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Neurology and pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429143/how-to-treat-lumbar-disc-herniation-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-on-current-standards
#1
REVIEW
Alberto Di Martino, Fabrizio Russo, Luca Denaro, Vincenzo Denaro
PURPOSE: In this systematic review, we aim to illustrate the current and safe concepts in the assessment, diagnosis and management of herniated lumbar disc (HLD) during pregnancy. METHODS: A systematic review and reporting on the diagnosis, treatment and clinical results of HLD during pregnancy is performed. RESULTS: The MRI represents the first level and safest diagnostic tool for pregnant women affected by spinal problems allowing for a noninvasive and detailed radiological examination of the spine...
April 20, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426650/neural-injury-markers-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-their-relation-to-perinatal-outcomes
#2
E Mazarico, E Llurba, R Cumplido, A Valls, J C Melchor, M Iglesias, L Cabero, E Gratacós, Md Gómez Roig
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: (1) compare the concentrations of two neural injury markers, S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses (IUGR) and in fetuses with appropriate growth-for-gestational-age (AGA), and (2) investigate potential relationships between concentrations of these markers, Doppler abnormalities, and adverse perinatal or neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This was a case-controlled, cooperative, prospective study among Spanish Maternal and Child Health Network (Retic SAMID) hospitals...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426648/pregnancy-swimming-causes-short-and-long-term-neuroprotection-against-hypoxia-ischemia-in-very-immature-rats
#3
Eduardo Farias Sanches, Luz Elena Duran Carabali, Andrea Tosta, Fabrício Nicola, Felipe Schmitz, André Rodrigues, Cassiana Siebert, Angela Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neurological damage in preterm. Pregnancy swimming alters the pup's brain development. We tested the effects of swimming during pregnancy in the very immature rat brain. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n=12) were assigned to sedentary (SE, n=6) or swimming groups (SW, n=6). From the gestational day 0 (DG0) to GD21 they performed 20 min/daily swimming sessions. HI on postnatal day 3 rat cause sensorimotor and cognitive impairments...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413697/acute-ethanol-exposure-during-late-mouse-neurodevelopment-results-in-long-term-deficits-in-memory-retrieval-but-not-in-social-responsiveness
#4
Katherine Houlé, Myshake Abdi, Erin B D Clabough
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in neurological changes in affected individuals and may result in the emergence of a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The effects of ethanol exposure during development are both time and dose dependent. Although many animal models of FASD use more chronic ethanol exposure, acute developmental alcohol exposure may also cause long-lasting neuronal changes. Our research employed behavioral measures to assess the effects of a single early postnatal ethanol intoxication event in mice...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413559/intracranial-hemorrhage-from-giant-aneurysm-in-pregnancy-a-rare-association
#5
Manasi Mehrotra, Anant Mehrotra, Anup Nair, Arun Srivastava, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Mandakini Pradhan, Raj Kumar
We report a case of giant aneurysm causing subarachnoid hemorrhage in a pregnant female. A 25-year-old female presented with sudden onset of severe headache and vomiting with altered sensorium and right hemiplegia. On investigation, she had a giant supraclinoid segment internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. She was planned for digital substraction angiography, but during the procedure she deteriorated neurologically and went into spontaneous labor. The baby was a male child with weight of 1.1 kg. She was taken up for surgery and aneurysm was clipped...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413441/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-among-ugandan-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Joan Wamulugwa, Angelina Kakooza, Sabrina Bakeera Kitaka, Joyce Nalugya, Mark Kaddumukasa, Shirley Moore, Martha Sajatovic, Elly Katabira
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder among the children. The burden of ADHD or its associated factors in Uganda are not known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of ADHD among children attending the neurology and psychiatry clinics at Mulago National Referral Hospital. METHODS: Using the disruptive behavior scale (45 items), we investigated the presence of ADHD symptoms among children attending Mulago Hospital...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412917/is-there-a-teratogenicity-risk-associated-with-cannabis-and-synthetic-cannabimimetics-spice-intake
#7
Laura Orsolini, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Cristina Cadoni, Gaetano Di Chiara, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Substance use, including cannabis, has been documented amongst women both in the pre-conception period and during pregnancy, particularly during the 1st trimester, which is clearly the most critical period in the organogenesis. The recent emergence on the drug market of synthetic cannabimimetics/SC ('spice') may represent a new challenge for clinicians. OBJECTIVE: A literature overview on the teratogenicity profile of both cannabis and synthetic cannabimimetics was here carried out...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410062/role-of-imaging-in-the-evaluation-of-male-infertility
#8
Pardeep K Mittal, Brent Little, Peter A Harri, Frank H Miller, Lauren F Alexander, Bobby Kalb, Juan C Camacho, Viraj Master, Matthew Hartman, Courtney C Moreno
Infertility is defined herein as the inability to achieve pregnancy after frequently engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse for 1 year. Among infertile couples, the cause of infertility involves the male partner in approximately 50% of cases. Male infertility is usually caused by conditions affecting sperm production, sperm function, or both, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Chronic health problems, injuries, lifestyle choices, anatomic problems, hormonal imbalances, and genetic defects can have a role in male infertility...
