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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#1
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270343/comprehensive-neuropsychological-evaluation-of-children-and-adolescents-with-sickle-cell-anemia-a-hospital-based-sample
#3
Samantha Nunes, Nayara Argollo, Marivania Mota, Camilo Vieira, Eduardo Pondé de Sena
BACKGROUND: Individuals with sickle cell anemia may suffer symptomatic or silent cerebral infarcts leading to neurocognitive complications. This study investigated the cognitive and intellectual performance of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. METHODS: The socioeconomic status, clinical aspects and behavioral profile of 15 young individuals with sickle cell anemia were evaluated. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Test, and the Child Behavior Checklist were applied...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241886/comparison-of-associated-features-and-drug-treatment-between-co-occurring-unipolar-and-bipolar-disorders-in-depressed-eating-disorder-patients
#4
Mei-Chih Meg Tseng, Chin-Hao Chang, Shih-Cheng Liao, Hsi-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: To examine the differences of associated characteristics and prescription drug use between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs). METHODS: Patients with EDs and major depressive episode (MDE) were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics. They were interviewed and completed self-administered measures assessing eating and general psychopathology. The prescribed drugs at the index outpatient visit were recorded...
February 27, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229112/chronic-psychosocial-stressors-in-adulthood-studies-in-mice-rats-and-tree-shrews
#5
REVIEW
Christopher R Pryce, Eberhard Fuchs
Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221056/memory-support-strategies-and-bundles-a-pathway-to-improving-cognitive-therapy-for-depression
#6
Lu Dong, Jason Y Lee, Allison G Harvey
OBJECTIVE: Therapist use of memory support (MS) alongside treatment-as-usual, with the goal of enhancing patient recall of treatment contents, has been of recent interest as a novel pathway to improve treatment outcome. The memory support intervention (MSI) involves treatment providers' using 8 specific MS strategies to promote patient memory for treatment. The present study examines to what extent therapist use of MS strategies and bundles improves patient recall of treatment contents and treatment outcome...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#7
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193126/predictors-of-major-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Maryse C Cnossen, Annemieke C Scholten, Hester F Lingsma, Anneliese Synnot, Juanita Haagsma, Prof Ewout W Steyerberg, Suzanne Polinder
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about which patients are at risk for developing them. The authors systematically reviewed the literature on predictors and multivariable models for MDD and PTSD after TBI. The authors included 26 observational studies. MDD was associated with female gender, preinjury depression, postinjury unemployment, and lower brain volume, whereas PTSD was related to shorter posttraumatic amnesia, memory of the traumatic event, and early posttraumatic symptoms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169947/cognitive-performance-under-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-in-ect-naive-treatment-resistant-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Christoph Ziegelmayer, Göran Hajak, Anne Bauer, Marion Held, Rainer Rupprecht, Wolfgang Trapp
OBJECTIVES: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered a safe and highly effective treatment option for major depressive disorder, there are still some reservations with regard to possible adverse cognitive adverse effects. This is the case despite a large body of evidence showing that these deficits are transient and that there even seems to be a long-term improvement of cognitive functioning level. However, most data concerning cognitive adverse effects stem from studies using mixed samples of treatment-resistant and non-treatment-resistant as well as ECT-naive and non-ECT-naive subjects...
February 7, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138426/alterations-in-visual-cortical-activation-and-connectivity-with-prefrontal-cortex-during-working-memory-updating-in-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Thang M Le, John A Borghi, Autumn J Kujawa, Daniel N Klein, Hoi-Chung Leung
The present study examined the impacts of major depressive disorder (MDD) on visual and prefrontal cortical activity as well as their connectivity during visual working memory updating and related them to the core clinical features of the disorder. Impairment in working memory updating is typically associated with the retention of irrelevant negative information which can lead to persistent depressive mood and abnormal affect. However, performance deficits have been observed in MDD on tasks involving little or no demand on emotion processing, suggesting dysfunctions may also occur at the more basic level of information processing...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138157/forebrain-specific-ablation-of-phospholipase-c%C3%AE-1-causes-manic-like-behavior
#11
Y R Yang, J H Jung, S-J Kim, K Hamada, A Suzuki, H J Kim, J H Lee, O-B Kwon, Y K Lee, J Kim, E-K Kim, H-J Jang, D-S Kang, J-S Choi, C J Lee, J Marshall, H-Y Koh, C-J Kim, H Seok, S H Kim, J H Choi, Y-B Choi, L Cocco, S H Ryu, J-H Kim, P-G Suh
Manic episodes are one of the major diagnostic symptoms in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders that include schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder (BD). Despite a possible association between BD and the gene encoding phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCG1), its etiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report that mice lacking phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) in the forebrain (Plcg1(f/f); CaMKII) exhibit hyperactivity, decreased anxiety-like behavior, reduced depressive-related behavior, hyperhedonia, hyperphagia, impaired learning and memory and exaggerated startle responses...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132044/acquisition-and-consolidation-of-two-way-active-avoidance-in-the-high-immobilization-depressive-rats
#12
N Nachkebia, M Shavgulidze, O Mchedlidze, E Chkhartishvili, E Chijavadze
Present study investigated possible changes in acquisition and consolidation of associative memory in high immobilization "depressive" and low immobilization "non-depressive" rats. Question is very topical because understanding the character of learning and memory disturbances, one of symptoms of major depressive disease, is very significant for more intimate definition of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder and appropriate searching the ways of its correction. Selection of rats according to the level of immobilization was made by means of forced swim test...
