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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918184/brain-responses-to-regular-and-octave-scrambled-melodies-a-case-of-predictive-coding
#1
Eitan Globerson, Roni Granot, Idan Tal, Yuval Harpaz, Maor Zeev-Wolf, Abraham Golstein
Melody recognition is an online process of evaluating incoming information and comparing this information to an existing internal corpus, thereby reducing prediction error. The predictive-coding model postulates top-down control on sensory processing accompanying reduction in prediction error. To investigate the relevancy of this model to melody processing, the current study examined early magnetoencephalogram (MEG) auditory responses to familiar and unfamiliar melodies in 25 participants. The familiar melodies followed and primed an octave-scrambled version of the same melody...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913135/mycophenolate-mofetil-attenuates-uterine-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-rat-model
#2
Gulcin Sahin Ersoy, Meryem Kurek Eken, Ozge Cevik, Ozlem T Cilingir, Reshef Tal
This study evaluated the effect of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on uterine tissue preservation following ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Uterine I/R injury was induced in rats by clamping the lower abdominal aorta and ovarian arteries for 30 min. Group I/R + V (n = 7) received vehicle alone while Group I/R + M (n = 7) received 20 mg/kg/day MMF. Control groups underwent sham surgery and received vehicle (Group C) or 20 mg/kg/day MMF (Group M) (n = 7 for both). Four hours after detorsion, uterine tissue 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and serum ischaemia modified albumin (IMA) concentrations were measured...
November 21, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912059/microbiota-diurnal-rhythmicity-programs-host-transcriptome-oscillations
#3
Christoph A Thaiss, Maayan Levy, Tal Korem, Lenka Dohnalová, Hagit Shapiro, Diego A Jaitin, Eyal David, Deborah R Winter, Meital Gury-BenAri, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Timur Tuganbaev, Sara Federici, Niv Zmora, David Zeevi, Mally Dori-Bachash, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Elena Kartvelishvily, Alexander Brandis, Alon Harmelin, Oren Shibolet, Zamir Halpern, Kenya Honda, Ido Amit, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
The intestinal microbiota undergoes diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that affect metabolic homeostasis, but the mechanisms by which the rhythmic microbiota influences host circadian activity remain elusive. Using integrated multi-omics and imaging approaches, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota features oscillating biogeographical localization and metabolome patterns that determine the rhythmic exposure of the intestinal epithelium to different bacterial species and their metabolites over the course of a day...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910247/auditory-processing-in-noise-is-associated-with-complex-patterns-of-disrupted-functional-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Fahimeh Mamashli, Sheraz Khan, Hari Bharadwaj, Konstantinos Michmizos, Santosh Ganesan, Keri-Lee A Garel, Javeria Ali Hashmi, Martha R Herbert, Matti Hämäläinen, Tal Kenet
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulty in processing speech in a noisy background, but the neural mechanisms that underlie this deficit have not been mapped. To address this question, we used magnetoencephalography to compare the cortical responses between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to a passive mismatch paradigm. We repeated the paradigm twice, once in a quiet background, and once in the presence of background noise. We focused on both the evoked mismatch field (MMF) response in temporal and frontal cortical locations, and functional connectivity with spectral specificity between those locations...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903855/fitz-hugh-curtis-syndrome-consequent-to-a-wound-infection-following-removal-of-a-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter
#5
Tal Zilberman-Daniels, Keren Cohen-Hagai, Yael Einbinder, Alexandra Osadchy, Sydney Benchetrit, Ze'ev Korzets
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the liver capsule (perihepatitis) and adjacent peritoneal surfaces. We report a case of FHCS developing in a peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient in whom catheter removal due to recurrent peritonitis was complicated by post-operative wound infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case description of FHCS in the context of PD.
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901223/metabolic-syndrome-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#6
Patrícia Pozas Saboya, Luiz Carlos Bodanese, Paulo Roberto Zimmermann, Andréia da Silva Gustavo, Caroline Melo Assumpção, Fernanda Londero
Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62...
