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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052921/the-circadian-oscillator-of-the-cerebral-cortex-molecular-biochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-deleting-the-arntl-clock-gene-in-cortical-neurons
#1
Tenna Bering, Mikkel Bloss Carstensen, Gitta Wörtwein, Pia Weikop, Martin Fredensborg Rath
A molecular circadian oscillator resides in neurons of the cerebral cortex, but its role is unknown. Using the Cre-LoxP method, we have here abolished the core clock gene Arntl in those neurons. This mouse represents the first model carrying a deletion of a circadian clock component specifically in an extrahypothalamic cell type of the brain. Molecular analyses of clock gene expression in the cerebral cortex of the Arntl conditional knockout mouse revealed disrupted circadian expression profiles, whereas clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus was still rhythmic, thus showing that Arntl is required for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator...
January 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987529/melatonin-promotes-circadian-rhythm-induced-proliferation-through-interaction-of-clock-hdac3-c-myc-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#2
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Dan Luo, Chao Sun
Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and controls circadian rhythm of peripheral adipose tissue, resulting in changes in body weight. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms of circadian rhythm-mediated proliferation in adipose tissue is still limited. Here, we showed that melatonin (20 mg/kg/day) promoted circadian and proliferation processes in white adipose tissue. The circadian amplitudes of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1 (Bmal1, p < 0...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981356/chronomedicine-and-type-2-diabetes-shining-some-light-on-melatonin
#3
REVIEW
Andrew C Forrestel, Susanne U Miedlich, Michael Yurcheshen, Steven D Wittlin, Michael T Sellix
In mammals, the circadian timing system drives rhythms of physiology and behaviour, including the daily rhythms of feeding and activity. The timing system coordinates temporal variation in the biochemical landscape with changes in nutrient intake in order to optimise energy balance and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Circadian disruption (e.g. as a result of shift work or jet lag) can disturb this continuity and increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Obesity and metabolic disease can also disturb the timing and amplitude of the clock in multiple organ systems, further exacerbating disease progression...
December 16, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940437/chronic-jet-lag-promotes-metabolic-dysfunction-and-hepatocarcinogenesis
#4
(no author information available yet)
Chronic circadian dysfunction disrupts liver gene expression and metabolism to promote NAFLD and cancer.
January 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935421/the-effect-of-westward-travel-across-five-time-zones-on-sleep-and-subjective-jet-lag-ratings-in-athletes-before-and-during-the-2015-s-world-rowing-junior-championships
#5
Sarah Kölling, Gunnar Treff, Kay Winkert, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann
This study examined sleep-wake habits and subjective jet-lag ratings of 55 German junior rowers (n = 30 male, 17.8 ± 0.5 years) before and during the World Rowing Junior Championships 2015 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes answered sleep logs every morning, and Liverpool John Moore's University Jet-Lag Questionnaires each evening and morning. Following an 11-h westward flight with 5-h time shift, advanced bedtimes (-1 h, P < .001, ηp(2) = 0.68), reduced sleep onset latency (P = .002, ηp(2) = 0...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905417/cancer-jet-lag-increases-mouse-cancer-risk
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890591/circadian-waveform-bifurcation-but-not-phase-shifting-leaves-cued-fear-memory-intact
#7
E M Harrison, S A Carmack, C L Block, J Sun, S G Anagnostaras, M R Gorman
In mammals, memory acquisition and retrieval can be affected by time of day, as well as by manipulations of the light/dark cycle. Under bifurcation, a manipulation of circadian waveform, two subjective days and nights are experimentally induced in rodents. We examined the effect of bifurcation on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a prominent model of learning and memory. Here we demonstrate that bifurcation of the circadian waveform produces a small deficit in acquisition, but not on retrieval of fear memory. In contrast, repeated phase-shifting in a simulated jet-lag protocol impairs retrieval of memory for cued fear...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889186/circadian-homeostasis-of-liver-metabolism-suppresses-hepatocarcinogenesis
#8
Nicole M Kettner, Horatio Voicu, Milton J Finegold, Cristian Coarfa, Arun Sreekumar, Nagireddy Putluri, Chinenye A Katchy, Choogon Lee, David D Moore, Loning Fu
Chronic jet lag induces spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wild-type mice following a mechanism very similar to that observed in obese humans. The process initiates with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and fibrosis before HCC detection. This pathophysiological pathway is driven by jet-lag-induced genome-wide gene deregulation and global liver metabolic dysfunction, with nuclear receptor-controlled cholesterol/bile acid and xenobiotic metabolism among the top deregulated pathways...