December 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096869/short-term-psychiatric-rehabilitation-in-major-depressive-and-bipolar-disorders-neuropsychological-psychosocial-outcomes
#13
Giampaolo Perna, Silvia Daccò, Ferdinando Sacco, Wilma Micieli, Paolo Cavedini, Daniela Caldirola
OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of a Short-Term (4 weeks) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program (S-T PsyRP), without specific cognitive remediation trainings, on the neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning of inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Published studies with similar aims are lacking. METHODS: Fifty-three inpatients with MDD and 27 with BD (type I/II) were included. The S-T PsyRP was usually performed as clinical practice at Villa San Benedetto Menni Hospital and included a variety of activities aimed at promoting personal autonomies, interpersonal/social skills, and self-care...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095052/increased-gamma-connectivity-during-working-memory-retention-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Neil W Bailey, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Jerome J Maller, Rebecca A Segrave, Caley M Sullivan, Paul B Fitzgerald
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Alterations to functional connectivity following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to impaired cognitive performance and major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, functional gamma band connectivity is thought to reflect information binding important for working memory. The objective of this study was to determine whether altered functional gamma connectivity may be a factor in MDD following TBI (TBI-MDD). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study assessed individuals with TBI-MDD, as well as individuals with TBI alone and MDD alone using electroencephalographic recordings while participants performed a working memory task to assess differences in functional connectivity between these groups...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067785/relationships-between-gat1-and-ptsd-depression-and-substance-use-disorder
#15
Kaitlin E Bountress, Wei Wei, Christina Sheerin, Dongjun Chung, Ananda B Amstadter, Howard Mandel, Zhewu Wang
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) have large public health impacts. Therefore, researchers have attempted to identify those at greatest risk for these phenotypes. PTSD, MDD, and SUD are in part genetically influenced. Additionally, genes in the glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system are implicated in the encoding of emotional and fear memories, and thus may impact these phenotypes. The current study examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in GAT1 individually, and at the gene level, using a principal components (PC) approach, with PTSD, PTSD comorbid with MDD, and PTSD comorbid with SUD in 486 combat-exposed veterans...
January 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040657/neuropsychological-profiles-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-during-euthymia-a-systematic-literature-review-of-comparative-studies
#16
REVIEW
Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Marina P Valerio, José M Smith, Cecilia Samamé, Diego J Martino, Sergio A Strejilevich
Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder have been shown to be associated with neurocognitive abnormalities during periods of clinical remission. However, at present, there is no consensus on whether these disorders have distinctive cognitive profiles. The aim of this study was to provide an updated systematic review of studies comparing neuropsychological functioning between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder during remission. Main findings included the following: 1) no differences regarding performances in measures of attention and processing speed, executive functions and theory of mind were found between both patient groups and 2) regarding verbal memory, preliminary evidence points towards a more defective performance in patients with bipolar disorder than those with major depressive disorder...
December 24, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025035/resveratrol-suppresses-neuroinflammation-in-the-experimental-paradigm-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Ranjana Bhandari, Anurag Kuhad
BACKGROUND: Neuronal dysfunction caused by neuroinflammation triggered by the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinases and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as a result of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, is one of the probable mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the present study was to explore the ameliorative potential of resveratrol on neuroinflammation in the experimental paradigm of neuroinflammatory model of ASD in rats...
February 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003806/psychological-disorders-and-ecological-factors-affect-the-development-of-executive-functions-%C3%A2-some-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Rafika Zebdi, Louise Goyet, Charlotte Pinabiaux, Bahia Guellaï
The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so. Observations evidenced that some deficits in working memory, planning, and mental flexibility were highly correlated with anxiety and depressive disorders. The majority of studies focused on adults' population, whereas it seems important to adopt a developmental perspective to fully understand the dynamic relation of these EF/psychological disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002634/fkbp5-polymorphisms-influence-pre-learning-stress-induced-alterations-of-learning-and-memory
#19
Phillip R Zoladz, Alison M Dailey, Hannah E Nagle, Miranda K Fiely, Brianne E Mosley, Callie M Brown, Tessa J Duffy, Amanda R Scharf, McKenna B Earley, Boyd R Rorabaugh
FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role...
March 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999666/beclin-1-mediated-autophagy-may-be-involved-in-the-elderly-cognitive-and-affective-disorders-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#20
Zhu-Fei Guan, Xiu-Ling Zhou, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yan-Mei Wang, Qi-Lin Guo, Gang Ji, Guo-Feng Wu, Na-Na Wang, Hao Yang, Zhong-Yu Yu, Hou-Guang Zhou, Jing-Chun Guo, Ying-Chao Liu
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease with many chronic complications, and cognitive disorders are one of the common complications in patients with diabetes. Previous studies have showed that autophagy played important roles in the progression of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and other diseases. So we investigated whether aged diabetic mice are prone to be associated with the cognitive and affective disorders and whether Beclin-1-mediated autophagy might be involved in thepahological process...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
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