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Jimmy M Uddin, Tal Rubinstein, Shirin Hamed-Azzam
PURPOSE: To describe a new classification system of thyroid eye disease (TED) based on the phenotypic features (clinical and radiologic) of the disease. METHODS: Clinical features, photographic, and orbital imaging of TED patients were considered in relation to their natural history and treatment response in the experience of the author. Phenotypically distinct categories of patients were identified and described. RESULTS: Six phenotypes of TED are observed: 1) congestive (active inflammatory), 2) "white eye" expansion, 3) "hydraulic" apex, 4) "white eye" apex, 5) cicatricial active, and 6) cicatricial passive...
June 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Gilad Barshad, Amit Blumberg, Tal Cohen, Dan Mishmar
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), a fundamental energy source in all human tissues, requires interactions between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (nDNA)-encoded protein subunits. Although such interactions are fundamental to OXPHOS, bi-genomic co-regulation is poorly understood. To address this question, we analyzed ~8,500 RNA-seq experiments from 48 human body sites. Despite well-known variation in mitochondrial activity, quantity and morphology, we found overall positive mtDNA-nDNA OXPHOS genes' co-expression across human tissues...
June 14, 2018: Genome Research
Julie Jacobs, Vanessa Deschoolmeester, Karen Zwaenepoel, Tal Flieswasser, Christophe Deben, Jolien Van den Bossche, Christophe Hermans, Christian Rolfo, Marc Peeters, Olivier De Wever, Filip Lardon, Vasiliki Siozopoulou, Evelien Smits, Patrick Pauwels
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are involved in the proliferative and invasive behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nonetheless, CAFs represent a heterogeneous population with both cancer-promoting and cancer-restraining actions, lacking specific markers to target them. Expression of the immune checkpoint molecule CD70 is normally limited to cells of the lymphoid lineage. Instead, tumor cells hijack CD70 to facilitate immune evasion by increasing the amount of suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). The aim of this study was to explore CD70 expression patterns in CRC, not merely focusing on the tumor cells, but also taking the tumor stromal cells into account...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Rabea Asleh, Tal Hasin, Alexandros Briasoulis, Sarah D Schettle, Barry A Borlaug, Atta Behfar, Naveen L Pereira, Brooks S Edwards, Alfredo L Clavell, Lyle D Joyce, Simon Maltais, John M Stulak, Sudhir S Kushwaha
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in invasive hemodynamic parameters and outcomes in patients with and without heart failure (HF) symptoms after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of 51 symptomatic patients and 50 patients with resolved HF symptoms who underwent right-sided heart catheterization (RHC) after LVAD implantation from March 1, 2007, through June 30, 2016. Patient characteristics and outcomes including all-cause mortality and right ventricular (RV) failure were compared between groups...
June 8, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Roni Zemet, Eyal Schiff, Zipora Manovitch, Tal Cahan, Rakefet Yoeli-Ullman, Benny Brandt, Israel Hendler, Lilia Dorfman-Margolis, Yoav Yinon, Eyal Sivan, Shali Mazaki-Tovi
OBJECTIVE: Bed rest or activity restriction is a common obstetrical practice, despite a paucity of data to support its efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity, as assessed by a smart band activity tracker, is associated with preterm birth in pregnant women at high risk for preterm delivery. METHODS: This was a pilot prospective cohort study including pregnant women at high risk for preterm delivery between 24 and 32 weeks-of-gestation...
2018: PloS One
Neil P J Price, Trina M Hartman, Karl E Vermillion
A novel group of carbohydrate derivatives is described that uniquely assign cis/trans-2,3 aldose stereoisomers at low nanomolar concentrations. Aldopentoses or aldohexoses, or component aldoses from hydrolysis of polysaccharides or oligosaccharides, react with cysteamine in pyridine to give quantitative formation of thiazolidines, which are subsequently peracetylated in a one-pot reaction. The non-polar thiazolidines peracetate (TPA) derivatives are analyzed by GC/EI-MS, each aldose giving rise to two TPA geometric isomers...
