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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919751/less-head-motion-during-mri-under-task-than-resting-state-conditions
#1
Willem Huijbers, Koene R A Van Dijk, Meta M Boenniger, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Monique M B Breteler
Head motion reduces data quality of neuroimaging data. In three functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments we demonstrate that people make less head movements under task than resting-state conditions. In Experiment 1, we observed less head motion during a memory encoding task than during the resting-state condition. In Experiment 2, using publicly shared data from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics LA5c Study, we again found less head motion during several active task conditions than during a resting-state condition, although some task conditions also showed comparable motion...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#2
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894373/cognitive-effects-of-adjunctive-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-psychosis
#3
M Rapado-Castro, S Dodd, A I Bush, G S Malhi, D R Skvarc, Z X On, M Berk, O M Dean
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are predictors of functional outcome in patients with psychosis. While conventional antipsychotics are relatively effective on positive symptoms, their impact on negative and cognitive symptoms is limited. Recent studies have established a link between oxidative stress and neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor with glutamatergic properties, has shown efficacy on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872673/the-relationship-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-occupational-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder-a-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Walace Duarte, Rodrigo Becerra, Kate Cruise
Neurocognitive impairment in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been widely reported, even during remission. Neurocognitive impairment has been identified as a contributing factor towards unfavourable psychosocial functioning within this population. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between neurocognitive impairment and occupational functioning in BD. A literature review of English-language journal articles from January 1990 to November 2013 was undertaken utilising the PsychINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867834/neurobiology-of-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Ayşegül Özerdem, Deniz Ceylan, Güneş Can
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness which follows a relapsing and remitting course and requires lifetime treatment. The lack of biological markers for BD is a major difficulty in clinical practice. Exploring multiple endophenotypes to fit in multivariate genetic models for BD is an important element in the process of finding tools to facilitate early diagnosis, early intervention, prevention of new episodes, and follow-up of treatment response in BD. Reviewing of studies on neuroimaging, neurocognition, and biochemical parameters in populations with high genetic risk for the illness can yield an integrative perspective on the neurobiology of risk for BD...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866493/dietary-dha-and-health-cognitive-function-ageing
#6
Carlos Cardoso, Cláudia Afonso, Narcisa M Bandarra
DHA is a key nutritional n-3 PUFA and needs to be supplied by the human diet. DHA is found in significant amounts in the retinal and neuronal cell membranes due to its high fluidity. Indeed, DHA is selectively concentrated in the synaptic and retinal membranes. DHA is deemed to display anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce the risk of CVD. Consumption of larger amounts of DHA appears to reduce the risk of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Conversely, it has been shown that loss of DHA from the nerve cell membrane leads to dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of anxiety, irritability, susceptibility to stress, dyslexia, impaired memory and cognitive functions, and extended reaction times...
November 21, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858347/serum-concentrations-of-mood-stabilizers-are-associated-with-memory-but-not-other-cognitive-domains-in-psychosis-spectrum-disorders-explorative-analyses-in-a-naturalistic-setting
#7
Nils Eiel Steen, Monica Aas, Carmen Simonsen, Ingrid Dieset, Martin Tesli, Mari Nerhus, Erlend Gardsjord, Ragni Mørch, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid Melle, Anja Vaskinn, Olav Spigset, Ole A Andreassen
BACKGROUND: Mood stabilizers like lithium and anticonvulsants are used in bipolar and related psychotic disorders. There is a lack of knowledge of the relationship of these medications and cognition in the psychosis spectrum. We studied the association between serum concentration of mood stabilizers and cognitive performance in a well-characterized sample of bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: Serum concentrations of valproate, lamotrigine, and lithium were analyzed for associations to performance on neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 167) and in a combined sample of individuals with bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 217)...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857885/the-polygenic-risk-for-bipolar-disorder-influences-brain-regional-function-relating-to-visual-and-default-state-processing-of-emotional-information
#8
Danai Dima, Simone de Jong, Gerome Breen, Sophia Frangou
Genome-wise association studies have identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each of small effect, associated with risk to bipolar disorder (BD). Several risk-conferring SNPs have been individually shown to influence regional brain activation thus linking genetic risk for BD to altered brain function. The current study examined whether the polygenic risk score method, which models the cumulative load of all known risk-conferring SNPs, may be useful in the identification of brain regions whose function may be related to the polygenic architecture of BD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847486/enhancing-executive-function-and-neural-health-in-bipolar-disorder-through-reasoning-training
#9
Erin E Venza, Sandra B Chapman, Sina Aslan, Jennifer E Zientz, David L Tyler, Jeffrey S Spence
Cognitive deficits in executive function and memory among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are well-documented; however, only recently have efforts begun to address whether such cognitive deficits can be ameliorated through cognitive training. This pilot study examined the effects of a top-down, cognitive reasoning training program in adults with BD on both brain and cognitive measures. Twenty-seven participants (11 males, 16 females), aged 21-70 years old, completed the study. Participants completed neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training, consisting of 8 h (2 h/week) of training in small groups...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847227/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-child-and-adolescent-offspring-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder
#10
Elena de la Serna, Gisela Sugranyes, Vanessa Sanchez-Gistau, Elisa Rodriguez-Toscano, Immaculada Baeza, Montserrat Vila, Soledad Romero, Teresa Sanchez-Gutierrez, Mª José Penzol, Dolores Moreno, Josefina Castro-Fornieles
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are considered neurobiological disorders which share some clinical, cognitive and neuroimaging characteristics. Studying child and adolescent offspring of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BDoff) or schizophrenia (SZoff) is regarded as a reliable method for investigating early alterations and vulnerability factors for these disorders. This study compares the neuropsychological characteristics of SZoff, BDoff and a community control offspring group (CC) with the aim of examining shared and differential cognitive characteristics among groups...
