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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668111/efficient-in-planta-gene-targeting-in-tomato-using-geminiviral-replicons-and-the-crispr-cas9-system
#1
Tal Dahan-Meir, Shdema Filler-Hayut, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Samuel Bocobza, Henryk Czosnek, Asaph Aharoni, Avraham A Levy
Current breeding relies mostly on random mutagenesis and recombination to generate novel genetic variation. However, targeted genome editing is becoming an increasingly important tool for precise plant breeding. Using the CRISPR-Cas system combined with the bean yellow dwarf virus rolling circle replicon we optimized a method for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement in tomato. The carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were chosen as targets due to their easily detectable change of phenotype...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663920/advances-in-the-engineering-of-the-gene-editing-enzymes-and-the-genomes-understanding-and-handling-the-off-target-effects-of-crispr-cas9
#2
Yufang Yin, Qian Wang, Li Xiao, Fengjiao Wang, Zhuo Song, Cuilan Zhou, Xuan Liu, Chungen Xing, Nongyue He, Kai Li, Yan Feng, Jia Zhang
In the past decades, significant progresses have been achieved in genetic engineering of nucleases. Among the genetically engineered nucleases, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases, and CRIPSPR/Cas9 system form a new field of gene editing. The gene editing efficiency or targeting effect and the off-target effect are the two major determinant factors in evaluating the usefulness of a new enzyme. Engineering strategies in improving these gene editing enzymes, particularly in minimizing their off-target effects, are the focus of this paper...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661872/treating-anthrax-induced-meningitis-in-rabbits
#3
Amir Ben-Shmuel, Itai Glinert, Assa Sittner, Elad Bar-David, Josef Schlomovitz, Tal Brosh, David Kobiler, Shay Weiss, Haim Levy
Treatment of Anthrax is challenging, especially during the advanced stages of the disease. Recently the CDC updated its recommendations for post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of exposed populations (pre and post symptoms onset). These recommendations distinguished, for the first time, between the systemic disease with and without meningitis, a common and serious complication of anthrax. The CDC considers all systemic patients as meningeal unless positively proven otherwise. The treatment of patients suffering from systemic Anthrax with suspected or confirmed meningitis includes the combination of three antibiotics -- a fluoroquinolone (Levofloxacin or Ciprofloxacin), a β-lactam (Meropenem or Imipenem) and a protein-synthesis inhibitor (Linezolid or Clindamycin)...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660087/older-adults-pay-an-additional-cost-when-texting-and-walking-effects-of-age-environment-and-use-of-mixed-reality-on-dual-task-performance
#4
Tal Krasovsky, Patrice L Weiss, Rachel Kizony
Background: Texting while walking (TeWW) has become common among people of all ages, and mobile phone use during gait is increasingly associated with pedestrian injury. Although dual-task walking performance is known to decline with age, data regarding the effect of age on dual-task performance in ecological settings are limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, environment (indoors/outdoors), and mixed reality (merging of real and virtual environments) on TeWW performance...
April 6, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657851/kinematic-alignment-technique-for-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-the-personalized-implant-positioning-surgery
#5
Charles Rivière, Stefan Lazic, Loïc Villet, Yann Wiart, Sarah Muirhead Allwood, Justin Cobb
Conventional techniques for hip and knee arthroplasty have led to good long-term clinical outcomes, but complications remain despite better surgical precision and improvements in implant design and quality.Technological improvements and a better understanding of joint kinematics have facilitated the progression to 'personalized' implant positioning (kinematic alignment) for total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty, the true value of which remains to be determined.By achieving a true knee resurfacing, the kinematic alignment (KA) technique for TKA aims at aligning the components with the physiological kinematic axes of the knee and restoring the constitutional tibio-femoral joint line frontal and axial orientation and soft-tissue laxity...
March 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650676/sodium-bicarbonate-loading-limits-tubular-cast-formation-independent-of-glomerular-injury-and-proteinuria-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#6
S C Ray, B Patel, D L Irsik, J Sun, H Ocasio, G R Crislip, C H Jin, J K Chen, B Baban, A J Polichnowski, P M O'Connor
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) slows the decline in kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat develops hypertension and progressive renal injury when fed a high salt diet; however, the effect of alkali loading on kidney injury has never been investigated in this model. We hypothesized that 'NaHCO3 protects from the development of renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats via luminal alkalization which limits the formation of tubular casts, which are a prominent pathological feature in this model...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649980/patterns-of-caesarean-section-in-hiv-infected-and-non-infected-women-in-malawi-is-caesarean-section-used-for-pmtct
#7
Lyson Tenthani, Joep J van Oosterhout, Andreas D Haas, Malango Msukwa, Nozgechi Phiri, Frank Chimbwandira, Kali Tal, Karoline Aebi-Popp, Janne Estill, Olivia Keiser
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) is not recommended for PMTCT in Malawi HIV Guidelines, contrary to most high-income countries where CS is indicated if viral suppression is sub-optimal pre-delivery. We describe patterns of CS in HIV-infected and uninfected women in Malawi and explored if insight into the use of Elective CS (ECS) for PMTCT could be obtained. METHODS: We used routinely collected data from individual medical records from 17 large health facilities in the central and southern regions of Malawi, from January 2010 to December 2013...
