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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913538/sickle-cell-disease-when-and-how-to-transfuse
#1
Jo Howard
Blood transfusion remains an important therapeutic intervention in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), aiming to both increase the oxygen carrying capacity of blood and to reduce the complications of vaso-occlusion. Simple, manual exchange and automated exchange can be effective in reducing the acute and chronic complications of SCD, and the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology mean they all have a role in different situations. Evidence for the role of emergency transfusion in the management of the acute complications of SCD, including acute pain and acute chest syndrome, comes from observational data...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912091/genetic-ablation-of-axl-does-not-protect-human-neural-progenitor-cells-and-cerebral-organoids-from-zika-virus-infection
#2
Michael F Wells, Max R Salick, Ole Wiskow, Daniel J Ho, Kathleen A Worringer, Robert J Ihry, Sravya Kommineni, Bilada Bilican, Joseph R Klim, Ellen J Hill, Liam T Kane, Chaoyang Ye, Ajamete Kaykas, Kevin Eggan
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cross the placental barrier, resulting in infection of the fetal brain and neurological defects including microcephaly. The cellular tropism of ZIKV and the identity of attachment factors used by the virus to gain access to key cell types involved in pathogenesis are under intense investigation. Initial studies suggested that ZIKV preferentially targets neural progenitor cells (NPCs), providing an explanation for the developmental phenotypes observed in some pregnancies. The AXL protein has been nominated as a key attachment factor for ZIKV in several cell types including NPCs...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893898/association-between-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccination-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-morbidity-in-offspring
#3
Anders Hviid, Henrik Svanström, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Philipp Lambach
Importance: Several studies investigating potential adverse effects of the pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine have supported that influenza A(H1N1) vaccination does not increase the risk for major pregnancy and birth adverse outcomes, but little is known about possible adverse effects in offspring of A(H1N1)-vaccinated mothers beyond the perinatal period and into early childhood. Objective: To evaluate whether pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy increases the risk for early childhood morbidity in offspring...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893080/travel-associated-zika-virus-disease-acquired-in-the-americas-through-february-2016-a-geosentinel-analysis
#4
Davidson H Hamer, Kira A Barbre, Lin H Chen, Martin P Grobusch, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Abraham Goorhuis, Perry J J van Genderen, Israel Molina, Hilmir Asgeirsson, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Eric Caumes, Stefan H Hagmann, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Gilles Eperon, Elizabeth D Barnett, Emmanuel Bottieau, Andrea K Boggild, Philippe Gautret, Noreen A Hynes, Susan Kuhn, R Ryan Lash, Karin Leder, Michael Libman, Denis J M Malvy, Cecilia Perret, Camilla Rothe, Eli Schwartz, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Martin S Cetron, Douglas H Esposito
Background: Zika virus has spread rapidly in the Americas and has been imported into many nonendemic countries by travelers. Objective: To describe clinical manifestations and epidemiology of Zika virus disease in travelers exposed in the Americas. Design: Descriptive, using GeoSentinel records. Setting: 63 travel and tropical medicine clinics in 30 countries. Patients: Ill returned travelers with a confirmed, probable, or clinically suspected diagnosis of Zika virus disease seen between January 2013 and 29 February 2016...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887021/an-unusual-presentation-of-a-rare-disease-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-following-abdominal-sepsis
#5
Carly R N Richards, Robert C McMurray, Erik T Criman, Margaret E Clark, Suzanne Gillern
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an unusual disease of unknown incidence and cause. There are a wide range of associated, predisposing medical causes to include pregnancy, renal failure, immunosuppressive medication administration and hypertension. The diagnosis is made following the radiographic identification of characteristic vasogenic edema in the setting of neurologic impairment. A significant portion of patients will have long-term, if not permanent, sequelae of the disease. We present a patient who developed PRES following a hemicolectomy that was complicated by an anastomotic leak...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885286/immediate-outcome-of-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-in-hypoxiate-newborns-in-nepal-medical-college
#6
S Shrestha, G S Shrestha, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is the fifth major cause of under-five child deaths after pneumonia, diarrhoea, neonatal infections and complications of preterm birth. It is one of the important causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity accounting up to 30% of neonatal death in Nepal. It is also an important cause of long-term neurological disability and impairment. The mortality rate due to birth asphyxia is considered a good guide to the quality of perinatal care. This study was conducted to assess the rate of birth asphyxia, risk factors and outcome of the babies who were asphyxiated at birth...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876117/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
