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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926994/the-metabolic-response-to-stress-and-infection-in-critically-ill-children-the-opportunity-of-an-individualized-approach
#1
REVIEW
Valentina De Cosmi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D'Oria, Marco Silano, Edoardo Calderini, Carlo Agostoni
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions...
September 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926980/indexing-natural-products-for-their-potential-anti-diabetic-activity-filtering-and-mapping-discriminative-physicochemical-properties
#2
Mouhammad Zeidan, Mahmoud Rayan, Nuha Zeidan, Mizied Falah, Anwar Rayan
Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a major health problem, for which there is an unmet need to develop novel drugs. The application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms is instrumental to achieving this goal. A set of 97 approved anti-diabetic drugs, representing the active domain, and a set of 2892 natural products, representing the inactive domain, were used to construct predictive models and to index anti-diabetic bioactivity. Our recently-developed approach of 'iterative stochastic elimination' was utilized...
September 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926811/towards-better-monitoring-of-technology-critical-elements-in-europe-coupling-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-cycles
#3
Philip Nuss, Gian Andrea Blengini
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere')...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926750/land-cover-and-air-pollution-are-associated-with-asthma-hospitalisations-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Ian Alcock, Mathew White, Mark Cherrie, Benedict Wheeler, Jonathon Taylor, Rachel McInnes, Eveline Otte Im Kampe, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Christophe Sarran, Ireneous Soyiri, Lora Fleming
BACKGROUND: There is increasing policy interest in the potential for vegetation in urban areas to mitigate harmful effects of air pollution on respiratory health. We aimed to quantify relationships between tree and green space density and asthma-related hospitalisations, and explore how these varied with exposure to background air pollution concentrations. METHODS: Population standardised asthma hospitalisation rates (1997-2012) for 26,455 urban residential areas of England were merged with area-level data on vegetation and background air pollutant concentrations...
September 16, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926527/genistein-suppresses-aerobic-glycolysis-and-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-death
#5
Sainan Li, Jingjing Li, Weiqi Dai, Qinghui Zhang, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Tong Liu, Qiang Yu, Shizan Xu, Wenwen Wang, Xiya Lu, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Xiaoming Fan, Wenhui Mo, Ling Xu, Chuanyong Guo
BACKGROUND: Genistein is a natural isoflavone with many health benefits, including antitumour effects. Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) levels and glycolysis in tumour cells are associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer progression, and resistance to therapy. However, the effect of genistein on HIF-1α and glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. METHODS: Cell viability, apoptosis rate, lactate production, and glucose uptake were measured in HCC cell lines with genistein incubation...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926029/the-importance-of-fixed-costs-in-animal-health-systems
#6
C A Tisdell, D Adamson
In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926017/impact-of-animal-health-programmes-on-poverty-reduction-and-sustainable-livestock-development
#7
J P Pradere
Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925509/childhood-socioeconomic-conditions-and-teeth-in-older-adulthood-evidence-from-share-wave-5
#8
Stefan Listl, Jonathan M Broadbent, W Murray Thomson, Christian Stock, Jing Shen, Jimmy Steele, John Wildman, Anja Heilmann, Richard G Watt, Georgios Tsakos, Marco A Peres, Geert van der Heijden, Hendrik Jürges
OBJECTIVES: Dental diseases are the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Healthy teeth are vital for quality of life, particularly diet and nutrition. However, little information exists to inform health policymakers about potentially long-lasting influences of early-life conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between early-life socioeconomic conditions and number of natural teeth at age 50 and above. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE wave 5), which includes information on 41 560 respondents aged 50 years or older from 14 European countries and Israel...
September 19, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924492/the-essentials-of-a-global-index-for-cognitive-function
#9
Joseph Mathew Antony, Ian Weaver, Matthew Rueffer, Najla Guthrie, Malkanthi Evans
Cognition is comprised of the faculties: perception, creativity, intuition, and ratiocination. Optimal levels of cognition are needed for independent functioning and balanced living. With an aging population that continues to grow, dietary supplements that tilt the balance towards maintenance of cognition are being marketed for vulnerable populations facing these challenges. Randomized clinical trials provide the causal inference necessary to define the efficacy of emerging nutraceuticals. Cognition testing, in particular, requires a battery of tests that encompass all brain regions involved in cognition so as to provide endpoints necessary for product validation...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924357/developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-do-the-responsible-for-screening-know-what-to-do
#10
Bruno Gonçalves Schröder E Souza, Tiago Evangelista de Melo, Thiago Mattos Resende, Rafaela Clara Resende da Silva, Soraya Amanda Cruz, Valdeci Manoel de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge on developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) by professionals involved in its diagnosis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using questionnaires to assess the knowledge about DDH. Orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians, residents and medical students from a tertiary teaching hospital were included in the study. RESULTS: We evaluated 142 medical students, eight orthopedic residents, ten pediatric residents, seven pediatricians, and nine orthopedic surgeons; 50% declared not having examined any DDH case in the last year and only three had diagnosed more than 10 cases during their career...
