Read by QxMD icon Read

Primitive reflexes

Alice Chinello, Valentina Di Gangi, Eloisa Valenza
In typical motor development progress in use of goal-directed actions and communicative gestures depends on the inhibition of several primitive reflexes, especially those that involve the hand or mouth. This study explored the relationship between the persistence of primitive reflexes that involve the hand or mouth and the motor repertoire in a sample of 12- to 17-month-old infants. Moreover, since children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often have difficulty in performing skilled movements and show poor gesture repertoire, and since ASD represents the upper extreme of a constellation of traits that may be continuously distributed in the general population, we investigated the relationship between the persistence of primitive reflexes in the same sample of infants and the subclinical autistic traits measured in their parents...
August 29, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Ramzi W Nahhas, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
L S Chandler, L Terhorst, J C Rogers, M B Holm
AIM: The purpose of this study was to establish the validity, reliability, stability and sensitivity to change of the family-centred Movement Assessment of Children (MAC) in typically developing infants/toddlers from 2 months (1 month 16 days) to 2 years (24 months 15 days) of age. BACKGROUND: Assessment of infant/toddler motor development is critical so that infants and toddlers who are at-risk for developmental delay or whose functional motor development is delayed can be monitored and receive therapy to improve their developmental outcomes...
July 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Mamiko Koshiba, Genta Karino, Koki Mimura, Shun Nakamura, Kunio Yui, Tetsuya Kunikata, Hideo Yamanouchi
Educational treatment to support social development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important topic in developmental psychiatry. However, it remains difficult to objectively quantify the socio-emotional development of ASD children. To address this problem, we developed a novel analytical method that assesses subjects' complex behaviors using multivariate analysis, 'Behavior Output analysis for Quantitative Emotional State Translation' (BOUQUET). Here, we examine the potential for psycho-cognitive ASD therapy based on comparative evaluations of clinical (human) and experimental (animal) models...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Elisa G Hamer, Mijna Hadders-Algra
The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and AMED. Papers on infantile reactions ('primitive reflexes') and postural reactions were included if data were available allowing for calculation of sensitivity, specificity, or positive and negative predictive value for CP or atypical developmental outcome...
March 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Audrey Gabelle, Laure-Anne Gutierrez, Jean-François Dartigues, Karen Ritchie, Jacques Touchon, Claudine Berr
BACKGROUND: Sophisticated and expensive biomarkers are proposed for the diagnostic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid process seems to be early in AD, and brain amyloid load affects the frontal lobe. OBJECTIVE: To determine if certain simple clinical signs, especially frontal-related signs, could help reach an earlier and better diagnosis. METHODS: In the frame of the 3-City cohort, we conducted a nested case-control study comparing incident cases of AD to controls matched for age, gender, and education...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
X-Y Zhu, M-Y Ye, A-M Zhang, W-D Wang, F Zeng, J-L Li, F Fang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the one-year neurologic prognostic outcome of newborns with moderate and severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who received recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) combined with exogenous monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) treatment to provide new guidelines for clinical treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-six newborns with moderate and severe HIE were selected from February 2011 to February 2014 in our hospital. This study received the informed consent of our hospital's Ethics Committee and the newborns' guardians...
October 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L Thompson, R A Peñaloza, K Stormfields, R Kooistra, G Valencia-Moscoso, H Muslima, N Z Khan
BACKGROUND: Timely detection of neurodevelopmental impairments in children can prompt referral for critical services that may prevent permanent disability. However, screening of impairments is a significant challenge in low-resource countries. We adapted and validated the rapid neurodevelopmental assessment (RNDA) instrument developed in Bangladesh to assess impairment in nine domains: primitive reflexes, gross and fine motor development, vision, hearing, speech, cognition, behaviour and seizures...
November 2015: Child: Care, Health and Development
Gabriel Peinado, Tomás Osorno, María del Pilar Gomez, Enrico Nasi
Melanopsin, the photopigment of the "circadian" receptors that regulate the biological clock and the pupillary reflex in mammals, is homologous to invertebrate rhodopsins. Evidence supporting the involvement of phosphoinositides in light-signaling has been garnered, but the downstream effectors that control the light-dependent conductance remain unknown. Microvillar photoreceptors of the primitive chordate amphioxus also express melanopsin and transduce light via phospholipase-C, apparently not acting through diacylglycerol...
June 23, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William T Gibson, Carlos R Gonzalez, Conchi Fernandez, Lakshminarayanan Ramasamy, Tanya Tabachnik, Rebecca R Du, Panna D Felsen, Michael R Maire, Pietro Perona, David J Anderson
The neural circuit mechanisms underlying emotion states remain poorly understood. Drosophila offers powerful genetic approaches for dissecting neural circuit function, but whether flies exhibit emotion-like behaviors has not been clear. We recently proposed that model organisms may express internal states displaying "emotion primitives," which are general characteristics common to different emotions, rather than specific anthropomorphic emotions such as "fear" or "anxiety." These emotion primitives include scalability, persistence, valence, and generalization to multiple contexts...