Denise Maguire, Maureen Gröer
Development of a healthy gut microbiome is essential in newborns to establish immunity and protection from pathogens. Recent studies suggest that infants who develop dysbiosis may be at risk for lifelong adverse health consequences. Exposure to opioid drugs during pregnancy is a factor of potential importance for microbiome health that has not yet been investigated. Since these infants are born after an entire gestation exposed to mu opioid receptor agonists and have severe gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, we hypothesize that these infants are at risk for dysbiosis...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870430/sex-related-influences-in-migraine
#8
REVIEW
Jelena M Pavlovic, Didem Akcali, Hayrunnisa Bolay, Carolyn Bernstein, Nasim Maleki
Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significantly higher incidence and prevalence in women than men. The presentation of the disease in women is modulated by changes in sex hormones from adolescence to pregnancy and menopause. Yet, the effect of sex influences has often been neglected in both basic and clinical and in clinical management of the disease. In this review, evidence from epidemiological, clinical, animal, and neuroimaging studies on the significance of the sex-related influences in migraine is presented, and the unmet needs in each area are discussed...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864598/impact-of-fetal-counseling-on-outcome-of-antenatal-congenital-surgical-anomalies
#9
Shilpa Sharma, Ranjana Bhanot, Dipika Deka, Minu Bajpai, Devendra K Gupta
AIM: To analyze the impact of counseling on antenatal congenital surgical anomalies (ACSA). METHODS: Cases presenting with ACSA for fetal counseling and those presenting in post-natal period following diagnosis of ACSA (PACSA) for surgical opinion were analyzed for spectrum, presentation and outcome. RESULTS: 117 cases including ACSA(68);PACSA(49) were analyzed. Gestational age at diagnosis of ACSA;PACSA was 17-37;17-39 weeks (median 24;32 weeks)...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860117/development-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-e-core-a-national-multi-stakeholder-modified-delphi-consensus-study
#10
B H Al Wattar, K Tamilselvan, R Khan, A Kelso, A Sinha, A M Pirie, D McCorry, K S Khan, S Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of core outcomes for studies on pregnant women with epilepsy. DESIGN: Delphi consensus study. POPULATION: Healthcare professionals, and patient representatives with lived experience of epilepsy in the UK. METHODS: We used a modified Delphi method and a consultation meeting to achieve consensus. Potential outcomes were identified by systematic review, and were scored using a Likert scale anchored between 1 (least important) and 5 (most important)...
November 16, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846663/spontaneous-intestinal-perforation-the-long-term-outcome
#11
Christoph Heinrich Houben, Xiang-Nan Feng, Kin Wai Edwin Chan, Jennifer Wai Cheung Mou, Yuk Him Tam, Kim Hung Lee
Background/Purpose Evaluating the long-term outcome of spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Methods We studied all patients treated for SIP at our institution between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014. Results Twenty-three infants (13 males) with a median gestational age of 26 (range: 23-32) weeks and a median weight of 825 (range: 560-1,965) g composed this cohort. Seventeen (74%) infants had an extremely low birth weight (ELBW); nine (39%) infants were the result of multiple pregnancies.Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was present in 16 (70%) infants...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845968/epidemiology-of-zika
#12
Carmen C Deseda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is the latest 'emerging virus' that has affected the Americas. First identified in the mid-20th century in Uganda, it was described as a vector arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) and subsequently found capable of producing illness in humans. The illness was not different from other flavivirus infections and caused a relatively mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, nonspecific exanthem, nonpurulent conjunctivitis, and mild to moderate arthralgia...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842550/change-in-the-responsiveness-of-interferon-stimulated-genes-during-early-pregnancy-in-cows-with-borna-virus-1-infection
#13
Tadashi Takino, Taku Okamura, Tatsuya Ando, Katsuro Hagiwara
BACKGROUND: Borna disease virus is a neurotropic pathogen and infects the central nervous system. This virus infected a variety of animal species including cows. The most of cows infected with Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) exhibit subclinical infection without any neurological symptoms throughout their lifetime. We previously reported on the low conception rates in-seropositive cows. Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) plays an important role in stable fertilization, and is produced from the fetal side following embryo growth at 15-40 days of pregnancy...
