Read by QxMD icon Read


J M Grünwaldt, G Castellaro, E R Flores, C R Morales-Nieto, R D Valdez-Cepeda, J C Guevera, E G Grünwaldt
This article discusses various aspects of pastoralism in the Latin American countries with the largest dryland areas. The topics covered include: social, economic and institutional issues; grasslands and their carrying capacity; production systems and productivity rates; competition for forage resources between domestic livestock and wildlife; and the health status of livestock and wildlife. Most grasslands exhibit some degree of degradation. The percentage of offspring reaching weaning age is low: 47-66% of calves and 40-80% of lambs...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
O Lung, T Furukawa-Stoffer, K Burton Hughes, J Pasick, D P King, D Hodko
Microarrays can be a useful tool for pathogen detection as it allow for simultaneous interrogation of the presence of a large number of genetic sequences in a sample. However, conventional microarrays require extensive manual handling and multiple pieces of equipment for printing probes, hybridization, washing and signal detection. In this study, a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with an accompanying novel automated microarray for simultaneous detection of eight viruses that affect cattle [vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, bovine herpesvirus 1, bluetongue virus, malignant catarrhal fever virus, rinderpest virus (RPV) and parapox viruses] is described...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Nicola Logan, William G Dundon, Adama Diallo, Michael D Baron, M James Nyarobi, Sarah Cleaveland, Julius Keyyu, Robert Fyumagwa, Margaret J Hosie, Brian J Willett
The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses...
November 11, 2016: Vaccine
Ramasamy Santhamani, Rabindra Prasad Singh, Felix Njeumi
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of small ruminants, targeted for global eradication by the year 2030. The recent geographic surge in PPR virus distribution, economic implications, the success of the rinderpest eradication campaign, and ongoing national/regional efforts convinced the FAO and OIE to initiate a global PPR control and eradication strategy. Since its discovery, a series of diagnostic tools have been developed for detecting PPR virus and virus-specific antibodies...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
Fuxiao Liu, Xiaodong Wu, Lin Li, Yanli Zou, Shan Liu, Zhiliang Wang
The genus Morbillivirus is classified into the family Paramyxoviridae, and is composed of 6 members, namely measles virus (MV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). The MV, RPV, PPRV and CDV have been successfully attenuated through their serial passages in vitro for the production of live vaccines. It has been demonstrated that the morbilliviral virulence in animals was progressively attenuated with their consecutive passages in vitro...
August 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Jeffrey C Mariner, Bryony A Jones, Karl M Rich, Samuel Thevasagayam, John Anderson, Martyn Jeggo, Yi Cai, Andrew R Peters, Peter L Roeder
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of sheep and goats that is caused by PPR virus, a member of the genus Morbillivirus that includes the viruses that cause rinderpest (RP) in cattle. RP was the first animal disease to be globally eradicated in 2011 and is only the second disease, after smallpox, to have ever been eradicated. PPR is one of the principal constraints to small ruminant production in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The epidemiology of PPR and RP as well as the technologies available for their diagnosis and control are similar...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Piyush Kumar Singh, Shaila Melkote Subbarao
L protein of the Rinderpest virus, an archetypal paramyxovirus possesses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity which transcribes the genome into mRNAs as well as replicates the RNA genome. The protein also possesses RNA triphosphatase (RTPase), guanylyltransferase (GTase) and methyltransferase enzyme activities responsible for capping the mRNAs in a conventional pathway similar to that of the host pathway. Subsequent to the earlier characterization of the GTase activity of L protein and identification of the RTPase domain of the L protein, we report here, additional enzymatic activities associated with the RTPase domain...
October 2016: Virus Genes
Amir Zakian, Mohammad Nouri, Houman Kahroba, Babak Mohammadian, Mohammad-Reza Mokhber-Dezfouli
In mid-July 2013, an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was observed in a herd of camels after they were imported from Kuwait to the Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. The clinical signs of the affected animals included sudden death, fever, oral erosion, and ecthyma like lesions, yellowish diarrhea, pneumonia and respiratory distress, enlargement of lymph node, severe dehydration, dermatitis, ulcerative keratitis, and conjunctivitis. Necropsy findings included keratoconjunctivitis, congestion and consolidation of the lung, paleness of the liver, and enlargement and edema of lymph nodes...