June 1, 2015: Current Biology: CB
J A Matias-Guiu, M N Cabrera-Martín, M Fernádez-Matarrubia, T Moreno-Ramos, M Valles-Salgado, J Porta-Etessam, J L Carreras, J Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although primitive reflexes (PRs) are inhibited during the first years of childhood, they may reappear with brain injury. PRs have been linked to frontal lobe dysfunction, but their precise topography has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to map which regions of the brain display a reduced glucose metabolism in patients with cognitive impairment and PRs. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted to evaluate PRs in a group of patients assessed due to suspected cognitive decline...
August 2015: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Cecilia Camarda, Paola Torelli, Rosolino Camarda, Iacopo Battaglini, Cesare Gagliardo, Roberto Monastero
The aim of this study is to describe the frequency of isolated, subtle, neurological abnormalities (ISNAs) in a large population of neurologically and cognitively healthy subjects and to compare ISNAs to various types of MRI-detected cerebrovascular lesions and subcortical brain atrophy in different age classes. 907 subjects were selected from a large, prospective hospital-based study. At baseline neurological examination, 17 ISNAs were selected. Primitive reflexes were the most common ISNAs (35.8%), while dysphagia was the most rarely encountered (0...
May 2015: Journal of Neurology
Miguel A Marín Gabriel, Ibone Olza Fernández, Ana M Malalana Martínez, Carmen González Armengod, Valeria Costarelli, Isabel Millán Santos, Aurora Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Pilar Pérez Riveiro, Francisco López Sánchez, Lourdes García Murillo
AIM: Several synthetic peptide manipulations during the time surrounding birth can alter the specific neurohormonal status in the newborn brain. This study is aimed at assessing whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on primitive neonatal reflexes and determining whether such an effect is dose-dependent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Mother-infant dyads who received intrapartum oxytocin (n=53) were compared with mother-infant dyads who did not receive intrapartum oxytocin (n=45)...
May 2015: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
N N Kamardin
At present, in ecotoxicological studies, as biomarkers there are used physiological reactions of invertebrates, based on diverse reflex. The primary chain of the reflex is chemo-, mechano-, and osmoreceptors. The structures are exposed on the surface of body and mantle cavity. Earlier, a hypothesis was put forward, which suggested that the polymodal osphradial organ of the pond snail might participate in adaptive reactions of aquatic molluscs to toxicants. The known homology of osphradial structures allows spreading this suggestion on marine representatives of various subclasses of Mollusca, although diversity of structure, of ways of nutrition, and multiplicity of aquatic molluscs can impede interpretation of future ecotoxicological studies...
November 2014: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
Andrew G Murchison
Hiccups are an unexplained phenomenon and a subject of medical curiosity. They arise through a reflex arc with central control at the level of the medulla, and their primary physiological effect is the generation of negative intra-thoracic pressure. This paper presents the hypothesis that hiccups serve a purpose during the first half of gestation, when they are most prevalent; namely, that they promote amniotic fluid influx to the primitive gut, allowing fluid to be transferred to the foetal and then maternal vasculature...
May 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Sari Stenholm, Michelle Shardell, Stefania Bandinelli, Jack M Guralnik, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: Mobility is an essential aspect of everyday life and enables autonomy and participation. Although many risk factors for mobility loss have been previously described, their relative importance and independent contributions to the long-term risk of losing mobility have not been well defined. METHODS: This study is based on 1,013 men and women aged ≥65 years enrolled in 1998-2000 and followed for 9 years through 2007-2008 in the population-based InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area) study...
May 2015: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Kevin J Tracey
Mammalian immunity evolved by the process of natural selection that produced differential survival and reproduction advantages through combinations of hereditary traits underlying the response to pathogens. Primitive animals sense the presence of microbial pathogens through recognition of pathogen-derived molecules in their rudimentary immune and nervous systems. No molecular biological mechanism assigns primacy of pathogen sensing mechanisms to immune cells over neurons. Rather, in animals as diverse as Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals, neural reflexes are activated by the presence of pathogens and transduce neural mechanisms that control the development of immunity...
February 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Chin-Kai Lin, Bor-Chen Kuo, Huey-Min Wu
In the study of Lin, Wu, Lin, Wu, Wu, Kuo, and Yeung (2012 ), the relationship between the validity of postural movement and bilateral motor integration in terms of sensory integration theory was examined. Postural movement is the ability to use the antigravity postures required for stabilization of the neck, trunk and upper extremities via muscle co-contractions in the neck and upper extremities, and balance. Niklasson's (2013 ) comment argued that postural movement should include primitive reflexes in terms of the general abilities approach...
October 2014: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Mary L Lewis
Skin findings are common during the newborn examination. Although these findings are often benign, it is important to visualize the entire skin surface to distinguish these findings and appropriately reassure parents. The chest should be observed for symmetric movement, pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, prominent xiphoid, or breast tissue. The infant should be as relaxed as possible so that the physician can more easily detect any abdominal masses, which are often renal in origin. A single umbilical artery may be associated with another congenital abnormality, especially renal anomalies, and intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity...
September 1, 2014: American Family Physician
Daniel Aronovich, Alexander Scumpia, David Edwards
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor. It is common in childhood, but rarely seen at adult age, comprising only 1% of primary brain tumors. METHODS: We treated a 31-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with a chief complaint of nausea and vomiting for one week duration. Immediate frozen section revealed a grade IV medulloblastoma. During the hospital course, the patient was given craniospinal irradiation with chemotherapy...
2014: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"