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Memory major depressive disorder

Joeri J Meijsen, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Ian J Deary, Riccardo E Marioni, Kristin K Nicodemus
Lower performances in cognitive ability in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been observed on multiple occasions. Understanding cognitive performance in MDD could provide a wider insight in the aetiology of MDD as a whole. Using a large, well characterised cohort (N = 7012), we tested for: differences in cognitive performance by MDD status and a gene (single SNP or polygenic score) by MDD interaction effect on cognitive performance. Linear regression was used to assess the association between cognitive performance and MDD status in a case-control, single-episode-recurrent MDD and control-recurrent MDD study design...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Mi Li, Lei Feng, Xingwang Liu, Ming Zhang, Bingbing Fu, Gang Wang, Shengfu Lu, Ning Zhong, Bin Hu
Objective This study was performed to examine the working memory (WM) encoding and retrieval abilities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and determine whether a mood-congruent memory effect is present. Methods The modified Sternberg WM paradigm with positive, negative, and neutral emotional pictures was used to investigate the WM abilities of 26 patients with MDD and 26 healthy controls (HCs). Results No significant difference in picture WM was found between the MDD and HC groups; however, the accuracy of picture position WM was significantly lower and the response time was significantly longer in the MDD than HC group, regardless of the picture or position WM...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Edmund T Rolls, Wei Cheng, Matthieu Gilson, Jiang Qiu, Zicheng Hu, Hongtao Ruan, Yu Li, Chu-Chung Huang, Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Xiaodong Zhang, Kaixiang Zhuang, Ching-Po Lin, Gustavo Deco, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional connectivity reflects correlations in the activity between brain areas, whereas effective connectivity between different brain areas measures directed influences of brain regions on each other. Using the latter approach, we compare effective connectivity results in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and control subjects. METHODS: We used a new approach to the measurement of effective connectivity, in which each brain area has a simple dynamical model, and known anatomical connectivity is used to provide constraints...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ketan K Marballi, Amelia L Gallitano
While the causes of myriad medical and infectious illnesses have been identified, the etiologies of neuropsychiatric illnesses remain elusive. This is due to two major obstacles. First, the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Second, numerous genes influence susceptibility for these illnesses. Genome-wide association studies have identified at least 108 genomic loci for schizophrenia, and more are expected to be published shortly...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Henrik Nordahl, Hans M Nordahl, Patrick A Vogel, Adrian Wells
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a major risk factor for developing symptoms of depression. Severity of social anxiety has previously been identified as a risk factor, and cognitive models emphasize dysfunctional schemas and self-processing as the key vulnerability factors underlying general distress in SAD. However, in the metacognitive model, depressive and other symptoms are related to metacognitive beliefs. The aim of this study was therefore to test the relative contribution of metacognitions when controlling for SAD severity and factors postulated in cognitive models...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Patrick H Lim, Stephanie L Wert, Elif Tunc-Ozcan, Robert Marr, Adriana Ferreira, Eva E Redei
Aging and major depressive disorder are risk factors for dementia, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but the mechanism(s) linking depression and dementia are not known. Both AD and depression show greater prevalence in women. We began to investigate this connection using females of the genetic model of depression, the inbred Wistar Kyoto More Immobile (WMI) rat. These rats consistently display depression-like behavior compared to the genetically close control, the Wistar Kyoto Less Immobile (WLI) strain. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory did not differ between young WLI and WMI females, but by middle-age female WMIs showed memory deficits compared to same age WLIs...
February 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
M Vicent-Gil, A Keymer-Gausset, M Serra-Blasco, M Carceller-Sindreu, J de Diego-Adeliño, J Trujols, M Mur, V Pérez, E Alvarez, N Cardoner, M J Portella
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) entails cognitive dysfunction in many cognitive domains, but it is still uncertain whether such deficits are present in the early stages. The purpose of the study is to determine the cognitive performance in first episode depression (FED) exploring the presence of different cognitive profiles, and the role of cognition in FED at baseline and long-term. Ninety subjects (18-50 years) were included, 50 patients with a FED and 40 healthy controls. Participants were assessed with a neuropsychological battery, covering language, attention, verbal memory, processing speed and executive domains...
February 23, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Christine Schwert, Maren Stohrer, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Matthias Weisbrod, Annette Schröder
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits across several domains and subjective complaints about cognition are prevalent in major depression disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, subjective and objective cognitive functions show no associations. However, research concerning the extent and direction of discrepancy is rare. The present study examined the relationship and discrepancy between subjective and objective cognitive deficits both in patients with MDD and healthy individuals. METHOD: Outpatients with MDD (n = 102) and a healthy control group (n = 88) were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery and completed a questionnaire for the self-assessment of cognitive performance (FLei) concerning the domains of attention, memory, and executive functions...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Mari S Golub, Casey E Hogrefe, Richard J Sherwood, Christoph W Turck
Fluoxetine therapy has been approved for children with major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder for over 14 years and has expanded to other childhood behavior disorders. As use increases, more detail on fluoxetine effects during juvenile brain development can help maintain safe and effective use of this therapy. Here, a narrative review is provided of previously published findings from a large nonhuman primate project. Fluoxetine was administered to juvenile male rhesus monkeys for an extended period (2 years) prior to puberty...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Dilara Yüksel, Bruno Dietsche, Carsten Konrad, Udo Dannlowski, Tilo Kircher, Axel Krug
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) show deficits in working memory (WM) performance accompanied by bilateral fronto-parietal signal changes. It is unclear whether patients with a first depressive episode (FDE) exhibit the same BOLD signal changes as patients with recurrent depressive episodes (RDE). METHODS: We investigated seventy-four MDD inpatients (48 RDE, 26 FDE) and 74 healthy control (HC) subjects performing an n-back WM task (0-back, 2-back, 3-back condition) in a 3T-fMRI...
