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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341113/prospective-emotion-enables-episodic-prospection-to-shift-time-preference
#1
Shunmin Zhang, Juan Peng, LingLing Qin, Tao Suo, Tingyong Feng
The episodic effect suggests that episodic prospection (imagining future events) can effectively reduce time discounting, the propensity to discount the value of delayed rewards relative to immediate ones. However, less clear is how episodic prospection modulates time preference. As engagement in episodic prospection usually evokes prospective emotions, it was proposed that episodic prospection might work by inducing prospective emotions. Although one previous study has attempted to provide evidence to the emotional account of the episodic effect, shortcomings in its experimental design make its conclusion questionable...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337585/narrative-theory-ii-self-generated-and-experimenter-provided-negative-income-shock-narratives-increase-delay-discounting
#2
Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Warren K Bickel
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323506/demand-characteristics-in-episodic-future-thinking-delay-discounting-and-healthy-eating
#3
Jillian M Rung, Gregory J Madden
Steep delay discounting, or rapid devaluation of future outcomes, is one mechanism that can account for the chronic selection of smaller-sooner over larger-later outcomes; that is, impulsive choice. Because steep delay discounting is correlated with maladaptive behavior, researchers have explored methods for reducing discounting. One empirically supported method is episodic future thinking (EFT), or vividly imagining one's future before completing the discounting task. However, EFT procedures may include demand characteristics, which could account for some its beneficial effects...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306836/the-effect-of-hydrocortisone-administration-on-intertemporal-choice
#4
Michala Iben Riis-Vestergaard, Vanessa van Ast, Sandra Cornelisse, Marian Joëls, Johannes Haushofer
Intertemporal choices - decisions involving trade-offs of outcomes at different points in time - are often made under stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the release of corticosteroids. Recent studies provide evidence that corticosteroids can induce rapid non-genomic effects focused on immediate resolution of the stressful situation, followed by slower genomic effects focused on long-term recovery after stress. It remains unknown, however, how corticosteroids affect intertemporal choice...
November 2, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305628/dissecting-drug-effects-in-preclinical-models-of-impulsive-choice-emphasis-on-glutamatergic-compounds
#5
REVIEW
Justin R Yates
RATIONALE: Impulsive choice is often measured with delay discounting paradigms. Because there are multiple discounting procedures, as well as different statistical analyses that can be applied to data generated from these paradigms, there are some inconsistencies in the literature regarding drug effects on impulsive choice. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the current paper is to review the methodological and analytic approaches used to measure discounting and to discuss how these differences can account for differential drug effects observed across studies...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287910/ventral-tegmental-area-d2-receptor-knockdown-enhances-choice-impulsivity-in-a-delay-discounting-task-in-rats
#6
Kimberly A Bernosky-Smith, Yan-Yan Qiu, Malte Feja, Yun Beom Lee, Brian Loughlin, Jun-Xu Li, Caroline E Bass
Impulsivity associated with abnormal dopamine (DA) function has been observed in several disorders, including addiction. Choice impulsivity is the preference for small, immediate rewards over larger rewards after a delay, caused by excessive discounting of future rewards. Addicts have abnormally high discount rates and prefer the smaller rewards sooner. While impulsivity has been inversely correlated with DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the midbrain and striatum, it is difficult to mechanistically link the two, due to the diverse neuroanatomical localization of D2Rs, which are found throughout the brain, in many types of neurons and neuronal subcompartments...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277285/the-effects-of-working-memory-load-and-attention-refocusing-on-delay-discounting-rates-in-alcohol-use-disorder-with-comorbid-antisocial-personality-disorder
#7
Rachel L Gunn, Kyle R Gerst, Allison J Lake, Peter R Finn
Executive working memory capacity (eWMC) is central to adaptive decision-making. Research has revealed reduced eWMC and higher rates of impulsive decision making in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs: DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence of Alcohol Abuse) and antisocial psychopathology (AP). Recent work has shown that placing a load on working memory (WM) further increases impulsive decision making on the delay discounting (DD) task in those with AUDs and AP. The current study examined the effects of an attention refocusing manipulation to offset the effects of this WM-load on DD rates in control subjects, those with AUDs without AP, and AUDs with AP (AUD-AP)...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260345/palivizumab-in-the-prevention-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease-a-novel-cost-utility-modeling-study-reflecting-evidence-based-clinical-pathways-in-spain
#8
Ralph Schmidt, Istvan Majer, Natalia García Román, Alejandra Rivas Basterra, ElizaBeth Grubb, Constancio Medrano López
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains one of the major reasons of re-hospitalization among children with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab prophylaxis versus placebo, in Spain, from the societal perspective, using a novel cost-effectiveness model reflecting evidence-based clinical pathways. METHODS: A decision-analytic model, combining a decision tree structure in the first year and a Markov structure in later years, was constructed to evaluate the benefits and costs associated with palivizumab versus no prophylaxis among children with CHD...
