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Delay discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345215/temporal-discounting-and-the-tendency-to-delay-gratification-across-the-eating-disorder-spectrum
#1
Savani Bartholdy, Samantha Rennalls, Hollie Danby, Claire Jacques, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt, Owen G O'Daly
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have been associated with poorer reward-related inhibitory control, reflected by a reduced tendency to delay gratification. The opposite has been reported in anorexia nervosa (AN), but differences have not been directly compared across eating disorders (EDs). This study investigated self-reported (Delaying Gratification Inventory) and task-based (temporal discounting) inhibitory control in 66 women with an ED and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Poorer task-based inhibitory control was observed in the BN compared with the AN group and poorer self-reported inhibitory control in the BN and in the BED groups compared with the AN and the HC groups, suggesting that reward-related inhibitory control varies across EDs...
March 27, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342061/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-obinutuzumab-for-previously-untreated-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-in-portuguese-patients-who-are-unsuitable-for-full-dose-fludarabine-based-therapy
#2
Ana Teresa Paquete, Luís Silva Miguel, Ursula Becker, Catarina Pereira, Carlos Gouveia Pinto
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) mostly affects patients with comorbidities and limited therapeutic options. Obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb) is a new therapeutic option for previously untreated CLL patients who are unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy. This combination delays disease progression but incurs additional costs; thus, an assessment of its value for money is relevant. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incremental cost-utility ratio of GClb in comparison with (i) rituximab in combination with chlorambucil (RClb), and (ii) chlorambucil alone (Clb) from the perspective of the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS)...
March 24, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340213/effects-of-alcohol-dependence-severity-on-neural-correlates-of-delay-discounting
#3
Aaron C Lim, Anita Cservenka, Lara A Ray
Aims: The current study examines the relationship between alcohol dependence severity and delay discounting neural activation. Methods: Participants (N = 17; 6 female) completed measures of alcohol use and severity and a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of a delay discounting task. Results: Alcohol dependence severity was negatively associated with activation in superior frontal gyrus during impulsive relative to delayed decisions, and positively associated with activation in paracingulate gyrus and frontal pole in delayed relative to impulsive decisions...
March 18, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333537/self-control-depletion-and-nicotine-deprivation-as-precipitants-of-smoking-cessation-failure-a-human-laboratory-model
#4
Bryan W Heckman, David A MacQueen, Nicole S Marquinez, James MacKillop, Warren K Bickel, Thomas H Brandon
OBJECTIVE: The need to understand potential precipitants of smoking relapse is exemplified by relapse rates as high as 95%. The Self-Control Strength model, which proposes that self-control is dependent upon limited resources and susceptible to fatigue, may offer insight into relapse processes. The current study tested the hypothesis that self-control depletion (SCD), produced from engagement in emotional suppression, would serve as a novel antecedent for cessation failure, as indexed by a validated laboratory analogue of smoking lapse and relapse...
April 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321198/the-vivid-present-visualization-abilities-are-associated-with-steep-discounting-of-future-rewards
#5
Trishala Parthasarathi, Mairead H McConnell, Jeffrey Luery, Joseph W Kable
Humans and other animals discount the value of future rewards, a phenomenon known as delay discounting. Individuals vary widely in the extent to which they discount future rewards, and these tendencies have been associated with important life outcomes. Recent studies have demonstrated that imagining the future reduces subsequent discounting behavior, but no research to date has examined whether a similar principle applies at the trait level, and whether training visualization changes discounting. The current study examined if individual differences in visualization abilities are linked to individual differences in discounting and whether practicing visualization can change discounting behaviors in a lasting way...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317212/binge-drinking-and-family-history-of-alcoholism-are-associated-with-an-altered-developmental-trajectory-of-impulsive-choice-across-adolescence
#6
Scott A Jones, Joel S Steele, Bonnie J Nagel
AIMS: To test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD), and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more lifetime drinks is associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age. DESIGN: Alcohol-naïve adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up...
March 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315626/cross-cultural-comparisons-of-delay-discounting-of-gain-and-loss
#7
Keiko Ishii, Lili Gang, Taiki Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: People generally tend to discount future outcomes in favor of smaller but immediate gains (i.e., delay discounting). The present research examined cultural similarities and differences in delay discounting of gain and loss between Chinese and Japanese, based on a q-exponential model of intertemporal choice. METHOD: Using a hypothetical situation, we asked 65 Japanese participants and 51 Chinese participants to choose between receiving (or paying) a different amount of money immediately or with a specified delay (1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 5 years, and 25 years)...
November 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314950/-waiting-impulsivity-in-isolation-reared-and-socially-reared-rats-effects-of-amphetamine
#8
Yia-Ping Liu, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. METHODS: Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively...
March 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303111/episodic-future-thinking-about-the-ideal-self-induces-lower-discounting-leading-to-a-decreased-tendency-toward-cheating
#9
Wen-Hsiung Wu, Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
Delay discounting refers to a pervasive tendency toward preferring smaller immediate gains over larger future gains. Recent empirical research has shown that episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., projecting oneself into the future to pre-experience forthcoming events) can reduce the tendency toward discounting. A common tenet of psychological theories of crime is that delinquency results from focusing on short-term gains while failing to consider adequately the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301828/steeper-discounting-of-delayed-rewards-in-schizophrenia-but-not-first-degree-relatives
#10
Linda Q Yu, Sangil Lee, Natalie Katchmar, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Joseph W Kable, Daniel H Wolf
Excessive discounting of future rewards has been related to a variety of risky behaviors and adverse clinical conditions. Prior work examining delay discounting in schizophrenia suggests an elevated discount rate. However, it remains uncertain whether this reflects the disease process itself or an underlying genetic vulnerability, whether it is selective for delay discounting or reflects pervasive changes in decision-making, and whether it is driven by specific clinical dimensions such as cognitive impairment...
