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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149454/melatonin-alleviates-adipose-inflammation-through-elevating-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-and-diverting-adipose-derived-exosomes-to-macrophages-in-mice
#1
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Tiantian Zhang, Qian Ren, Chao Sun
Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration and metabolic inflammation, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Melatonin is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammatory response of adipocytes and macrophages activation. However, the effects of melatonin on the communication between adipocytes and macrophages during adipose inflammation remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated melatonin alleviated inflammation and elevated α-ketoglutarate (αKG) level in adipose tissue of obese mice...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121225/time-dependent-glucocorticoid-administration-differently-affects-peripheral-circadian-rhythm-in-rats
#2
Tao Wu, Zhengwei Fu
There is a growing recognition that glucocorticoid (GC) acts as an internal timing signal for peripheral circadian oscillators. However, the transcription process of GC-related clock gene in the peripheral tissues is not fully understood. The present study was designed to explore the potential role of clock genes in the GC-induced peripheral circadian gene expression invivo. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the transcript levels of Per1 and Dec1 were rapidly up-regulated within 0.5 and 1 h in the heart and kidney respectively after stimulation with dexamethasone (Dex)...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099652/impact-of-short-compared-to-long-haul-international-travel-on-the-sleep-and-wellbeing-of-national-wheelchair-basketball-athletes
#3
Heidi R Thornton, Joanna Miller, Lee Taylor, Charli Sargent, Michele Lastella, Peter M Fowler
Currently, very little is known about the impact of short- or long-haul air travel on the sleep and wellbeing of wheelchair basketball athletes. Eleven national wheelchair basketball athletes wore actigraphy monitors prior, during, and after air travel to the United Kingdom. Upon arrival, participants rated their subjective jet-lag, fatigue, and vigor. Individuals traveled to the United Kingdom from different locations in Australia, the United States, and Europe and were categorised according to travel length [LONG (up to 30...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#4
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094337/morningness-eveningness-is-not-associated-with-academic-performance-in-the-afternoon-school-shift-preliminary-findings
#5
Arturo Arrona-Palacios, Juan F Díaz-Morales
BACKGROUND: The effect of morningness-eveningness, sleep habits, and intelligence on academic performance has been studied in a fixed morning school shift. However, no studies have analysed these variables in an afternoon school shift and tested whether morningness-eveningness is related to academic performance beyond sleep habits and intelligence effects. AIMS: The psychometric properties of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) were analysed. Additionally, academic performance, sex, intelligence, sleep habits, and morningness-eveningness relationship in a morning and afternoon school shift were compared...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064299/multilevel-modeling-of-chronotype-and-weekdays-versus-weekends-to-predict-nonrestorative-sleep
#6
Joshua Tutek, Hylton E Molzof, Kenneth L Lichstein
Nonrestorative sleep, a form of subjective sleep disturbance that has been largely neglected in the literature, is newly accessible to researchers via the validated restorative sleep questionnaire (RSQ). The daily version of the RSQ allows for analysis of within-subjects variation in restorative sleep across repeated samplings, and such day-to-day regularity in sleep variables has been highlighted as an important new direction for research. The present study used a sophisticated statistical approach, multilevel modeling, to examine the contributions of circadian chronotype, calendar day of questionnaire completion (weekends versus weekdays), and their interaction in explaining both interindividual and intraindividual variance in restorative sleep...
October 24, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061320/arginine-vasopressin-signaling-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-on-the-resilience-of-circadian-clock-to-jet-lag
#7
Yoshiaki Yamaguchi
Almost all organisms on Earth have an internal biological clock, known as the circadian clock. This clock system drives robust oscillations in metabolism, physiology, and behavior, such as hormone secretions, blood pressure, and sleep/wake cycles, with a period of approximately 24h. In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated by a timing system comprised of a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus, which orchestrates the clocks in the peripheral tissues. Jet lag, caused by an abrupt change of environmental light-dark cycles, induces a temporal misalignment of the output signal from SCN...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987464/reentrainment-of-the-circadian-pacemaker-during-jet-lag-east-west-asymmetry-and-the-effects-of-north-south-travel
#8
Casey O Diekman, Amitabha Bose
The normal alignment of circadian rhythms with the 24-h light-dark cycle is disrupted after rapid travel between home and destination time zones, leading to sleep problems, indigestion, and other symptoms collectively known as jet lag. Using mathematical and computational analysis, we study the process of reentrainment to the light-dark cycle of the destination time zone in a model of the human circadian pacemaker. We calculate the reentrainment time for travel between any two points on the globe at any time of the day and year...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968186/development-and-therapeutic-potential-of-small-molecule-modulators-of-circadian-systems
#9
Zheng Chen, Seung-Hee Yoo, Joseph S Takahashi
Circadian timekeeping systems drive oscillatory gene expression to regulate essential cellular and physiological processes. When the systems are perturbed, pathological consequences ensue and disease risks rise. A growing number of small-molecule modulators have been reported to target circadian systems. Such small molecules, identified via high-throughput screening or derivatized from known scaffolds, have shown promise as drug candidates to improve biological timing and physiological outputs in disease models...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922821/individual-traveller-health-priorities-and-the-pre-travel-health-consultation
#10
Gerard T Flaherty, Bingling Chen, Gloria Avalos
The purpose of this study was to examine the principal travel health priorities of travellers. The most frequently selected travel health concerns were accessing medical care abroad, dying abroad, insect bites, malaria, personal safety and travel security threats. The travel health risks of least concern were culture shock, fear of flying, jet lag and sexually transmitted infections. This study is the first to develop a hierarchy of self-declared travel health risk priorities among travellers.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910545/complementing-the-social-jet-lag-by-considering-pristine-internal-time
#11
J V Groß, L Fritschi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910539/actual-versus-preferred-sleep-times-as-a-proxy-of-biological-time-for-social-jet-lag
#12
Konrad S Jankowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845960/sleep-disorders-circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Deepa Burman
Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized countries because of the need for occupations and services to continue to function 24 hours/day. Approximately 20% of employed adults in the United States are engaged in shift work. Shift work sleep disorder is diagnosed if there is a report of insomnia or excessive sleepiness for at least 3 months associated with a recurring work schedule that overlaps the usual time for sleep. Shift work is associated with an increased occurrence of metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, and it has been implicated in weight gain and cognitive impairment...