December 19, 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230059/genome-wide-association-study-of-delay-discounting-in-23-217-adult-research-participants-of-european-ancestry
#9
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Anita Pandit, Ellen M Schmidt, Johanna R Foerster, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Delay discounting (DD), the tendency to discount the value of delayed versus current rewards, is elevated in a constellation of diseases and behavioral conditions. We performed a genome-wide association study of DD using 23,127 research participants of European ancestry. The most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism was rs6528024 (P = 2.40 × 10-8), which is located in an intron of the gene GPM6B. We also showed that 12% of the variance in DD was accounted for by genotype and that the genetic signature of DD overlapped with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, smoking, personality, cognition and body weight...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224686/estimating-public-and-patient-savings-from-basic-research-a-study-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-managing-antiangiogenic-therapy
#10
Matthew A Windsor, Sissi J J Sun, Kevin D Frick, Eric A Swanson, Philip J Rosenfeld, David Huang
PURPOSE: To compare patient and Medicare savings from the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in guiding therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) to the research investments made in developing OCT by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Main outcome measures were spending by Medicare as tracked by Current Procedural Terminology codes on intravitreal injections (67028), retinal OCT imaging (92134), and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment-specific J-codes (J0178, J2778, J9035, J3490, and J3590)...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221928/momentary-assessment-of-impulsive-choice-and-impulsive-action-reliability-stability-and-correlates
#11
Danielle E McCarthy, Haruka Minami, Krysten W Bold, Vivian M Yeh, Gretchen Chapman
Impulsivity is associated with substance use, including tobacco use. The degree to which impulsivity fluctuates over time within persons, and the degree to which such intra-individual changes can be measured reliably and validly in ambulatory assessments is not known, however. The current study evaluated two novel ambulatory measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action. Impulsive choice was measured with an eight-item delay discounting task designed to estimate the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards...
November 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212590/concordance-between-monetary-and-sexual-delay-discounting-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
Jeb Jones, Jodie L Guest, Patrick S Sullivan, Michael R Kramer, Samuel M Jenness, Jessica M Sales
Background: Delay discounting has been found to be associated with numerous health-related outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour. To date, it is unclear whether delay discounting measured in different domains is associated within individuals. The goal of this study was to assess the concordance of monetary and sexual delay discounting in men who have sex with men. Methods: Participants completed an online survey, including the Monetary Choice Questionnaire and the Sexual Discounting Task. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between monetary and sexual discount rates...