November 14, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831835/imaging-of-neurologic-conditions-in-pregnant-patients
#14
Sangam Kanekar, Shante Bennett
A number of physiologic, hormonal, immunologic, and hemodynamic changes take place in the maternal body during pregnancy. The majority of these changes are essential for maintaining the normal course of pregnancy. However, these changes may also cause acute or chronic conditions that affect various biologic systems in the mother. In addition, conditions of the central and peripheral nervous systems can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms and complications. Neurologic signs and symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women may be due to the exacerbation of a preexisting medical condition, the initial manifestation of a primary central nervous system-related problem, or a neurologic problem unique to pregnancy and the postpartum period...
November 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825017/a-pharmacological-overview-of-lamotrigine-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#15
Venkata Ramesh Yasam, Satya Lavanya Jakki, V Senthil, M Eswaramoorthy, S Shanmuganathan, K Arjunan, M J Nanjan
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting about 2% of the population worldwide. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a second generation anti-epileptic drug (AED) with broad spectrum of activity, a favourable side-effect profile, simpler dosing than earlier drugs and efficacious in diverse epilepsy syndromes. Areas covered: The present review focuses on pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of LTG and its effect on cognition, psychiatry, quality of life, women and pregnancy along with effect of enzyme inducing and enzyme inhibiting drugs over LTG and their effect on serum level fluctuations by collecting data from various studies over the years until 2016...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816865/low-dose-thimerosal-in-pediatric-vaccines-adverse-effects-in-perspective
#16
REVIEW
José G Dórea
Vaccines are prophylactics used as the first line of intervention to prevent, control and eradicate infectious diseases. Young children (before the age of six months) are the demographic group most exposed to recommended/mandatory vaccines preserved with Thimerosal and its metabolite ethylmercury (EtHg). Particularly in the less-developed countries, newborns, neonates, and young children are exposed to EtHg because it is still in several of their pediatric vaccines and mothers are often immunized with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) during pregnancy...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815806/first-successful-trial-of-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration
#17
Objoon Trachoo, Chonthicha Satirapod, Bhakbhoom Panthan, Matchuporn Sukprasert, Angkana Charoenyingwattana, Wasun Chantratita, Wicharn Choktanasiri, Suradej Hongeng
PURPOSE: We aim to present a case of a healthy infant born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection-in vitro fertilization (ICSI-IVF) with a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) due to PANK2 mutation. METHODS: ICSI-IVF was performed on a Thai couple, 34-year-old female and 33-year-old male, with a family history of PKAN in their first child. Following fertilization, each of the embryos were biopsied in the cleavage stage and subsequently processed for whole-genome amplification...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813025/involvement-of-programmed-cell-death-in-neurotoxicity-of-metallic-nanoparticles-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Bin Song, Ting Zhou, Jia Liu, LongQuan Shao
The widespread application of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP-based products has increased the risk of exposure to NPs in humans. The brain is an important organ that is more susceptible to exogenous stimuli. Moreover, any impairment to the brain is irreversible. Recently, several in vivo studies have found that metallic NPs can be absorbed into the animal body and then translocated into the brain, mainly through the blood-brain barrier and olfactory pathway after systemic administration. Furthermore, metallic NPs can cross the placental barrier to accumulate in the fetal brain, causing developmental neurotoxicity on exposure during pregnancy...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808034/iodine-deficiency-in-pregnancy-is-prevalent-in-vulnerable-groups-in-denmark
#19
Ditte Marie Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Kathrine Perslev, Stine Linding Andersen, Hans Perrild, Nils Knudsen, Tom Weber, Lone Banke Rasmussen, Peter Laurberg
INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg/l) were measured...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805280/iodine-deficiency-amongst-pregnant-women-in-south-west-england
#20
Bridget A Knight, Beverley M Shields, Xuemei He, Elizabeth N Pearce, Lewis E Braverman, Rachel Sturley, Bijay Vaidya
INTRODUCTION: Iodine deficiency in pregnancy may impair foetal neurological development. The UK population is generally thought to be iodine sufficient; however, recent studies have questioned this assumption. Our study aimed to explore the prevalence of iodine deficiency in a cohort of pregnant mothers from South-West England. METHODS: Urine samples were obtained from 308 women participating in a study of breech presentation in late pregnancy. They had no known thyroid disease and a singleton pregnancy at 36-38 weeks' gestation...
November 2, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
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