August 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rupert Mazzucco, Ulf Dieckmann, Johan A J Metz
Despite modern medical interventions, infectious diseases continue to generate huge socio-economic losses. The benefits of eradicating a disease are therefore high. While successful with smallpox and rinderpest, many other eradication attempts have failed. Eradications require huge and costly efforts, which can be sustained only if sufficient progress can be achieved. While initial successes are usually obtained more easily, progress often becomes harder as a disease becomes rare in the eradication endgame...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Barbara Holzer, Sophia Hodgson, Nicola Logan, Brian Willett, Michael D Baron
UNLABELLED: Although rinderpest virus (RPV) has been eradicated in the wild, efforts are still continuing to restrict the extent to which live virus is distributed in facilities around the world and to prepare for any reappearance of the disease, whether through deliberate or accidental release. In an effort to find an alternative vaccine which could be used in place of the traditional live attenuated RPV strains, we have determined whether cattle can be protected from rinderpest by inoculation with vaccine strains of the related morbillivirus, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Heidemarie Holzmann, Hartmut Hengel, Matthias Tenbusch, H W Doerr
Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years...
June 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Sham Nambulli, Claire R Sharp, Andrew S Acciardo, J Felix Drexler, W Paul Duprex
Morbilliviruses are pathogens of humans and other animals. Live attenuated morbillivirus vaccines have been used to end endemic transmission of measles virus (MV) in many parts of the developed world and to eradicate rinderpest virus. Entry is mediated by two different receptors which govern virus lymphotropism and epitheliotropism. Morbillivirus transmissibility is unparalleled and MV represents the most infectious human pathogen on earth. Their evolutionary origins remain obscure and their potential for adaption to new hosts is poorly understood...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Bryony A Jones, Karl M Rich, Jeffrey C Mariner, John Anderson, Martyn Jeggo, Sam Thevasagayam, Yi Cai, Andrew R Peters, Peter Roeder
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries...
2016: PloS One
William Taylor
Gordon Scott did much to inspire the eradication of rinderpest, probably the most outstanding veterinary achievement of the twentieth century, and one currently inspiring is the proposed eradication of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a disease of sheep and goats caused by a closely related Morbillivirus. The evolution and geographic spread of PPR along with its epidemiological characteristics are discussed and related to ways in which its spread can be reduced through the provision of diagnostic aids to sanitary livestock movement at local level...
March 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Keith Hamilton, Dawid Visser, Brian Evans, Bernard Vallat
In 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. Rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. However, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are committed to destroying remaining stocks of infectious material or ensuring that it is stored under international supervision in a limited number of approved facilities...
December 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Muhammad Abubakar, Muhammad Irfan, Shumaila Manzoor
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is considered to be one of the main constraints to enhancing the productivity of goats and sheep in regions where it is present and becoming endemic. PPR was recognized in Pakistan in early 1990s but got importance during the Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS) of Rinderpest Eradication Campaign. Lot of research work has been initiated during last decade towards disease epidemiology, risk factor recognition, laboratory diagnosis, vaccination and demonstration of control strategies...
2015: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Francisco J Berguido, Sanne Charles Bodjo, Angelika Loitsch, Adama Diallo
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious and often fatal transboundary animal disease affecting mostly sheep, goats and wild small ruminants. This disease is endemic in most of Africa, the Middle, Near East, and large parts of Asia. The causal agent is peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), which belongs to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. This genus also includes measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and rinderpest virus (RPV). All are closely related viruses with serological cross reactivity...
January 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Felisa A Smith, John I Hammond, Meghan A Balk, Scott M Elliott, S Kathleen Lyons, Melissa I Pardi, Catalina P Tomé, Peter J Wagner, Marie L Westover
Globally, large-bodied wild mammals are in peril. Because "megamammals" have a disproportionate influence on vegetation, trophic interactions, and ecosystem function, declining populations are of considerable conservation concern. However, this is not new; trophic downgrading occurred in the past, including the African rinderpest epizootic of the 1890s, the massive Great Plains bison kill-off in the 1860s, and the terminal Pleistocene extinction of megafauna. Examining the consequences of these earlier events yields insights into contemporary ecosystem function...
January 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Gopinath, M S Shaila
Post-transcriptional modification of viral mRNA is essential for the translation of viral proteins by cellular translation machinery. Due to the cytoplasmic replication of Paramyxoviruses, the viral-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) is thought to possess all activities required for mRNA capping and methylation. In the present work, using partially purified recombinant RNA polymerase complex of rinderpest virus expressed in insect cells, we demonstrate the in vitro methylation of capped mRNA. Further, we show that a recombinant C-terminal fragment (1717-2183 aa) of L protein is capable of methylating capped mRNA, suggesting that the various post-transcriptional activities of the L protein are located in independently folding domains...
December 2015: Virus Genes
Hitomi Takamatsu, Kazuya Terui, Takehiro Kokuho
Rinderpest vaccine strain LA-AKO, which is less virulent especially to highly susceptible Asian cattle breeds, was established from a lapinized vaccine strain by further passages in rabbit and chick embryos. Here, we report the genome sequence of LA-AKO, which currently remains active for the production of an emergent vaccine in Japan.
2015: Genome Announcements
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"