December 12, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855744/melatonin-natural-health-products-and-supplements-presence-of-serotonin-and-significant-variability-of-melatonin-content
#9
Lauren A E Erland, Praveen K Saxena
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Melatonin is an important neurohormone, which mediates circadian rhythms and the sleep cycle. As such, it is a popular and readily available supplement for the treatment and prevention of sleep-related disorders including insomnia and jet lag. This study quantified melatonin in 30 commercial supplements, comprising different brands and forms and screened supplements for the presence of serotonin. METHODS: A total of 31 supplements were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for quantification of melatonin and serotonin...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819313/circadian-rhythms-of-european-and-african-americans-after-a-large-delay-of-sleep-as-in-jet-lag-and-night-work
#10
Charmane I Eastman, Victoria A Tomaka, Stephanie J Crowley
Jet travel and night shift work produce large changes in when people sleep, work and eat; a challenge that was not encountered during most of our evolution. Successful adaptation would require the internal, master, circadian clock to make large phase shifts to reduce the circadian misalignment between circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work and meals. We compared African-Americans and non-Hispanic European-Americans in how much their circadian clocks shifted after a 9 hour phase delay of the light/dark, sleep/wake and meal schedule, which has similarities to flying west or sleeping in the daytime after night shifts...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792172/circadian-rhythm-shapes-the-gut-microbiota-affecting-host-radiosensitivity
#11
Ming Cui, Huiwen Xiao, Dan Luo, Xin Zhang, Shuyi Zhao, Qisheng Zheng, Yuan Li, Yu Zhao, Jiali Dong, Hang Li, Haichao Wang, Saijun Fan
Modern lifestyles, such as shift work, nocturnal social activities, and jet lag, disturb the circadian rhythm. The interaction between mammals and the co-evolved intestinal microbiota modulates host physiopathological processes. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of modern management of malignancies; however, it was previously unknown whether circadian rhythm disorder impairs prognosis after radiotherapy. To investigate the effect of circadian rhythm on radiotherapy, C57BL/6 mice were housed in different dark/light cycles, and their intestinal bacterial compositions were compared using high throughput sequencing...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791392/impact-of-ataxin-2-knock-out-on-circadian-locomotor-behavior-and-per-immunoreaction-in-the-scn-of-mice
#12
Martina Pfeffer, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger, Helmut Wicht, Horst-Werner Korf
In Drosophila melanogaster, Ataxin-2 is a crucial activator of Period and is involved in the control of circadian rhythms. However, in mammals the function of Ataxin-2 is unknown despite its involvement in the inherited neurogenerative disease Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 in humans. Therefore, we analyzed locomotor behavior of Atxn2-deficient mice and their WT littermates under entrained- and free-running conditions as well as after experimental jet lag. Furthermore, we compared the PER1 and PER2 immunoreaction (IR) in the SCN...
October 28, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781473/resynchronization-of-circadian-oscillators-and-the-east-west-asymmetry-of-jet-lag
#13
Zhixin Lu, Kevin Klein-Cardeña, Steven Lee, Thomas M Antonsen, Michelle Girvan, Edward Ott
Cells in the brain's Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) are known to regulate circadian rhythms in mammals. We model synchronization of SCN cells using the forced Kuramoto model, which consists of a large population of coupled phase oscillators (modeling individual SCN cells) with heterogeneous intrinsic frequencies and external periodic forcing. Here, the periodic forcing models diurnally varying external inputs such as sunrise, sunset, and alarm clocks. We reduce the dimensionality of the system using the ansatz of Ott and Antonsen and then study the effect of a sudden change of clock phase to simulate cross-time-zone travel...