March 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#11
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289888/value-based-decision-making-battery-a-bayesian-adaptive-approach-to-assess-impulsive-and-risky-behavior
#12
Shakoor Pooseh, Nadine Bernhardt, Alvaro Guevara, Quentin J M Huys, Michael N Smolka
Using simple mathematical models of choice behavior, we present a Bayesian adaptive algorithm to assess measures of impulsive and risky decision making. Practically, these measures are characterized by discounting rates and are used to classify individuals or population groups, to distinguish unhealthy behavior, and to predict developmental courses. However, a constant demand for improved tools to assess these constructs remains unanswered. The algorithm is based on trial-by-trial observations. At each step, a choice is made between immediate (certain) and delayed (risky) options...
March 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288442/delay-discounting-and-impulsivity-traits-in-young-and-older-gambling-disorder-patients
#13
Trevor Steward, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Roser Granero, José C Perales, Juan Francisco Navas, Carles Soriano-Mas, Marta Baño, Jose A Fernández-Formoso, Virginia Martín-Romera, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is understood to be a multidimensional construct involving aspects such as impulsive choice and impulsive traits. Delay discounting, the tendency to place greater value in immediate rewards over larger, long-term rewards, has been associated with maladaptive choices in gambling disorder (GD). Delay discounting is known to evolve with age; though no study to date has evaluated the interactions between impulsivity, GD severity and age in treatment-seeking patients...
March 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282631/does-goal-relevant-episodic-future-thinking-amplify-the-effect-on-delay-discounting
#14
Sara O'Donnell, Tinuke Oluyomi Daniel, Leonard H Epstein
Delay discounting (DD) is the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Research shows episodic future thinking (EFT), or mentally simulating future experiences, reframes the choice between small immediate and larger delayed rewards, and can reduce DD. Only general EFT has been studied, whereby people reframe decisions in terms of non-goal related future events. Since future thinking is often goal-oriented and leads to greater activation of brain regions involved in prospection, goal-oriented EFT may be associated with greater reductions in DD than general goal-unrelated EFT...
March 7, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279781/a-working-memory-task-reveals-different-patterns-of-impulsivity-in-male-and-female-college-students
#15
Xiaolin Mei, Lin Tian, Zhaoxia Xue, Xinwang Li
Impulsivity is an important personality trait that affects people's lives every day. Because of the complicated structures and various measurements of impulsivity, the conclusion that whether there were gender differences on impulsivity remained controversial. In our study, we used delay discounting and probability discounting to measure impulsive choice and employed stop signal reaction time task (SSRT) to measure impulsive action within the same subjects. No inherent gender differences were found, either on impulsive choice or on impulsive action...
March 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271452/testing-the-dual-pathway-model-of-adhd-in-obesity-a-pilot-study
#16
Saskia Van der Oord, Caroline Braet, Samuele Cortese, Laurence Claes
INTRODUCTION: There may be shared neuropsychological dysfunctions in ADHD and obesity. This study tested a neuropsychological model of ADHD (reward/executive dysfunctioning) in individuals with obesity. Furthermore, the association between co-morbid binge eating and reward/executive dysfunction was explored. METHODS: Reward/executive dysfunctioning was assessed using both neuropsychological measures and questionnaires in individuals (aged 17-68) with obesity (N = 39; mean BMI = 39...
March 7, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267655/texting-while-driving-executive-function-and-impulsivity-in-college-students
#17
Yusuke Hayashi, Esteban A Rivera, James G Modico, Anne M Foreman, Oliver Wirth
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cognitive processes underlying texting while driving. A sample of 120 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read a text message while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 20 students who frequently text while driving and 20 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they differed in self-reported measures of executive function and impulsivity...
March 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257940/not-so-fast-the-impact-of-impulsivity-on-weight-loss-varies-by-treatment-type
#18
Stephanie M Manasse, Daniel Flack, Cara Dochat, Fengqing Zhang, Meghan L Butryn, Evan M Forman
Behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatments result in suboptimal weight losses for many individuals. Impulsivity appears to be a maintenance factor of obesity, yet few studies have examined impulsivity as a predictor of outcomes from BWL. We examined specific facets of impulsivity (inhibitory control and delay discounting) as moderators of outcome in BWL. Overweight adults (n = 190) were randomized to standard behavioral treatment (SBT) or acceptance-based behavioral treatment (ABT). We hypothesized that impulsivity would be inversely associated with weight loss, and that the association between impulsivity and outcome would be attenuated in the ABT condition...
March 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251591/impulsivity-and-cluster-b-personality-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Turner, Alexandra Sebastian, Oliver Tüscher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and an important personality trait in various mental health conditions. Among personality disorders (PDs), especially cluster B PDs are affected. The aims of this review are to summarize the relevant findings of the past 3 years concerning impulsivity in cluster B PDs and to identify those subcomponents of self-reported impulsivity and experimentally measured impulse control that are most affected in these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: All studies referred to antisocial (ASPD) or borderline PD (BPD), and none were found for narcissistic or histrionic PD...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229317/self-reported-hedonism-predicts-12-month-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#20
Sven Alfonsson, Sandra Weineland-Strandskov, Magnus Sundbom
INTRODUCTION: Research regarding psychological risk factors for reduced weight loss after bariatric surgery has yielded mixed results, especially for variables measured prior to surgery. More profound personality factors have shown better promise and one such factor that may be relevant in this context is time perspective, i.e., the tendency to focus on present or future consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of time perspective for 12-month weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery...
February 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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