April 14, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407703/determination-of-the-effect-of-diameter-of-the-sac-on-prognosis-in-64-cases-operated-for-meningomyelocele
#9
Metehan Eseoğlu, Ahmet Eroğlu, Serkan Kemer, Mehmet Arslan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of meningomyelocele sac size on prognosis by retrospective review of 64 cases operated for meningomyelocele between January 2009 and December 2012. METHODS: We evaluated newborn babies operated for meningomyelocele by retrospectively reviewing their files for head circumference, location and with of the defect, accompanying anomalies, treatments administered, drugs that mother used during pregnancy. Based on the defect size, 3 patient groups were created as 0-24 cm(2) (group I), 25-39 cm(2) (group II), and 40 cm(2) and above (group III)...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399640/associations-of-maternal-testosterone-and-cortisol-levels-with-health-outcomes-of-mothers-and-their-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#10
June Cho, Xiaogang Su, Diane Holditch-Davis
OBJECTIVE: Although the roles of testosterone and cortisol in various health problems have been extensively investigated, little is known about their associations with health outcomes in mothers and their very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants when maternal testosterone and cortisol are examined together during the postpartum period. METHOD: The 101 mother-VLBW infant pairs were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary medical center in the southeastern United States...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398683/update-on-syphilis-and-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
Michael E Tsimis, Jeanne S Sheffield
While the origins of syphilis remain unknown, it has long been recognized as an infectious entity with complex pathophysiology. In this review, we highlighted the epidemiology and risk factors associated with syphilis. The incidence of syphilis in most populations showed a consistent upward trend until the 1940s with the introduction of penicillin as the preferred treatment. The emergence of congenital syphilis and vertical transmission has been a direct result of heterosexual syphilis transmission. We also explore the microbiology and pathogenesis of Treponema pallidum as it directly correlates with its route of transmission and infectivity...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398680/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pregnancy
#12
REVIEW
Nicole L Davis, Caroline C King, Athena P Kourtis
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a DNA herpesvirus that is common worldwide. The two known main sources of primary CMV infection during pregnancy are through sexual activity and contact with young children. Primary infection occurs in approximately 1 to 4% of pregnancies, and is mostly asymptomatic in immunocompetent adults. However, primary infection may manifest as a mild mononucleosis or flu-like syndrome with persistent fever and fatigue. CMV can be transmitted from mother-to-child in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397721/ultrasonographic-characteristics-of-cortical-sulcus-development-in-the-human-fetus-between-18-and-41-weeks-of-gestation
#13
Xi Chen, Sheng-Li Li, Guo-Yang Luo, Errol R Norwitz, Shu-Yuan Ouyang, Hua-Xuan Wen, Ying Yuan, Xiao-Xian Tian, Jia-Min He
BACKGROUND: Fetal brain development is a complicated process that continues throughout pregnancy. Fetal sulcus development has typical morphological features. Assessment of fetal sulcus development to understand the cortical maturation and development by prenatal ultrasound has become widespread. This study aimed to explore a reliable method to assess cortical sulcus and to describe the normal sonographic features of cortical sulcus development in the human fetus between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394231/long-term-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-children-born-to-prospectively-followed-pregnancies-of-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-or-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#14
C Nalli, A Iodice, L Andreoli, J Galli, A Lojacono, M Motta, E Fazzi, A Tincani
Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta during pregnancy and theoretically reach the fetal brain. Some studies showed an increased number of learning disabilities in these children. Objectives To evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of 40 children (median age 7.4 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS carrying positive IgG aPL during the third trimester of pregnancy...