April 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649350/evaluation-of-dna-extraction-methods-from-waterlogged-bones-a-pilot-study
#8
Claire Cartozzo, Baneshwar Singh, Edward Boone, Tal Simmons
When deaths occur in water, soft tissue decomposes after a temperature-dependent period, making DNA identification dependent on bone. This study examined the effects of water on bone DNA purity and quantity, and determined the best of three extraction methods for isolating DNA. The organic phenol-chloroform method consistently extracted DNA approximating the accepted 260/280 purity value (~1.8); ChargeSwitch® gDNA Plant Kit and DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit produced fair and unacceptable values, respectively...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629731/the-effect-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-on-recruitment-and-function-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-patients-with-congestive-heart-failure
#9
Amos Levi, Dorit Leshem-Lev, Adaya Weissler-Snir, Tal Hasin, Israel Mats, Daniel Murninkas, Ran Kornowski, Eli I Lev, Tuvia Ben-Gal
BACKGROUND: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells have an important role in the process of vascular repair. Impaired recruitment and function of endothelial progenitor cells is related to the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. Endothelial progenitor cells have been shown to express the mineralocorticoid receptor. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on endothelial progenitor cells in patients with heart failure...
April 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624673/the-bone-marrow-is-patrolled-by-nk-cells-that-are-primed-and-expand-in-response-to-systemic-viral-activation
#10
Idan Milo, Ronnie Blecher-Gonen, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Raz Bar-Ziv, Orna Tal, Irina Gurevich, Tali Feferman, Ingo Drexler, Ido Amit, Philippe Bousso, Guy Shakhar
The bone marrow hosts NK cells whose distribution, motility and response to systemic immune challenge are poorly understood. At steady state, two-photon microscopy of the bone marrow in Ncr1gfp/+ mice captured motile NK cells interacting with dendritic cells. NK cells expressed markers and effector molecules of mature cells. Following poly (I:C) injection, RNA-Seq of NK cells revealed three phases of transcription featuring immune response genes followed by posttranscriptional processes and proliferation. Functionally, poly (I:C) promoted upregulation of granzyme B, enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and, in the same individual cells, triggered proliferation...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624211/influence-of-maternal-negative-emotion-reactivity-and-cognitive-reappraisal-on-child-anxiety-disorder
#11
Nava Wald, Tal Carthy, Vered Shenaar-Golan, Yael Tadmor-Zisman, Maayan Ziskind
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychopathologies in childhood. Two underlying contributors to child anxiety disorders (ADs) are negative emotional hyper-reactivity and deficits in reappraisal, a cognitive strategy of emotion regulation. Given that emotion regulation develops in the context of parent-child interaction, the aim of this study was to fill a research gap regarding the association between maternal negative emotional reactivity (NER) and reappraisal and child anxiety by examining (a) whether mothers of children with ADs display abnormalities in emotional reactivity and reappraisal compared to mothers of children without ADs; (b) whether maternal NER and reappraisal are associated with child anxiety; and (c) whether maternal reactivity and reappraisal significantly explain the variance in the level of child anxiety beyond the level of maternal anxiety...
April 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620401/perspective-mistaking-accurately-understanding-the-mind-of-another-requires-getting-perspective-not-taking-perspective
#12
Tal Eyal, Mary Steffel, Nicholas Epley
Taking another person's perspective is widely presumed to increase interpersonal understanding. Very few experiments, however, have actually tested whether perspective taking increases accuracy when predicting another person's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or other mental states. Those that do yield inconsistent results, or they confound accuracy with egocentrism. Here we report 25 experiments testing whether being instructed to adopt another person's perspective increases interpersonal insight. These experiments include a wide range of accuracy tests that disentangle egocentrism and accuracy, such as predicting another person's emotions from facial expressions and body postures, predicting fake versus genuine smiles, predicting when a person is lying or telling the truth, and predicting a spouse's activity preferences and consumer attitudes...
April 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618495/fibrinogen-does-not-relate-to-cardiovascular-or-muscle-manifestations-in-copd-cross-sectional-data-from-the-erica-study
#13
Divya Mohan, Julia R Forman, Matthew Allinder, Carmel M McEniery, Charlotte Emma Bolton, John R Cockcroft, William MacNee, Jonathan Fuld, Mellone Marchong, Nichola Sian Gale, Marie Fisk, Sridevi Nagarajan, Joseph Cheriyan, David A Lomas, Peter M A Calverley, Bruce E Miller, Ruth Tal-Singer, Ian B Wilkinson, Michael I Polkey
Cardiovascular and skeletal muscle manifestations constitute important comorbidities in COPD, with systemic inflammation proposed as a common mechanistic link. Fibrinogen has prognostic role in COPD. We aimed to determine whether aortic stiffness and quadriceps weakness are linked in COPD, and whether they are associated with the systemic inflammatory mediator-fibrinogen. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), quadriceps maximal volitional contraction (QMVC) force and fibrinogen were measured in 729 patients with stable, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV COPD...