November 28, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901058/a-kinase-anchoring-protein-4-akap4-is-an-erk1-2-substrate-and-a-switch-molecule-between-camp-pka-and-pkc-erk1-2-in-human-spermatozoa
#7
Liat Rahamim Ben-Navi, Tal Almog, Zhong Yao, Rony Seger, Zvi Naor
Mammalian spermatozoa undergo capacitation and acrosome reaction in order to fertilize the egg. The PKC-ERK1/2 pathway plays an important role in human spermatozoa motility, capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Here we demonstrate that ERK1/2 phosphorylates proAKAP4 on Thr265 in human spermatozoa in vitro and in vivo. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) had no effect on ERK1/2 activity in human spermatozoa, but stimulated the MAPK in mouse pituitary LβT2 gonadotrope cells. cAMP via PKA attenuates PKC-dependent ERK1/2 activation only in the presence of proAKAP4...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898929/does-heat-stress-alter-the-pig-s-response-to-dietary-fat
#8
T A Kellner, L H Baumgard, K J Prusa, N K Gabler, J F Patience
Heat stress (HS) results in major losses to the pork industry via reduced growth performance and, possibly, carcass fat quality. The experimental objective was to measure the effects of HS on the pig's response to dietary fat in terms of lipid digestion, metabolism, and deposition over a 35-d finishing period. A total of 96 PIC 337 × C22/C29 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) barrows (initial BW of 100.4 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 9 treatments arranged as a 3 × 3 factorial: thermoneutral (TN; constant 24°C; ad libitum access to feed), pair-fed thermoneutral (PFTN; constant 24°C; limit fed based on previous HS daily feed intake), or HS (cyclical 28°C nighttime, 33°C from d 0 to 7, 33...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898150/paradigmskifte-vid-handl%C3%A3-ggning-av-trauma-och-livshotande-bl%C3%A3-dning
#9
Tal Hörer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892842/complicated-grief-after-suicide-bereavement-and-other-causes-of-death
#10
Ilanit Tal, Christine Mauro, Charles F Reynolds, M Katherine Shear, Naomi Simon, Barry Lebowitz, Natalia Skritskaya, Yuanjia Wang, Xin Qiu, Alana Iglewicz, Danielle Glorioso, Julie Avanzino, Julie Loebach Wetherell, Jordan F Karp, Don Robinaugh, Sidney Zisook
We compared baseline demographic characteristics, clinical features, and grief-related thoughts, feelings and behaviors of individuals bereaved by suicide, accident/homicide and natural causes participating in a complicated grief (CG) treatment clinical trial. Severity of CG and depression and current depression diagnosis did not vary by loss type. After adjusting for baseline demographic features, time since death and relationship to the deceased, those with CG after suicide had the highest rates of lifetime depression, pre-loss passive suicidal ideation, self-blaming thoughts, and impaired work and social adjustment...
November 28, 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889465/the-role-of-oxytocin-in-modulating-interpersonal-space-a-pharmacological-fmri-study
#11
Daniela Cohen, Anat Perry, Gadi Gilam, Naama Mayseless, Tal Gonen, Talma Hendler, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Interpersonal space is a nonverbal indicator of affiliation and closeness. In this study we investigated the effects of oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide known for its social role in humans, on interpersonal space. In a double blind placebo controlled study we measured the effect of intranasal OT on the personal distance preferences of different familiar (friend) and unfamiliar (stranger) protagonists. Behavioral results showed that participants preferred to be closer to a friend than to a stranger. Intranasal OT was associated with an overall distancing effect, but this effect was significant for the stranger and not for the friend...
November 10, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884766/mechanisms-of-vascular-dysfunction-in-copd-and-effects-of-a-novel-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-in-smokers
#12
Lucy Yang, Joseph Cheriyan, David D Gutterman, Ruth J Mayer, Zsuzsanna Ament, Jules L Griffin, Aili L Lazaar, David E Newby, Ruth Tal-Singer, Ian B Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the pathogenesis may involve endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)-mediated endothelial function is impaired in patients with COPD, and a novel sEH inhibitor GSK2256294 attenuates EET-mediated endothelial dysfunction in human resistance vessels both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Endogenous and stimulated endothelial release of EETs was assessed in 12 COPD patients, 11 overweight smokers, and 2 matched control groups, using forearm plethysmography with intra-arterial infusions of fluconazole, bradykinin, and the combination...