December 7, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175297/impulsivity-in-unaffected-adolescent-biological-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients
#13
Beng-Choon Ho, Amy B Barry, Julie A Koeppel
OBJECTIVE: Although schizophrenia is not a prototypic impulse-control disorder, patients report more impulsive behaviors, have higher rates of substance use, and show dysfunction in brain circuits that underlie impulsivity. We investigate impulsivity in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients to further understand the relationships between schizophrenia risk and impulse control during adolescence. METHOD: Group differences in impulsivity (UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale and delay discounting) were tested in 210 adolescents contrasting 39 first- and 53 second-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 118 subjects with no schizophrenia family history (NSFH)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170319/22%C3%A2-emergency-department-litigation-and-coroner-s-inquests-a-ten-year-analysis
#14
Nicholas Tilbury, Andrew Tabner, Graham Johnson
INTRODUCTION: The burden of litigation within the NHS should not be underestimated. Indemnity costs rise in response to the rising frequency and costs of claims, with recent changes to the discount rate projected to increase NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) costs by £1 Billion per year. Litigation also has a significant psychological impact on staff. This study represents the first examination of litigation and Coroner's 'Prevention of Future Deaths' reports relating to emergency department care in the UK...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168094/what-money-can-t-buy-different-patterns-in-decision-making-about-sex-and-money-predict-past-sexual-coercion-perpetration
#15
Fannie Carrier Emond, Jean Gagnon, Kevin Nolet, Gaëlle Cyr, Joanne-Lucine Rouleau
Self-reported impulsivity has been found to predict the perpetration of sexual coercion in both sexual offenders and male college students. Impulsivity can be conceptualized as a generalized lack of self-control (i.e., general perspective) or as a multifaceted construct that can vary from one context to the other (i.e., domain-specific perspective). Delay discounting, the tendency to prefer sooner smaller rewards over larger delayed rewards, is a measure of impulsive decision making. Recent sexual adaptations of delay discounting tasks can be used to test domain-specific assumptions...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163086/adolescent-exposure-to-methylphenidate-increases-impulsive-choice-later-in-life
#16
Zarish Abbas, Arwen Sweet, Giovanni Hernandez, Andreas Arvanitogiannis
Background: The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is known to temporarily reduce impulsive choice and promote self-control. What is not sufficiently understood is how repeated treatment with MPH affects impulsive choice in the long run, and whether any such effect is contingent on exposure at certain developmental stages. Methods: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144248/recognition-of-infantile-spasms-is-often-delayed-the-assist-study
#17
Shaun A Hussain, Johnson Lay, Emily Cheng, Julius Weng, Raman Sankar, Christine B Baca
OBJECTIVES: To characterize and quantify diagnostic and treatment delay among children with infantile spasms, and to estimate the developmental impact of this delay. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study, we surveyed the parents of 100 patients with infantile spasms about their experiences with diagnosis and treatment, and ascertained medical and sociodemographic factors potentially related to care of these infants. We specifically determined the latency to first visit an "effective provider," defined as a provider who identified infantile spasms, and prescribed an appropriate first-line treatment, namely adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosteroids, or vigabatrin...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#18
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131849/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-care-shows-a-clear-benefit-when-transmission-risk-is-considered-in-the-calculations-a-message-for-central-and-eastern-europe
#19
Justyna D Kowalska, Grzegorz Wójcik, Jakub Rutkowski, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Ewa Siewaszewicz
BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic remains a major global health issue. Data from cost-effectiveness analyses base on CD4+ count and morbidity in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection. The approach adopted in these analyses includes many other factors, previously not investigated. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of sexual HIV transmission due to delayed cART on the cost-effectiveness of care. METHODS: A lifetime Markov model (1-month cycle) was developed to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALY) for a 1- and 3-year delay in starting cART (as compared to starting immediately at linkage to care) lifetime costs, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128305/methamphetamine-induced-impulsivity-during-chronic-methamphetamine-treatment-in-rats-effects-of-the-taar-1-agonist-ro5263397
#20
Zhaoxia Xue, Justin N Siemian, Bernard N Johnson, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
Impulsivity is an important personality trait associated with several clinical syndromes including drug abuse. While repeated drug exposure is known to increase certain behavioral responses, such as locomotion, to subsequent drug exposure, few studies have examined whether such sensitization develops for impulsive behavior. In the current study we tested the effects of methamphetamine acutely, during the course of, and upon discontinuation of chronic methamphetamine treatment on impulsive behavior in two models, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and the delay-discounting task which measure impulsive action and impulsive choice, respectively...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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