June 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Daniel E Cooper, Warren R Dunn, Laura J Huston, Amanda K Haas, Kurt P Spindler, Christina R Allen, Allen F Anderson, Thomas M DeBerardino, Brett Brick A Lantz, Barton Mann, Michael J Stuart, John P Albright, Annunziato Ned Amendola, Jack T Andrish, Christopher C Annunziata, Robert A Arciero, Bernard R Bach, Champ L Baker, Arthur R Bartolozzi, Keith M Baumgarten, Jeffery R Bechler, Jeffrey H Berg, Geoffrey A Bernas, Stephen F Brockmeier, Robert H Brophy, Charles A Bush-Joseph, J Brad Butler V, John D Campbell, James L Carey, James E Carpenter, Brian J Cole, Jonathan M Cooper, Charles L Cox, R Alexander Creighton, Diane L Dahm, Tal S David, David C Flanigan, Robert W Frederick, Theodore J Ganley, Elizabeth A Garofoli, Charles J Gatt, Steven R Gecha, James Robert Giffin, Sharon L Hame, Jo A Hannafin, Christopher D Harner, Norman Lindsay Harris, Keith S Hechtman, Elliott B Hershman, Rudolf G Hoellrich, Timothy M Hosea, David C Johnson, Timothy S Johnson, Morgan H Jones, Christopher C Kaeding, Ganesh V Kamath, Thomas E Klootwyk, Bruce A Levy, C Benjamin Ma, G Peter Maiers, Robert G Marx, Matthew J Matava, Gregory M Mathien, David R McAllister, Eric C McCarty, Robert G McCormack, Bruce S Miller, Carl W Nissen, Daniel F O'Neill, Brett D Owens, Richard D Parker, Mark L Purnell, Arun J Ramappa, Michael A Rauh, Arthur C Rettig, Jon K Sekiya, Kevin G Shea, Orrin H Sherman, James R Slauterbeck, Matthew V Smith, Jeffrey T Spang, Steven J Svoboda, Timothy N Taft, Joachim J Tenuta, Edwin M Tingstad, Armando F Vidal, Darius G Viskontas, Richard A White, James S Williams, Michelle L Wolcott, Brian R Wolf, James J York, Rick W Wright
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of physiologic knee hyperextension (HE) in the revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) population and its effect on outcomes have yet to be reported. Hypothesis/Purpose: The prevalence of knee HE in revision ACLR and its effect on 2-year outcome were studied with the hypothesis that preoperative physiologic knee HE ≥5° is a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft rupture. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Tiffany Chien, Anjali Doshi, Tal Danino
Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to biology by modulating the behavior of living organisms. An emerging application of this field is the engineering of bacteria as a cancer therapy by the programming of therapeutic, safety, and specificity features through genetic modification. Here, we review progress in this engineering including the targeting of bacteria to tumors, specific sensing and response to tumor microenvironments, remote induction methods, and controllable release of therapeutics...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Systems Biology
Yifat Ofir-Birin, Paula Abou Karam, Ariel Rudik, Tal Giladi, Ziv Porat, Neta Regev-Rudzki
Extracellular vesicles are essential for long distance cell-cell communication. They function as carriers of different compounds, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Pathogens, like malaria parasites ( Plasmodium falciparum, Pf ), excel in employing vesicle release to mediate cell communication in diverse processes, particularly in manipulating the host response. Establishing research tools to study the interface between pathogen-derived vesicles and their host recipient cells will greatly benefit the scientific community...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Avital Hershkovitz, Shai Brill, Lior Neuhaus Sulam, Tal Luria, Snir Heller
BACKGROUND: Various factors have been shown to affect rehabilitation outcome of hip fractured patients. The degree of extracapsular fracture stability may also affect functional recovery. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between extracapsular hip fracture stability and rehabilitation outcome in a post-acute setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 144 hip fractured patients was carried out in a post-acute geriatric rehabilitation center from 1/2014 to 6/2015...
May 24, 2018: Injury
Fyodor D Urnov
Genome editing with engineered nucleases (zinc finger, TAL effector, or CRISPR/Cas9-based) enables `write' access to regulatory programs executed by primary human cells. A decade of its clinical development, along with a reduction of conventional gene therapy to medical and commercial practice, has made cell reprogramming via editing a viable clinical modality. Reviewed here are the first examples of this to enter the clinic: ex vivo edited T cells for infectious disease and cancer, and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells for the hemoglobinopathies...
June 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Alessandro Vidoni, Satyanarayana T V Sankara, Venkata Ramana, Rajesh Botchu
The transverse acetabular ligament is an unusual location for ganglion cysts. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. They can be asymptomatic and represent an incidental finding or can cause an atypical pattern of hip joint/groin pain. We report a case of ganglion cyst arising from the TAL causing entrapment of the anterior branch of the obturator nerve with associated acute denervation of the abductor longus (AL), adductor brevis (AB), and gracilis muscles.
