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Preventive CVD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943378/predicted-burden-could-replace-predicted-risk-in-preventive-strategies-for-cardiovascular-disease
#1
G R Lagerweij, G A de Wit, K G M Moons, W M M Verschuren, J Boer, H Koffijberg
OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent of the differences in definitions of composite endpoints and assess how these differences influence estimates of CVD burden. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: s: Data from a Dutch cohort study (n=19484) were used to calculate 10-year risks according to four CVD risk prediction models: ATP-III, Framingham (FRS), Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) and SCORE. Health loss was estimated based on the impact of event types included in the corresponding composite endpoints...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942878/incidence-of-colorectal-cancer-in-new-users-and-non-users-of-low-dose-aspirin-without-existing-cardiovascular-disease-a-cohort-study-using-the-health-improvement-network
#2
Lucía Cea Soriano, Montse Soriano-Gabarró, Luis A García Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the chemo-protective effects of aspirin has influenced expert opinion in favour of low-dose aspirin use in certain patient populations without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The effects of aspirin in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) may be a large contributor to this favourable risk-benefit profile of low-dose aspirin in primary CVD prevention. METHODS: Using The Health Improvement Network, we estimated the incidence of CRC in individuals free of CVD and either prescribed or not prescribed prophylactic low-dose aspirin...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939005/antidiabetic-drugs-and-stroke-risk-current-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Luis Castilla-Guerra, María Del Carmen Fernandez-Moreno, David Leon-Jimenez, Eduardo Carmona-Nimo
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, the risk for stroke is twice that of patients without diabetes, and diabetes may be responsible for >8% of first ischemic strokes. Therefore, the way to prevent stroke in these patients has become an important issue. Traditionally, glucose-lowering drugs had not been shown to protect against stroke. Moreover, several antidiabetic drugs (i.e., sulfonylureas, rosiglitazone) have been reported to be associated with increased risks of CVD and stroke...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938406/ct-derived-body-fat-distribution-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#4
Morgana L Mongraw-Chaffin, Matthew A Allison, Gregory L Burke, Michael H Criqui, Kunihiro Matsushita, Pamela Ouyang, Ravi V Shah, Christina M Shay, Cheryl A M Anderson
Background: Visceral fat has been shown to be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but the role of subcutaneous fat remains unclear, and evidence from diverse populations is lacking. We hypothesized that visceral, but not subcutaneous fat, would be independently associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: Among 1,910 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with abdominal fat measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans and followed for an average of 9...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936268/mildly-elevated-serum-total-bilirubin-is-negatively-associated-with-hemoglobin-a1c-independently-of-confounding-factors-among-community-dwelling-middle-aged-and-elderly-persons
#5
Ryuichi Kawamoto, Daisuke Ninomiya, Kensuke Senzaki, Teru Kumagi
Abnormally high glycated hemoglobin (Hb) (HbA1c) is significantly associated with oxidative stress and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum total bilirubin (T-B) may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes and be a negative risk factor of CVD. Limited information is available on whether serum T-B is an independent confounding factor of HbA1c. The study subjects were 633 men aged 70 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) years and 878 women aged 70 ± 8 years who were enrolled consecutively from among patients aged ≥40 years through a community-based annual check-up process...
January 2017: J Circ Biomark
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933782/cardiovascular-disease-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-epidemiology-and-risk-factor-burden
#6
REVIEW
Karam Turk-Adawi, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Ibtihal Fadhil, Kathryn Taubert, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Nanette K Wenger, Nigel S Tan, Sherry L Grace
The Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) comprises 22 countries or territories spanning from Morocco in the west to Pakistan in the east, and contains a population of almost 600 million people. Like many other developing regions, the burden of disease in the EMR has shifted in the past 30 years from primarily communicable diseases to noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular mortality in the EMR, mostly attributable to ischaemic heart disease, is expected to increase more dramatically in the next decade than in any other region except Africa...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930555/the-forgotten-modified-lipoprotein-subspecies
#7
Ahmed Bakillah, Mohamed Zaiou
Insights from preclinical and clinical studies have attempted to highlight the importance of modified lipoprotein particles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, evidence is not conclusive. Since there is a relative dearth of clinical research in collecting useful information from traditional advanced lipoproteins testing, this present editorial introduces the aim of a special issue on modified lipoproteins as potential biomarkers for CVD. This issue aims at gathering a selection of insightful articles that address major challenges related to potential clinical use of modified lipoproteins as new CVD biomarkers...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929097/integrated-clinical-decision-support-systems-promote-absolute-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-an-important-primary-prevention-measure-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-primary-health-care
#8
Veronica Matthews, Christopher P Burgess, Christine Connors, Elizabeth Moore, David Peiris, David Scrimgeour, Sandra C Thompson, Sarah Larkins, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA) as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC) sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923176/gaps-limitations-and-new-insights-on-endogenous-estrogen-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-as-related-to-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-women-traversing-the-menopause-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Samar R El Khoudary
While it is known that estrogen protects heart health in women prior to menopause, its role after menopause and during the menopause transition is far less apparent. Previous reviews summarizing the literature on the impact of endogenous estrogen on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on postmenopausal women and have not come to a clear conclusion. No previous review has summarized the associations between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a proxy measure of the menopause transition, and CVD risk...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920966/-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-prophylactic-program-in-a-selected-enterprise
#10
Jadwiga Siedlecka, Elżbieta Gadzicka, Agata Szyjkowska, Patryk Siedlecki, Wiesław Szymczak, Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Alicja Bortkiewicz
BACKGROUND: In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program...