April 4, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617213/child-parent-relationship-therapy-with-extra-familial-abused-children
#14
Roy Tal, Kineret Tal, Ohad Green
Sexual abuse by a perpetrator outside of the family is the most prevalent form of child sexual abuse. It is associated with serious consequences for both the child and his family. Surprisingly, however, the issue of extra-familial sexual abuse has received very little research and clinical attention. The purpose of the current study was to explore the effectiveness of Child-Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT), which uses nondirective play therapy tools, among parents of extra-familial abused children and their parents...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617064/treatment-of-complicated-grief-in-survivors-of-suicide-loss-a-heal-report
#15
Sidney Zisook, M Katherine Shear, Charles F Reynolds, Naomi M Simon, Christine Mauro, Natalia A Skritskaya, Barry Lebowitz, Yuanjia Wang, Ilanit Tal, Danielle Glorioso, Julie Loebach Wetherell, Alana Iglewicz, Donald Robinaugh, Xin Qiu
OBJECTIVE: Suffering associated with complicated grief (CG) is profound. Because suicide loss survivors are susceptible to developing CG, identifying effective treatments for suicide loss survivors with CG is a high priority. This report provides data on the acceptability and effectiveness of antidepressant medication and complicated grief therapy (CGT), a CG-targeted psychotherapy, for suicide loss survivors with CG identified by an Inventory of Complicated Grief score ≥ 30. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data collected from March 2010 to September 2014 for a 4-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of antidepressant medication alone or in combination with CGT for participants with CG (score ≥ 30 on the Inventory of Complicated Grief) who were bereaved by suicide (SB; n = 58), accident/homicide (A/H; n = 74), or natural causes (NC; n = 263)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616310/what-are-the-prevalence-characteristics-and-significance-of-fetal-lateral-neck-cysts-detected-in-an-early-anatomical-scan
#16
Rivka Sukenik Halevy, Jordana Mashiach Friedler, Anat Hershko-Klement, Tal Biron-Shental, Ofer Markovitch, Ronnie Tepper
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the association of fetal lateral neck cysts (FLNC) with adverse pregnancy outcomes, in relation to specific sonographic characteristics and co-existing findings. METHODS: Pregnancies in which FLNC were detected by a single examiner in early anatomical scans (14-16 weeks) were included. Data regarding the pregnancy and its outcome were retrieved from telephone-based questionnaires, patient charts and from the examiner's reports. RESULTS: 654 cases of FLNC were detected among 9446 early anatomical scans (6...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611303/different-attention-bias-patterns-in-anorexia-nervosa-restricting-and-binge-purge-types
#17
Tal Gilon Mann, Sami Hamdan, Yair Bar-Haim, Amit Lazarov, Adi Enoch-Levy, Gal Dubnov-Raz, Janet Treasure, Daniel Stein
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been shown to display both elevated anxiety and attentional biases in threat processing. In this study, we compared threat-related attention patterns of patients with AN restricting type (AN-R; n = 32), AN binge/purge type (AN-B/P; n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 19). A dot-probe task with either eating disorder-related or general and social anxiety-related words was used to measure attention patterns. Severity of eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, and stress were also assessed...
April 3, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608719/the-prevalence-and-evolutionary-conservation-of-inverted-repeats-in-proteobacteria
#18
Bar Lavi, Eli Levy Karin, Tal Pupko, Einat Hazkani-Covo
Perfect short inverted repeats (IRs) are known to be enriched in a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic genomes. Currently, it is unclear whether perfect IRs are conserved over evolutionary time scales. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of IRs across 20 proteobacterial strains. We first identified IRs in Escherichia coli K-12 substr MG1655 and showed that they are overabundant. We next aimed to test whether this overabundance is reflected in the conservation of IRs over evolutionary time scales...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608418/mood-cognitive-structuring-and-medication-adherence
#19
Dariusz Dolinski, Barbara Dolinska, Yoram Bar-Tal
A study with a placebo was conducted. Healthy university students were given a placebo and were told to make one pill every day for a week. Participants were informed that the medicine improved mood. The extent to which they conformed to this instruction was treated as an index of compliance. Our results show that for women, but not for men, positive mood and cognitive structuring or negative mood and lack of cognitive structuring significantly predicted participants' compliance. A new model of medication adherence, based on the role of the patient's mood and cognitive structuring processes in decision making is presented in the paper...
April 2, 2018: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599012/metaorganisms-in-extreme-environments-do-microbes-play-a-role-in-organismal-adaptation
#20
REVIEW
Corinna Bang, Tal Dagan, Peter Deines, Nicole Dubilier, Wolfgang J Duschl, Sebastian Fraune, Ute Hentschel, Heribert Hirt, Nils Hülter, Tim Lachnit, Devani Picazo, Lucia Pita, Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Maged M Saad, Ruth A Schmitz, Hinrich Schulenburg, Christian R Voolstra, Nancy Weiland-Bräuer, Maren Ziegler, Thomas C G Bosch
From protists to humans, all animals and plants are inhabited by microbial organisms. There is an increasing appreciation that these resident microbes influence the fitness of their plant and animal hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a uni- or multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Research on host-microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates and invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; conversely, its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states...
February 15, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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