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Huma Butt, Shabana, Shahida Hasnain
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a socioeconomic burden in Pakistan. International diabetes federation reported 6.9 million cases of diabetes and 87,548 deaths due to diabetes in Pakistan in 2014. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors are transcription factors, regulating several physiological processes. AIM: The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of silent variant C1431T in exon 6 of PPAR-y and analyze its effect on various anthropometric and biochemical parameters in a Pakistani cohort...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Els Willems, Yufeng Wang, Astrid Koppenol, Jens Lesuisse, Lies Franssens, Eddy Decuypere, Johan Buyse, Nadia Everaert
What is the central question of this study? Prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal in an avian model of fetal programming leads to long-term programming effects, but when do these effects first appear and are these programming effects regulated by the same candidate genes as in mammals? What is the main finding and its importance? The present results indicate that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal induces phenotypical and hormonal changes in the early posthatch period, when the mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environment first arises, but these changes are not accompanied by an altered gene expression of the selected candidate genes...
November 2015: Experimental Physiology
C Adoligbe, Y F Huangfu, L S Zan, H Wang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) or intramuscular triglycerides are interspersed throughout the skeletal muscles. The IMF, also called marbling, imparts meat with flavor and juiciness and is one of the core criteria for judging carcass value. The quantity of IMF is influenced entirely by genetics. Recently, understanding the underlying genetic bases of IMF has been a focus particularly in the beef industry. In this study, with the deep insights of ameliorating the beef quality by genetic means, the role of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) gene was investigated by over-expressing C/EBPα in bovine muscle stem cells (MSCs) to initiate the adipogenic program...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
J Lv, X Wang, S Y Liu, P F Liang, M Feng, L L Zhang, A P Xu
OBJECTIVE: Renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common reason of acute kidney injury. Apoptosis play an important role in the IRI. Fenofibrate, one of agonist Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) has the effect of anti-apoptosis. This study was to explore the effect of Fenofibrate on renal ischemia reperfusion injury and its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRI was induced by bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 24h...
December 2015: Pathologie-biologie
Nasim-Sadat Kajabadi, Ali Ghoochani, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani, Motahareh-Sadat Hashemi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Hossein Baharvand
Although human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide valuable sources for regenerative medicine, their applicability is dependent on obtaining both suitable up-scaled and cost effective cultures. The Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 permits hPSC survival upon dissociation; however, cloning efficiency is often still low. Here we have shown that pioglitazone, a selective peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-γ agonist, along with Y-27632 synergistically diminished dissociation-induced apoptosis and increased cloning efficiency (2-3-fold versus Y-27632) without affecting pluripotency of hPSCs...
October 23, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ming-Yue Li, Hui-Ling Yuan, Fanny W S Ko, Bin Wu, Xiang Long, Jing Du, Jun Wu, Calvin S H Ng, Innes Y P Wan, Tony S K Mok, David S C Hui, Malcolm J Underwood, George G Chen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the levels of 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX-1) and 15-LOX-2 as well as their metabolites 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) are significantly reduced in smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Furthermore, animal model experiments have indicated that the reduction of these molecules occurs before the establishment of cigarette smoking carcinogen-induced lung tumors, and this suggests roles in lung tumorigenesis...
September 1, 2015: Cancer
Xin Yu, Pei-Pei Guan, Jing-Wen Guo, Yue Wang, Long-Long Cao, Guo-Biao Xu, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Zhan-You Wang, Pu Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with a magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) deficit in the serum or brain. However, the mechanisms regulating the roles of Mg(2+) in the pathologic condition of AD remain unknown. We studied whether brain Mg(2+) can decrease β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ameliorate the cognitive decline in a model of AD, the APPswe/PS1DE9 transgenic (Tg) mouse. We used a recently developed compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), for a treatment that resulted in enhanced clearance of Aβ in an anterior pharynx-defective (APH)-1α/-1β-dependent manner...
December 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Shiping Bai, Guoqing Wang, Wei Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Brittany Breon Rice, Mark Andrew Cline, Elizabeth Ruth Gilbert
Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0...
November 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu, Julie Y H Chan, Li-Tung Huang
Maternal nutrition can affect development, leading to long-term effects on the health of offspring. The most common outcome is programmed hypertension. We examined whether alterations in renal transcriptome are responsible for generating programmed hypertension among four different models using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received 50% caloric restriction (CR), intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin, 60% high-fructose (HF) diet, or 1% NaCl in drinking water to conduct CR, diabetes, HF, or high-salt models, respectively...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hao-Neng Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Ya-Qing Liu, Yue Guo, Ai-Guo Tang, Er-Yuan Liao, Hou-De Zhou
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Preadipocytes were incubated with a range of concentrations of NPY (10(-15)M - 10(-7)M). After NPY-induced differentiation, the extent of preadipocyte adipogenesis was evaluated. The expressions levels of related adipocyte markers such as PPARγ, C/EBPα and DLK-1 were examined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) or western blot analysis. Furthermore, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway proteins were also analyzed by western blot...
2015: Endocrine Journal
Lei Lei, Quan Liu, Shuainan Liu, Yi Huan, Sujuan Sun, Zhiyu Chen, Linyi Li, Zhiqiang Feng, Yan Li, Zhufang Shen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glucokinase (GK) balances blood glucose levels via regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) regulates gene expression in glucose and lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of a novel compound, SHP289-03, which activates both GK and PPARγ. METHODS: Glucose metabolism was tested in primary hepatocytes of normal ICR mice, and insulin secretion was measured in NIT-1 insulinoma cells as well as in primary islets of normal ICR mice...