November 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883072/non-rvd-mutations-that-enhance-the-dynamics-of-the-tal-repeat-array-along-the-superhelical-axis-improve-talen-genome-editing-efficacy
#13
Naoya Tochio, Kohei Umehara, Jun-Ichi Uewaki, Holger Flechsig, Masaharu Kondo, Takehisa Dewa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Takashi Saitoh, Yuichi Togashi, Shin-Ichi Tate
Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nuclease (TALEN) is widely used as a tool in genome editing. The DNA binding part of TALEN consists of a tandem array of TAL-repeats that form a right-handed superhelix. Each TAL-repeat recognises a specific base by the repeat variable diresidue (RVD) at positions 12 and 13. TALEN comprising the TAL-repeats with periodic mutations to residues at positions 4 and 32 (non-RVD sites) in each repeat (VT-TALE) exhibits increased efficacy in genome editing compared with a counterpart without the mutations (CT-TALE)...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880914/neuronal-ctcf-is-necessary-for-basal-and-experience-dependent-gene-regulation-memory-formation-and-genomic-structure-of-bdnf-and-arc
#14
Dev Sharan Sams, Stefano Nardone, Dmitriy Getselter, Dana Raz, Moran Tal, Prudhvi Raj Rayi, Hanoch Kaphzan, Ofir Hakim, Evan Elliott
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an organizer of higher-order chromatin structure and regulates gene expression. Genetic studies have implicated mutations in CTCF in intellectual disabilities. However, the role of CTCF-mediated chromatin structure in learning and memory is unclear. We show that depletion of CTCF in postmitotic neurons, or depletion in the hippocampus of adult mice through viral-mediated knockout, induces deficits in learning and memory. These deficits in learning and memory at the beginning of adulthood are correlated with impaired long-term potentiation and reduced spine density, with no changes in basal synaptic transmission and dendritic morphogenesis and arborization...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#15
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879202/quantifying-%C3%AE-catenin-subcellular-dynamics-and-cyclin-d1-mrna-transcription-during-wnt-signaling-in-single-living-cells
#16
Pinhas Kafri, Sarah E Hasenson, Itamar Kanter, Jonathan Sheinberger, Noa Kinor, Sharon Yunger, Yaron Shav-Tal
Signal propagation from the cell membrane to a promoter can induce gene expression. To examine signal transmission through sub-cellular compartments and its effect on transcription levels in individual cells within a population, we used the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as a model system. Wnt signaling orchestrates a response through nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in the cell population. However, quantitative live-cell measurements in individual cells showed variability in nuclear β-catenin accumulation, which could occur in two waves, followed by slow clearance...
November 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874907/natural-products-as-mediators-of-disease
#17
REVIEW
Neha Garg, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Alexey V Melnik, Andrés Mauricio Caraballo-Rodríguez, Dimitrios J Floros, Daniel Petras, Rachel Gregor, Pieter C Dorrestein, Vanessa V Phelan
Covering: up to 2016Humans are walking microbial ecosystems, each harboring a complex microbiome with the genetic potential to produce a vast array of natural products. Recent sequencing data suggest that our microbial inhabitants are critical for maintaining overall health. Shifts in microbial communities have been correlated to a number of diseases including infections, inflammation, cancer, and neurological disorders. Some of these clinically and diagnostically relevant phenotypes are a result of the presence of small molecules, yet we know remarkably little about their contributions to the health of individuals...
November 22, 2016: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871875/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-has-a-major-role-in-mast-cell-function-and-its-activity-is-regulated-by-mitochondrial-mitf
#18
Israa Sharkia, Tal Hadad Erlich, Nadine Landolina, Miri Assayag, Alex Motzik, Inbal Rachmin, Gillian Kay, Ziv Porat, Sagi Tshori, Neville Berkman, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Ehud Razin
BACKGROUND: We have recently observed that OXPHOS mediated ATP production is essential for mast cell function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the main regulator of the Krebs cycle and is located upstream to the electron transport chain. However, the role of PDH in mast cell function has not been described. Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) regulates the development, number and function of mast cells. The localization of MITF to the mitochondria and its interaction with mitochondrial proteins has not been explored...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869118/de-novo-protein-function-prediction-using-dna-binding-and-rna-binding-proteins-as-a-test-case
#19
Sapir Peled, Olga Leiderman, Rotem Charar, Gilat Efroni, Yaron Shav-Tal, Yanay Ofran
Of the currently identified protein sequences, 99.6% have never been observed in the laboratory as proteins and their molecular function has not been established experimentally. Predicting the function of such proteins relies mostly on annotated homologs. However, this has resulted in some erroneous annotations, and many proteins have no annotated homologs. Here we propose a de-novo function prediction approach based on identifying biophysical features that underlie function. Using our approach, we discover DNA and RNA binding proteins that cannot be identified based on homology and validate these predictions experimentally...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867964/an-electromechanical-hug-for-the-failing-heart
#20
COMMENT
Ron Feiner, Tal Dvir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
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