September 18, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914638/long-term-risk-and-predictors-of-cardiovascular-death-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease-the-coronor-study
#11
Christophe Bauters, Olivier Tricot, Thibaud Meurice, Nicolas Lamblin
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the residual risk of cardiovascular death (CVD) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) who receive modern secondary prevention. Our aim was to analyze the causes of death and to determine predictors of CVD in the 5-year CORONOR registry. METHODS: We studied 4184 consecutive CAD outpatients who were free from any myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularization for more than 1 year at inclusion. Antithrombotics were prescribed in 99%, statins in 92%, inhibitors of renin-angiotensin system in 82%, and β-blockers in 79%; 86% had prior coronary revascularization...
September 13, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913602/devoting-attention-to-glucose-variability-and-hypoglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
EDITORIAL
Martin K Rutter
In the Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE), insulin degludec was non-inferior to insulin glargine in terms of cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there were lower rates of severe hypoglycaemia with insulin degludec. DEVOTE investigators now extend these findings by presenting the results of two observational epidemiological analyses based on trial data. In the first of these analyses (DEVOTE 2), Zinman et al (Diabetologia DOI: 10...
September 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912716/a-meta-analysis-of-folic-acid-in-combination-with-anti-hypertension-drugs-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-hyperhomocysteinemia
#13
REVIEW
Wen-Wen Wang, Xin-Shi Wang, Zeng-Rui Zhang, Jin-Cai He, Cheng-Long Xie
Folic acid is generally used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at present. However, the efficacy of therapies that lower homocysteine concentrations in reducing the risk of CVD and stroke remains controversial. Our objective was to do a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation among patients with hypertension and Hyperhomocysteinemia (HT/HHcy). We included RCTs examining the effects of folic acid plus antihypertensive therapy compared to antihypertensive alone...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912558/an-omniphobic-lubricant-infused-coating-produced-by-chemical-vapor-deposition-of-hydrophobic-organosilanes-attenuates-clotting-on-catheter-surfaces
#14
Maryam Badv, Iqbal H Jaffer, Jeffrey I Weitz, Tohid F Didar
Catheter associated thrombosis is an ongoing problem. Omniphobic coatings based on tethering biocompatible liquid lubricants on self-assembled monolayers of hydrophobic organosilanes attenuate clotting on surfaces. Herein we report an efficient, non-invasive and robust process for coating catheters with an antithrombotic, omniphobic lubricant-infused coating produced using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrophobic fluorine-based organosilanes. Compared with uncoated catheters, CVD coated catheters significantly attenuated thrombosis via the contact pathway of coagulation...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911944/assessing-the-mechanisms-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitors
#15
Meng Zhang, Dongsheng Lei, Bo Peng, Mickey Yang, Lei Zhang, M Art Charles, Kerry-Anne Rye, Ronald M Krauss, Douglas G Johns, Gang Ren
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are a new class of therapeutics for dyslipidemia that simultaneously improve two major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying their efficacy are poorly understood, as are any potential mechanistic differences among the drugs in this class. Herein, we used electron microscopy (EM) to investigate the effects of three of these agents (Torcetrapib, Dalcetrapib and Anacetrapib) on CETP structure, CETP-lipoprotein complex formation and CETP-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899902/pharmacological-inhibition-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-ptp1b-protects-against-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-the-ldlr-mouse-model-of-atherosclerosis
#16
Dawn Thompson, Nicola Morrice, Louise Grant, Samantha Le Sommer, Emma K Lees, Nimesh Mody, Heather M Wilson, Mirela Delibegovic
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent cause of mortality among patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests a strong link between atherosclerosis and insulin resistance, due to impaired insulin receptor (IR) signalling. Here we demonstrate that inhibiting the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), the major negative regulator of the IR prevents and reverses atherosclerotic plaque formation in LDLR(-/-) mouse model of atherosclerosis...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899889/neck-circumference-and-clustered-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-children-and-adolescents-cross-sectional-study
#17
José Castro-Piñero, Alvaro Delgado-Alfonso, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Oscar L Veiga, Ascensión Marcos, Víctor Segura-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as obesity, is crucial to prevent adverse long-term effects on individuals' health. Therefore, the aims were: (1) to explore the robustness of neck circumference (NC) as a predictor of CVD and examine its association with numerous anthropometric and body composition indices and (2) to release sex and age-specific NC cut-off values to classify youths as overweight/obese. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892121/statins-for-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-in-older-men
#18
Ariela R Orkaby, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djousse, Jane A Driver
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether statin use for primary prevention is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events or mortality in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Physicians' Health Study participants. PARTICIPANTS: 7,213 male physicians ≥70 years without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable propensity score for statin use with greedy matching (1:1) to minimize confounding by indication...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890128/characteristics-and-health-care-preferences-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-women-veterans
#19
Karen M Goldstein, Eugene Z Oddone, Lori A Bastian, Maren K Olsen, Bryan C Batch, Donna L Washington
BACKGROUND: Women veterans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about comorbidities and healthcare preferences associated with CVD risk in this population. METHODS: We describe the prevalence of CVD-relevant health behaviors, mental health symptoms, and health care use characteristics and preferences among participants of the National Survey of Women Veterans (conducted 2008-2009). FINDINGS: Fifty-four percent of respondents were at risk for CVD (defined as a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, current tobacco use, or obesity without CVD)...
September 7, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887684/plant-based-nutrition-an-essential-component-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Hena Patel, Sonal Chandra, Sarah Alexander, Jeffrey Soble, Kim Allan Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and discuss the role of plant-based nutrition as an adjunct to the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Discussion of nutrition and the benefits of a plant-based diet should be highlighted during healthcare provider visits as an essential part of the overall CVD prevention and management care plan. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from prospective cohort studies indicates that a high consumption of predominantly plant-based foods, such as fruit and vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, is associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD...
September 8, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
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