April 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394223/gestational-outcomes-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
G R de Jesus, B C Rodrigues, M I Lacerda, F C Dos Santos, N R de Jesus, E M Klumb, R A Levy
This study analyzed maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancies of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients followed in a reference unit. This retrospective cohort study included 26 pregnancies of patients seen between 2011 and 2015 included with history and/or active neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus among 135 pregnancies. Three patients had active neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus at conception, but only one remained with neurological activity during gestation, characteristically related to the inadvertent suspension of medications...
April 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393757/prehospital-randomised-assessment-of-a-mechanical-compression-device-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-paramedic-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomised-trial-and-economic-evaluation
#16
Simon Gates, Ranjit Lall, Tom Quinn, Charles D Deakin, Matthew W Cooke, Jessica Horton, Sarah E Lamb, Anne-Marie Slowther, Malcolm Woollard, Andy Carson, Mike Smyth, Kate Wilson, Garry Parcell, Andrew Rosser, Richard Whitfield, Amanda Williams, Rebecca Jones, Helen Pocock, Nicola Brock, John Jm Black, John Wright, Kyee Han, Gary Shaw, Laura Blair, Joachim Marti, Claire Hulme, Christopher McCabe, Silviya Nikolova, Zenia Ferreira, Gavin D Perkins
BACKGROUND: Mechanical chest compression devices may help to maintain high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little evidence exists for their effectiveness. We evaluated whether or not the introduction of Lund University Cardiopulmonary Assistance System-2 (LUCAS-2; Jolife AB, Lund, Sweden) mechanical CPR into front-line emergency response vehicles would improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the LUCAS-2 device as a routine ambulance service treatment for OHCA...
March 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389335/maternal-hypomagnesemia-alters-hippocampal-nmdar-subunit-expression-and-programs-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-adult-offspring
#17
R N Schlegel, J G Spiers, K M Moritz, C L Cullen, S T Björkman, T M Paravicini
It is well established that maternal undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies can lead to altered development and behaviour in offspring. However, few studies have explored the implications of maternal Mg deficiency and programmed behavioural and neurological outcomes in offspring. We used a model of Mg deficiency (prior to and during pregnancy and lactation) in CD1 mice to investigate if maternal Mg deficiency programmed changes in behaviour and NMDAR subunit expression in offspring. Hippocampal tissue was collected at postnatal day 2 (PN2), PN8, PN21 and 6 months, and protein expression of NMDAR subunits GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B was determined...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384785/maternal-body-mass-index-in-early-pregnancy-and-risk-of-epilepsy-in-offspring
#18
Neda Razaz, Kristina Tedroff, Eduardo Villamor, Sven Cnattingius
Importance: There is growing concern about the long-term neurologic effects of prenatal exposure to maternal overweight and obesity. The causes of epilepsy are poorly understood and, in more than 60% of the patients, no definitive cause can be determined. Objectives: To investigate the association between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of childhood epilepsy and examine associations between obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications and risks of childhood epilepsy...
April 3, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#19
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) and Guillain- Barré Syndrome (GBS). Here we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369985/nongalenic-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-prenatal-diagnosis
#20
Cristina Martínez-Payo, Javier Sancho Saúco, Maria Miralles, Tirso Pérez Medina
Pial arteriovenous (AV) fistulae have rarely been diagnosed in utero. They are characterized by one or more pial arteries flowing directly into a cortical vein without any shunt or interposed capillary bed. In the fetus and the newborn up to 2 years of age, the most common clinical manifestation is heart failure resulting from fistula overload. Later on, hydrocephalus, focal neurologic deficits, headaches, seizures, and cerebral hemorrhage are the most common manifestations. We present a case of nongalenic pial AV fistula diagnosed in the 25th week of pregnancy, which resulted in intrauterine fetal death due to congestive heart failure...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
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