October 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
D Drogan, H Boeing, J Janke, B Schmitt, Y Zhou, J Walter, T Pischon, S Tierling
Obesity may be related to differential DNA methylation and thus to differential expression of key genes in adipose tissue metabolism, such as LPL, ADIPOQ and PPARγ. Using subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from 59 individuals of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study, we performed quantitative DNA methylation analysis within the promoters of LPL (LPL-CG1 and -CG2), ADIPOQ (ADIPOQ-CG1 and-CG2) and PPARγ (PPARγ-CG1). We then studied DNA methylation in relation to SAT gene expression, body composition measured using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and long-term changes in BMI and WC...
2015: Nutrition & Diabetes
Y H Lee, G G Song
We investigated whether Pro12Ala (C→G) and His447His (C→T) polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) gene are associated with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a meta-analysis of the associations between the PPARγ Pro12Ala and His447His polymorphisms and AD in subjects. The meta-analysis was performed according to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele status. A total of eight studies were considered in our meta-analysis, comprising 2948 patients with AD and 3753 controls...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
R L Qi, Y Chen, J X Huang, F Y Yang
In this study, we evaluated the effect and possible mech-anism of action of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on pig body fat deposition. Landrace piglets (N = 48) were randomly divided into three groups, which were fed diets containing 0% (control), 1%, or 2% CLA. Dorsal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues were col-lected, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to de-termine the expression of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and associated microRNAs (miRNAs). Our results indicated that dietary CLA significantly decreased body fat deposition in the pig dorsum...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
J Wang, G J Sun, J Ding, J X Zhang, Y Cui, H R Li, S J Wang
The ability of mammals to resist body fat accumulation is linked to their ability to expand the number of "brown adipocytes" within white fat depots. All-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) and peroxi-some proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) have been implicated in "browning-like" or "browning" programs, respectively. However, a PPARα-agonist (WY14643) failed to regulate the expression of the uncoupling protein 1(UCP1) gene unless combined with retinoic acid. This study investigated the effects of the PPARα-agonist WY14643 combined with t-RA, on the "browning" of white adipocytes in mice mediated by UCP1, and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
G X Liu, J C Zhu, X Y Chen, A Z Zhu, C C Liu, Q Lai, S T Chen
We examined whether erythropoietin (EPO) can inhibit adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the mouse bone marrow and its underlying mechanism. We separated and extracted mouse bone marrow MSCs and induced adipogenic differen-tiation using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, insulin, and dexamethasone. Different concentrations of EPO were added to the cells and observed by Oil Red O staining on the 20th day to quantitatively analyze the degree of cell differentiation. mRNA expression levels of peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, and adiponectin were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the activity of PPARγ, extracellular sig-nal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined by western blotting...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
J Chen, R L Ma, H Guo, Y S Ding, J Y Zhang, J M Liu, M Kerm, M Zhang, S Z Xu, S G Li, S X Guo
We investigated the association between polymorphisms rs1801282 and rs3856806 of the PPARγ gene and metabolic syndrome (MS) among Uyghurs and Kazakhs. Mass spectrometry techniques were used to detect the PPARγ genotypes rs1801282 and rs3856806 in 987 subjects, CC genotype and C allele frequencies were 83.6 and 91.7%, respectively, at rs1801282 in Kazakhs, which were higher than those in Uyghurs (72.3 and 85.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). CC genotype and C allele frequencies were 73.6 and 85.3%, respectively, at the rs3856806 loci in Kazakhs, which were higher than those in Uyghurs (60...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Christophe Glorieux, Marcel Zamocky, Juan Marcelo Sandoval, Julien Verrax, Pedro Buc Calderon
Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that dismutates hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. The catalase gene has all the characteristics of a housekeeping gene (no TATA box, no initiator element sequence, high GC content in promoter) and a core promoter that is highly conserved among species. We demonstrate in this review that within this core promoter, the presence of DNA binding sites for transcription factors, such as NF-Y and Sp1, plays an essential role in the positive regulation of catalase expression...
October 2015: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
L F Wang, G Q Yang, S Yang, G Y Yang, M Li, H S Zhu, Y Y Wang, L Q Han, R Y Liu, S D Jia, F Song
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common pathogenic agent that causes many diseases and metabolic disorders. Hypoglycemia is often observed when animals are infected with LPS. To explore the influence of LPS on blood glucose and hepatic gluconeogenesis in goats, 12 goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the LPS-treated group (60 μg/kg BW of LPS; jugular vein injections) or the control group (saline vehicle; jugular vein injections). Blood samples were collected from jugular veins at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h, and liver tissue samples were biopsied 8 h after the injections...
June 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Q Li, H Peng, H Fan, X Zou, Q Liu, Y Zhang, H Xu, Y Chu, C Wang, K Ayyanathan, F J Rauscher, K Zhang, Z Hou
Adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis and adipogenesis is a hierarchically regulated cellular differentiation process, in which the precursor mesenchymal stem cells are differentiated into mature adipocytes. Here, we report Ajuba is an important regulator of adipocyte differentiation by functioning as an obligate co-activator of PPARγ. Ajuba binds the DNA-binding domain of PPARγ via its preLIM region in a ligand-independent manner. Depletion of Ajuba in 3T3-L1 cells decreases PPARγ target gene expression and results in delayed adipogenic differentiation...
January 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
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