February 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Shile Qi, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Vince D Calhoun, Nora Perrone-Bizzozero, Shengfeng Liu, Rongtao Jiang, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui, Xiaohong Ma
There is compelling evidence that epigenetic factors contribute to the manifestation of depression, in which microRNA132 (miR-132) is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and neuronal mechanisms underlying the symptoms of depression. Additionally, several depression-associated genes [MECP2, ARHGAP32 (p250GAP), CREB, and period genes] were experimentally validated as miR-132 targets. However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic comparisons...
February 2, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Naama Hamo, Amitai Abramovitch, Ada Zohar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ample research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals a moderate degree of underperformance on various neuropsychological tasks. Less is known about neuropsychological function in subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) samples. Most analogue OCD studies did not use a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and none utilized a fully computerized battery. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a subclinical OC sample using a validated computerized neuropsychological battery...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Iris van Oostrom, Philip van Eijndhoven, Elke Butterbrod, Maria H van Beek, Joost Janzing, Rogier Donders, Aart Schene, Indira Tendolkar
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still the most effective treatment of severe and therapy-refractory major depressive disorder. Cognitive side effects are the major disadvantage of ECT. Cognitive deficits are generally temporary in nature and may be mediated by the hippocampus. Recent studies have shown a temporary increase in hippocampal volume and a temporary decrease in cognitive functioning post-ECT compared with pre-ECT. This study investigates whether these volumetric changes are related to changes in cognitive functioning after ECT...
January 31, 2018: Journal of ECT
Arthur D P Mak, Domily T Y Lau, Alicia K W Chan, Suzanne H W So, Owen Leung, Sheila L Y Wong, Linda Lam, C M Leung, Sing Lee
Cognition dysfunction may reflect trait characteristics of bipolarity but cognitive effects of medications have confounded previous comparisons of cognitive function between bipolar II and unipolar depression, which are distinct clinical disorders with some overlaps. Therefore, we examined the executive function (WCST), attention, cognitive speed (TMT-A) and memory (CAVLT, WMS-Visual reproduction) of 20 treatment-naïve bipolar II patients (BPII), 35 treatment-naïve unipolar depressed (UD) patients, and 35 age/sex/education matched healthy controls...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caitlin Hitchcock, Siobhan Gormley, Cliodhna O'Leary, Evangeline Rodrigues, Isobel Wright, Kirsty Griffiths, Julia Gillard, Peter Watson, Emily Hammond, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Tim Dalgleish
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic condition. Although current treatment approaches are effective in reducing acute depressive symptoms, rates of relapse are high. Chronic and inflexible retrieval of autobiographical memories, and in particular a bias towards negative and overgeneral memories, is a reliable predictor of relapse. This randomised controlled single-blind trial will determine whether a therapist-guided self-help intervention to ameliorate autobiographical memory biases using Memory Flexibility training (MemFlex) will increase the experience of depression-free days, relative to a psychoeducation control condition, in the 12 months following intervention...
January 29, 2018: BMJ Open
Jon E Grant, Michael Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: There is little research concerning whether race is associated with different clinical presentations of psychiatric disorders. Understanding the racial aspects of cognitive differences among depressed adults could help identify specific targets for depression treatment. METHODS: We recruited 59 participants (52.5% white, 47.5% African American), age 18 to 60, with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). All participants underwent a cognitive battery that included tasks assessing decision-making, response inhibition, working memory, and executive planning...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Jayakrishnan Nair, Arndt-Lukas Klaassen, Jozsef Arato, Alexei L Vyssotski, Michael Harvey, Gregor Rainer
The default mode network (DMN) is a collection of cortical brain regions that is active during states of rest or quiet wakefulness in humans and other mammalian species. A pertinent characteristic of the DMN is a suppression of local field potential gamma activity during cognitive task performance as well as during engagement with external sensory stimuli. Conversely, gamma activity is elevated in the DMN during rest. Here, we document that the rat basal forebrain (BF) exhibits the same pattern of responses, namely pronounced gamma oscillations during quiet wakefulness in the home cage and suppression of this activity during active exploration of an unfamiliar environment...
January 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
Marcus O Harrington, Jennifer M Johnson, Harriet E Croom, Kyla Pennington, Simon J Durrant
Negative emotional memory bias is thought to play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of major depressive disorder. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep has been shown to selectively consolidate negative emotional memories in healthy participants, and is greater in quantity and density in depressed patients. Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS) is typically associated with the consolidation of non-emotional memories. However, the effects of REM sleep and SWS on emotional memory consolidation have not been investigated in participants reporting depressive symptoms...
December 15, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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