November 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842735/-neurocognitive-performance-in-euthymic-bipolar-i-patients-with-and-without-history-of-psychosis-from-a-multimodal-intervention-program-prisma
#11
Marcela Molina, Juan David Palacio, Cristian Vargas, Ana María Díaz-Zuluaga, Yuli Agudelo Berruecos, Sigifredo Ospina, Carlos López-Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI) have an increased prevalence of psychotic symptoms, and these have been associated with higher cognitive impairment; however the issue has not been settled with the available evidence. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the history of psychotic symptoms in a Colombian sample with BDI is associated with greater cognitive impairment. METHODS: A case-control study was performed that included patients with BDI from the l PRISMA study...
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837572/clinical-and-cognitive-factors-affecting-psychosocial-functioning-in-remitted-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#12
G Konstantakopoulos, N Ioannidi, M Typaldou, D Sakkas, P Oulis
Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835716/targeting-treatments-to-improve-cognitive-function-in-mood-disorder-suggestions-from-trials-using-erythropoietin
#13
Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, A John Rush, Thomas A Gerds, Maj Vinberg, Lars V Kessing
OBJECTIVE: There is no established efficacious treatment for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar and bipolar disorder. This may be partially due to lack of consensus regarding the need to screen for cognitive impairment in cognition trials or which screening criteria to use. We have demonstrated in 2 randomized placebo-controlled trials that 8 weeks of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment has beneficial effects on verbal memory across unipolar and bipolar disorder, with 58% of EPO-treated patients displaying a clinically relevant memory improvement as compared to 15% of those treated with placebo...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813234/differential-neural-correlates-of-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-depression
#14
Kymberly D Young, Jerzy Bodurka, Wayne C Drevets
OBJECTIVES: Autobiographical memory (AM) recall is impaired in both bipolar depression (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate differences between healthy controls (HCs) and depressed participants with either BD or MDD as they recalled AMs that varied in emotional valence. METHODS: Unmedicated adults in a current major depressive episode who met criteria for either MDD or BD and HCs (n=16/group) underwent fMRI while recalling AMs in response to emotionally valenced cue words...
November 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810614/are-major-depression-and-bipolar-disorder-neuropsychologically-distinct-a-meta-analysis-of-comparative-studies
#15
C Samamé, A G Szmulewicz, M P Valerio, D J Martino, S A Strejilevich
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological deficits are present in both major depression and bipolar disorder. So far, however, reports directly comparing these mood disorders with regard to cognitive outcomes have been scant and yielded inconsistent results. This work aims to combine the findings of comparative studies of cognition in major depression and bipolar disorder in order to explore whether these neuropsychiatric conditions present with distinct cognitive features. METHODS: The main online databases were extensively searched to retrieve reports assessing neurocognitive functioning in two groups of mood disorder patients, one with major depressive disorder and another with bipolar disorder, both in the same phase of illness...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810272/neurocognitive-performance-psychopathology-and-social-functioning-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-schizophrenia-or-psychotic-bipolar-disorder
#16
Evgenia Gkintoni, Eleftherios G Pallis, Panos Bitsios, Stella G Giakoumaki
INTRODUCTION: Although cognitive deficits are consistent endophenotypes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, findings in psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) are inconsistent. In this study we compared adult unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia and BDP patients on cognition, psychopathology, social functioning and quality of life. METHODS: Sixty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (SUnR), 36 unaffected first-degree relatives of BDP patients (BDPUnR) and 102 controls participated in the study...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807401/alzheimer-disease-crosstalk-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppars-alpha-and-gamma
#17
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier
The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not fully understood. In AD, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to be downregulated while the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (mARN and protein) is upregulated. Certain neurodegenerative diseases share the same Wnt/beta-catenin/PPAR gamma profile, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Conversely, other NDs share an opposite profile, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783216/clinical-and-treatment-related-predictors-of-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-focus-on-visual-paired-associative-learning
#18
Kalliopi Tournikioti, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Ioannis Michopoulos, Maria Alevizaki, Constantin R Soldatos, Dimitris Dikeos, Athanasios Douzenis
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairment in cognitive domains such as verbal memory and executive functions. However, visual paired associative learning (PAL) has been far less researched. Neurocognitive dysfunction in BD patients has been related to several clinical factors, but data on the effect of medication are relatively scarce and inconsistent. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of clinical and treatment-related parameters on executive functions and visual memory/learning, including PAL, in BD...
October 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764692/memory-performance-predicts-recurrence-of-mania-in-bipolar-disorder-following-psychotherapy-a-preliminary-study
#19
Isabelle E Bauer, Martin Hautzinger, Thomas D Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. METHOD: We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer and Hautzinger, 2012)...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747343/the-combined-effect-of-mechanical-strain-and-electric-field-cycling-on-the-ferroelectric-performance-of-p-vdf-trfe-thin-films-on-flexible-substrates-and-underlying-mechanisms
#20
Deepa Singh, Deepak, Ashish Garg
In this manuscript, we study the combined effect of mechanical strain and electric field cycling on the ferroelectric properties and polarization fatigue of P(VDF-TrFE) based flexible thin film capacitors from the perspective of flexible memory applications. The devices show nearly 80% retention of ferroelectric polarization after 30 000 bending cycles at mechanical strains of up to ca. 0.8%, mimicking a typical number of bending cycles a product is expected to go through. On the other hand, electric field cycling of the unstrained as well as mechanically strained devices results in over 50% drop in the ferroelectric polarization of the capacitors within 10(5) bipolar switching cycles...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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