November 2016: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924140/linoleic-and-palmitoleic-acid-block-streptokinase-mediated-plasminogen-activation-and-reduce-severity-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infection
#11
Katharina Rox, Rolf Jansen, Torsten G Loof, Christine M Gillen, Steffen Bernecker, Mark J Walker, Gursharan Singh Chhatwal, Rolf Müller
In contrast to mild infections of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections of GAS still pose a serious health hazard: GAS disseminates from sterile sites into the blood stream or deep tissues and causes sepsis or necrotizing fasciitis. In this case antibiotics do not provide an effective cure as the bacteria are capable to hide from them very quickly. Therefore, new remedies are urgently needed. Starting from a myxobacterial natural products screening campaign, we identified two fatty acids isolated from myxobacteria, linoleic and palmitoleic acid, specifically blocking streptokinase-mediated activation of plasminogen and thereby preventing streptococci from hijacking the host's plasminogen/plasmin system...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923835/no-effects-of-increased-alcohol-availability-during-adolescence-on-alcohol-related-morbidity-and-mortality-during-four-decades-a-natural-experiment
#12
Emelie Thern, Ting Jia, Mikaela Willmer, Jeroen de Munter, Thor Norström, Mats Ramstedt, George Davey Smith, Per Tynelius, Finn Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: A strict high legal age limit for alcohol purchases decreases adolescents' access to alcohol, but little is known about long-term health effects. The aim was to estimate the effect of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A nationwide register-based study using data from a natural experiment setting. In two regions of Sweden, strong beer (4.5%-5.6% alcohol by volume) became temporarily available for purchase in grocery stores for individuals 16 years or older (instead of 21) in 1967/1968...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923815/use-of-complementary-health-approaches-among-diverse-primary-care-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-association-with-cardiometabolic-outcomes-from-the-sf-bay-collaborative-research-network-sf-bay-crn
#13
Margaret A Handley, Judy Quan, Maria T Chao, Neda Ratanawongsa, Urmimala Sarkar, Sophia Emmons-Bell, Dean Schillinger
PURPOSE: To describe use of complementary health approaches (CHAs) among patients with type 2 diabetes, and independent associations between CHA use and Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lower-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. METHODS: Participants were enrolled onto the SMARTSteps Program, a diabetes self-management support program conducted between 2009 and 2013 in San Francisco. At the 6-month interview, CHA use in the prior 30 days was estimated using a 12-item validated instrument...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923711/identifying-the-arrival-of-extensional-and-flexural-wave-modes-using-wavelet-decomposition-of-ultrasonic-signals
#14
Arnab Gupta, John C Duke
In health monitoring applications of composite materials, the health state of specimens is often evaluated using naturally occurring and simulated Acoustic Emission stress waves. For such applications, identifying the arrival times of the extensional and flexural wave modes from acquired signals is a crucial step, and must be performed reliably and potentially on large sets of signals. This article proposes using the wavelet decomposition of a signal to develop a fast, algorithmic and automated approach to estimate the arrival times of the extensional and flexural wave modes...
September 9, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923500/priorities-for-closing-the-evidence-practice-gaps-in-post-stroke-aphasia-rehabilitation-a-scoping-review
#15
REVIEW
Kirstine Shrubsole, Linda Worrall, Emma Power, Denise A O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: To identify implementation priorities for post-stroke aphasia management relevant to the Australian healthcare context. DATA SOURCES: Using systematized searches of databases (CINAHL, Medline), guideline and stroke websites, and other sources, evidence was identified and extracted for seven implementation criteria for 13 topic areas relevant to aphasia management. These seven priority-setting criteria were identified in the implementation literature; strength of the evidence; current evidence-practice gap; clinician preference; client preference; modifiability; measurability; and health impact...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923176/gaps-limitations-and-new-insights-on-endogenous-estrogen-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-as-related-to-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-women-traversing-the-menopause-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Samar R El Khoudary
While it is known that estrogen protects heart health in women prior to menopause, its role after menopause and during the menopause transition is far less apparent. Previous reviews summarizing the literature on the impact of endogenous estrogen on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on postmenopausal women and have not come to a clear conclusion. No previous review has summarized the associations between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a proxy measure of the menopause transition, and CVD risk...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923163/patients-experiences-of-nurse-case-management-in-primary-care-a-meta-synthesis
#17
Anna Askerud, Anna Askerud, Jenny Conder, Jenny Conder
The health system in New Zealand and Australia requires health practitioners to prepare for the challenge of long-term conditions. Wagner's 1998 Chronic Care Model advocates a move away from the traditional acute model of primary health care to a model that addresses the long-term episodic nature of chronic disease. Nurse case management has been developed over the last 2 decades as a means to coordinate health services for people with long-term conditions. This meta-synthesis combines the results of 15 qualitative research studies that have a similar research question regarding peoples' perceptions of nurse case management...
September 19, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923117/efficacy-of-fluralaner-bravecto%C3%A2-chewable-tablets-for-the-treatment-of-naturally-acquired-linognathus-setosus-infestations-on-dogs
#18
Heike Kohler-Aanesen, Seppo Saari, Rob Armstrong, Karine Péré, Janina Taenzler, Eva Zschiesche, Anja R Heckeroth
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™, MSD Animal Health) against naturally acquired Linognathus setosus infestations on dogs was evaluated compared with permethrin (Exspot®, MSD Animal Health) treatment. METHODS: Privately-owned dogs naturally infested with L. setosus from 21 different households were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Fourteen dogs were treated once orally with fluralaner and ten dogs were treated once topically with permethrin, at the recommended label dose...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922719/baicalein-as-a-potent-neuroprotective-agent-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Ponnuvel Deepa, Minju Kim, Se Jin Park, Songmun Kim
In recent times, neurodegenerative diseases are the most challenging global health problems. Neuronal cell death or damage is a key factor for many neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the development of effective neuroprotective agents, especially from natural sources. In particular, phytochemicals have shown high efficacy with low side effects in various in vitro and in vivo studies. In the various phytoconstituents, flavonoids are important bioactive products and mainly found in various vegetables and fruits...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922561/reconciling-female-genital-circumcision-with-universal-human-rights
#20
John-Stewart Gordon
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
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