September 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777176/circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders
#14
Milena Pavlova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The endogenous circadian rhythms are one of the cardinal processes that control sleep. They are self-sustaining biological rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours that may be entrained by external zeitgebers (German for time givers), such as light, exercise, and meal times. This article discusses the physiology of the circadian rhythms, their relationship to neurologic disease, and the presentation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761560/design-and-analysis-of-a-continuous-split-typed-needle-free-injection-system-for-animal-vaccination
#15
Kai Chen, Min Pan, Tingting Liu
BACKGROUND: Liquid needle-free injection devices (NFIDs) employ a high-velocity liquid jet to deliver drugs and vaccine through transdermal injection. NFIDs for animal vaccination are more complicated than those used for human beings for their much larger and more flexible power sources, as well as rapid, repetitive and continuous injection features. METHOD: In the paper, spring-powered NFID is designed for animal vaccine injection. For convenience, the device is a split into a power source and handheld injector...
2017: Open Biomedical Engineering Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745192/rescheduling-of-meals-may-ease-the-effects-of-jet-lag
#16
(no author information available yet)
Altering mealtimes could be a drug-free way to deal with the effects of jet lag and shift work.
July 26, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738331/future-perspectives-in-sleep-medicine
#17
Leh-Kiong Anne Huon, Christian Guilleminault
"Sleep Medicine" is now a specialty in its own right. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the very negative impact sleep disorders have on learning, education, safety, and quality of life. Technological advances will help us to break down diagnoses (e.g., narcolepsy has now been subdivided into types 1 and 2, depending upon the hypocretin levels in the spinal fluid) and to discover relationships to other bodily systems (e.g., type 1 narcolepsy potentially being an autoimmune disorder). The modern lifestyle of many, as characterized by a shortening of sleep periods, shift work, jet lag, and the need to be constantly available, means that advances in sleep medicine may result in a major understanding of more balanced "work-rest lifestyle" modifications...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730830/preventive-effect-of-l-carnitine-on-the-disorder-of-lipid-metabolism-and-circadian-cclock-of-mice-subjected-to-chronic-jet-lag
#18
X Xie, A Guo, T Wu, Q Hu, L Huang, C Yao, B Zhao, W Zhang, B Chi, P Lu, Z Zhao, Z Fu
Circadian clock plays an essential role in orchestrating daily physiology, and its disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as obesity. L-Carnitine can reduce blood lipid levels, and ameliorate fatty liver through regulating lipid metabolism. However, whether L-Carnitine administration may affect the disturbance of lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm of mice induced by prolonged circadian disruption is still unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of L-Carnitine on conditions of circadian clock and lipid metabolism through a chronic jet-lag mice model which was developed by reversing12 h light/12 h dark cycle every 4 days for a continuous 12 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#19
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721279/age-related-circadian-disorganization-caused-by-sympathetic-dysfunction-in-peripheral-clock-regulation
#20
Yu Tahara, Yuta Takatsu, Takuya Shiraishi, Yosuke Kikuchi, Mayu Yamazaki, Hiroaki Motohashi, Aya Muto, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Daisuke Kuriki, Takahiro J Nakamura, Shigenobu Shibata
The ability of the circadian clock to adapt to environmental changes is critical for maintaining homeostasis, preventing disease, and limiting the detrimental effects of aging. To date, little is known about age-related changes in the entrainment of peripheral clocks to external cues. We therefore evaluated the ability of the peripheral clocks of the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland to be entrained by external stimuli including light, food, stress, and exercise in young versus aged mice using in vivo bioluminescence monitoring...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
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