wang, Lingdan Wu, Lingxiao Wang, Yifen Zhang, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Although Internet games have been proven to be addictive, only a few game players develop online gaming addiction. A large number of players play online games recreationally without being addicted to it. These individuals are defined as recreational Internet gaming users (RGU). So far, no research has investigated decision-making and impulse control in RGU. In the current study, we used delay discounting (DD) task and probabilistic discounting (PD) task to examine decision-making and impulse control in 20 healthy controls, 20 subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and 23 RGU during fMRI scanning...
September 30, 2016: Addiction Biology
Miriam C Klein-Flügge, Steven W Kennerley, Karl Friston, Sven Bestmann
UNLABELLED: Integrating costs and benefits is crucial for optimal decision-making. Although much is known about decisions that involve outcome-related costs (e.g., delay, risk), many of our choices are attached to actions and require an evaluation of the associated motor costs. Yet how the brain incorporates motor costs into choices remains largely unclear. We used human fMRI during choices involving monetary reward and physical effort to identify brain regions that serve as a choice comparator for effort-reward trade-offs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J E Varney, D Liew, T J Weiland, W J Inder, G A Jelinek
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a burdensome condition for individuals to live with and an increasingly costly condition for health services to treat. Cost-effective treatment strategies are required to delay the onset and slow the progression of diabetes related complications. The Diabetes Telephone Coaching Study (DTCS) demonstrated that telephone coaching is an intervention that may improve the risk factor status and diabetes management practices of people with T2DM. Measuring the cost effectiveness of this intervention is important to inform funding decisions that may facilitate the translation of this research into clinical practice...
September 27, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Steven R Boomhower, M Christopher Newland
The developing fetus is vulnerable to low-level exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, but the consequences of exposure during the adolescent period remain virtually unknown. The current experiments were designed to assess the effects of low-level MeHg exposure during adolescence on delay discounting, preference for small, immediate reinforcers over large, delayed ones, using a mouse model. Thirty-six male C57BL/6n mice were exposed to 0, 0.3, or 3.0ppm mercury (as MeHg) via drinking water from postnatal day 21 through 59, encompassing the murine adolescent period...
September 24, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Gaële Lebeau, Silla M Consoli, Raphael Le Bouc, Agnès Sola-Gazagnes, Agnès Hartemann, Dominique Simon, Gerard Reach, Jean-Jacques Altman, Mathias Pessiglione, Frédéric Limosin, Cédric Lemogne
OBJECTIVE: Delay discounting is the tendency to prefer smaller, sooner rewards to larger, later ones. Poor adherence in type 2 diabetes could be partially explained by a discounted value of health, as a function of delay. Delay discounting can be described with a hyperbolic model characterized by a coefficient, k. The higher k, the less future consequences are taken into account when making decisions. This study aimed to determine whether k would be correlated with glycated hemoglobin and adherence in type 2 diabetes...
September 20, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Amanda J Quisenberry, Alexander Bianco, Kirstin M Gatchalian, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Warren K Bickel
Healthy decisions are associated with valuation of the future whereas unhealthy decisions are associated with devaluation of the future. Comparisons of future discounting of delayed rewards in adolescent smokers and non-smokers have been equivocal and past discounting of monetary gains has not been reported in adolescents. Here, adolescents completed future and past delay discounting tasks. A mixed-model analysis of covariance using a model with the lowest Bayesian Information Criterion revealed that adolescents discount the past more than the future and smokers discount more than non-smokers...
September 20, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Joshua C Gray, Michael T Amlung, Abraham A Palmer, James MacKillop
The 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ; Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999) and 30-item Probability Discounting Questionnaire (PDQ; Madden, Petry, & Johnson, 2009) are widely used, validated measures of preferences for immediate versus delayed rewards and guaranteed versus risky rewards, respectively. The MCQ measures delayed discounting by asking individuals to choose between rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after a delay. The PDQ measures probability discounting by asking individuals to choose between guaranteed rewards and a chance at winning larger rewards...
September 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Warren K Bickel, A George Wilson, Chen Chen, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Christopher T Franck
Insufficient resources are associated with negative consequences including decreased valuation of future reinforcers. To determine if these effects result from scarcity, we examined the consequences of acute, abrupt changes in resource availability on delay discounting-the subjective devaluation of rewards as delay to receipt increases. In the current study, 599 individuals recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk read a narrative of a sudden change (positive, neutral, or negative) to one's hypothetical future income and completed a delay discounting task examining future and past monetary gains and losses...
2016: PloS One
Sara Coelho, Manuela Guerreiro, Catarina Chester, Dina Silva, João Maroco, Fabio Paglieri, Alexandre de Mendonça
INTRODUCTION: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may make suboptimal decisions particularly in complex situations, and this could be due to temporal discounting, the tendency to prefer immediate rewards over delayed but larger rewards. The present study proposes to evaluate intertemporal preferences in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. METHOD: Fifty-five patients with MCI and 57 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and a delay discounting questionnaire, which evaluates three parameters: hyperbolic discounting (k), the percentage of choices for delayed and later rewards (%LL), and response consistency (Acc)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Kathy R Berenson, Wesley Ellen Gregory, Erin Glaser, Aliza Romirowsky, Eshkol Rafaeli, Xiao Yang, Geraldine Downey
This research investigated baseline impulsivity, rejection sensitivity, and reactions to stressors in individuals with borderline personality disorder compared to healthy individuals and those with avoidant personality disorder. The borderline group showed greater impulsivity than the avoidant and healthy groups both in a delay-discounting task with real monetary rewards and in self-reported reactions to stressors; moreover, these findings could not be explained by co-occurring substance use disorders. Distress reactions to stressors were equally elevated in both personality disorder groups (relative to the healthy group)...
August 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Shingisai Chando, Christian Young, Jonathan C Craig, Hasantha Gunasekera, Allison Tong
UNLABELLED: This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience)...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Yusuke Hayashi, Kimberly Miller, Anne M Foreman, Oliver Wirth
The purpose of the present study was to examine an impulsive decision-making process underlying texting while driving from a behavioral economic perspective. A sample of 108 college students completed a novel discounting task that presented participants with a hypothetical scenario in which, after receiving a text message while driving, they rated the likelihood of replying to a text message immediately versus waiting to reply for a specific period of time. Participants also completed a delay discounting task in which they made repeated hypothetical choices between obtaining a larger amount of money available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately...
September 8, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Bo Shen, Yunlu Yin, Jiashu Wang, Xiaolin Zhou, Samuel M McClure, Jian Li
In intertemporal choice (ITC), people discount future rewards in proportion to the time delay until reward receipt. Despite recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies suggesting a general causal link between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity and ITC impulsivity, results regarding the functional specificity of dlPFC are mixed. We used high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) to map changes in causal impulsivity through bi-directional modulation of left and right dlPFC during ITC...
September 6, 2016: NeuroImage
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