September 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773695/rhythmic-oxygen-levels-reset-circadian-clocks-through-hif1%C3%AE
#14
Yaarit Adamovich, Benjamin Ladeuix, Marina Golik, Maarten P Koeners, Gad Asher
The mammalian circadian system consists of a master clock in the brain that synchronizes subsidiary oscillators in peripheral tissues. The master clock maintains phase coherence in peripheral cells through systemic cues such as feeding-fasting and temperature cycles. Here, we examined the role of oxygen as a resetting cue for circadian clocks. We continuously measured oxygen levels in living animals and detected daily rhythms in tissue oxygenation. Oxygen cycles, within the physiological range, were sufficient to synchronize cellular clocks in a HIF1α-dependent manner...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739651/keeping-in-synch
#15
EDITORIAL
N Tuvia, P B Persson, A Bondke Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715325/social-jet-lag-chronotype-and-body-mass-index-in-14-17-year-old-adolescents
#16
Susan Kohl Malone, Babette Zemel, Charlene Compher, Margaret Souders, Jesse Chittams, Aleda Leis Thompson, Allan Pack, Terri H Lipman
The relationship between sleep duration and obesity in adolescents is inconclusive. This may stem from a more complex relationship between sleep and obesity than previously considered. Shifts toward evening preferences, later sleep-wake times and irregular sleep-wake patterns are typical during adolescence but their relationship to body mass index (BMI) has been relatively unexplored. This cross-sectional study examined associations between sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and social jet lag (estimated from 7 days of continuous actigraphy monitoring), and morningness/eveningness with BMIs (BMI z-scores) and waist-to-height ratios in 14-17-year-old adolescents...
August 11, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667263/the-impact-of-an-implementation-intention-to-improve-mealtimes-and-reduce-jet-lag-in-long-haul-cabin-crew
#17
Cristina Ruscitto, Jane Ogden
OBJECTIVE: Jet lag is common place amongst long-haul cabin crew. Timed food has been shown to reset the circadian rhythm in rodents. Implementation intentions have been used to change eating behaviour. Mealtimes could therefore be used as a countermeasure to reduce jet lag and improve alertness in long-haul cabin crew through forming an implementation intention to improve the regularity of meals on days off. DESIGN: Sixty long-haul crew took part in a randomised controlled trial, with two conditions: forming an implementation intention to eat regular meals on days off vs...
October 14, 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639775/chronic-jet-lag-impairs-startle-induced-locomotion-in-drosophila
#18
Alexandra Vaccaro, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Endogenous circadian clocks with ~24-h periodicity are found in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. Daylight synchronizes these clocks to solar time. In humans, shift-work and jet lag perturb clock synchronization, and such perturbations, when repeated or chronic, are strongly suspected to be detrimental to healthspan. Here we investigated locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila melanogaster with genetically or environmentally disrupted clocks. We compared two mutations in period (per, a gene essential for circadian rhythmicity in Drosophila), after introducing them in a common reference genetic background: the arrhythmic per(01), and per(T) which displays robust short 16-h rhythms...
September 14, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637298/analyzing-resilience-properties-in-oscillatory-biological-systems-using-parametric-model-checking
#19
Alexander Andreychenko, Morgan Magnin, Katsumi Inoue
Automated verification of living organism models allows us to gain previously unknown knowledge about underlying biological processes. In this paper we show how parametric time model checking can be applied to define the time behavior of biological oscillatory systems more precisely. In particular, we focus on the resilience properties of such systems. This notion was introduced to understand the behavior of biological systems (e.g. the mammalian circadian rhythm) that are reactive and adaptive enough to endorse major changes in their environment (e...
November 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603791/pharmacological-targeting-the-rev-erbs-in-sleep-wake-regulation
#20
Ariadna Amador, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Amanda J Roberts, Theodore M Kamenecka, Laura A Solt, Thomas P Burris
The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands...
2016: PloS One
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