June 6, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Maytal Shabat-Simon, Anastasia Shuster, Tal Sela, Dino J Levy
Hunger is a powerful driver of human behavior, and is therefore of great interest to the study of psychology, economics, and consumer behavior. Assessing hunger levels in experiments is often biased, when using self-report methods, or complex, when using blood tests. We propose a novel way of objectively measuring subjects' levels of hunger by identifying levels of alpha-amylase (AA) enzyme in their saliva samples. We used this measure to uncover the effect of hunger on different types of choice behaviors. We found that hunger increases risk-seeking behavior in a lottery-choice task, modifies levels of vindictiveness in a social decision-making task, but does not have a detectible effect on economic inconsistency in a budget-set choice task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nozgechi Phiri, Andreas D Haas, Malango T Msukwa, Lyson Tenthani, Olivia Keiser, Kali Tal
Most Malawian women who start ART under Option B+ are still in care three years later, a higher than average adherence rate for life-threatening chronic disease treatments, worldwide (50%). We asked 75 Malawian on ART their motivations for remaining in treatment, and what barriers they overcame. Focus groups and interviews included 75 women on ART for 6+ months, at 12 health facilities. Four main motivations for continuing ART emerged: 1) evidence that ART improved their own and their children's health; 2) strong desire to be healthy and keep their children healthy; 3) treatment was socially supported; 4) HIV/ART counselling effectively showed benefits of ART and told women what to expect...
2018: PloS One
Sarah J Teck, Julio Lorda, Nick T Shears, Tal Ben-Horin, Rebecca E Toseland, Sarah T Rathbone, Dave Rudie, Steven D Gaines
Understanding spatio-temporal variability in the demography of harvested species is essential to improve sustainability, especially if there is large geographic variation in demography. Reproductive patterns commonly vary spatially, which is particularly important for management of "roe"-based fisheries, since profits depend on both the number and reproductive condition of individuals. The red sea urchin, Mesocentrotus franciscanus, is harvested in California for its roe (gonad), which is sold to domestic and international sushi markets...
2018: PloS One
Tal Stern Bauer, Zvi Hayouka
The shelf life of pasteurized bovine milk is limited by microorganism activity as surviving bacteria continue to grow in the bovine milk, eventually causing milk spoilage. In the current study, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to identify pasteurized bovine milk-associated mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. We have recently designed random cationic peptide mixtures that possess strong antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. These compounds are cheap and easy to synthesize and represent a new class of antimicrobial agents...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Claudia Carmassi, Martina Corsi, Carlo Antonio Bertelloni, Barbara Carpita, Camilla Gesi, Virginia Pedrinelli, Gabriele Massimetti, Diego Giampietro Peroni, Alice Bonuccelli, Alessandro Orsini, Liliana Dell'Osso
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic stress spectrum have been recently applied to understand the impact of life-threatening disease or injury in one's child; nevertheless, scant data are available on a particular chronic illness such as epilepsy whose phenotypic expression is seizures, which are acute, sudden, and unpredictable manifestations. Subjects with bipolar disorders or with mood spectrum symptoms demonstrated to be more vulnerable to develop PTSD in the aftermath of a trauma...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yaara Tabib, Nora S Jaber, Maria Nassar, Tal Capucha, Gabriel Mizraji, Tsipora Nir, Noam Koren, Itay Aizenbud, Avraham Maimon, Luba Eli-Berchoer, Asaf Wilensky, Tal Burstyn-Cohen, Avi-Hai Hovav
AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase family, has been shown to play a role in the differentiation and activation of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). Here, we demonstrate that growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein, the predominant ligand of AXL, has no impact on LC differentiation and homeostasis. We thus examined the role of protein S (PROS1), the other TAM ligand acting primarily via TYRO3 and MERTK, in LC function. Genetic ablation of PROS1 in keratinocytes resulted in a typical postnatal differentiation of LCs; however, a significant reduction in LC frequencies was observed in adult mice due to increased apoptosis...
June 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lucien E Weiss, Tal Naor, Yoav Shechtman
The structural organization and dynamics of DNA are known to be of paramount importance in countless cellular processes, but capturing these events poses a unique challenge. Fluorescence microscopy is well suited for these live-cell investigations, but requires attaching fluorescent labels to the species under investigation. Over the past several decades, a suite of techniques have been developed for labeling and imaging DNA, each with various advantages and drawbacks. Here, we provide an overview of the labeling and imaging tools currently available for visualizing DNA in live cells, and discuss their suitability for various applications...
June 5, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Rinat Lifshiz Zimon, Galya Lerman, Einat Elharrar, Tal Meningher, Aviv Barzilai, Moamen Masalha, Ramesh Chintakunta, Etili Holander, Riki Goldbart, Tamar Traitel, Moti Haras, Yechezkel Sidi, Dror Avni, Joseph Kost
Psoriasis is a common, worldwide autoinflammatory, incurable skin disease. MiR-197 has therapeutic potential for psoriasis since it can down-regulate the expression of both IL-22RA1 and IL-17RA, subunits of the receptors of IL-22 and IL-17, respectively, which are key cytokines in the disease. Although miR-197 has the potential to treat the disease, several inherent physical barrier properties of the skin challenge miRNA's delivery to the target skin cells. In the present study, we evaluated a therapeutic approach that combines the use of ultrasound (US) as a means to enhance skin permeability with quaternized starch (Q-starch) as an miRNA delivery carrier...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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