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Botox and bone loss

T Bettis, B-J Kim, M W Hamrick
Bone fractures in older adults are often preceded by a loss of muscle mass and strength. Likewise, bone loss with prolonged bed rest, spinal cord injury, or with exposure to microgravity is also preceded by a rapid loss of muscle mass. Recent studies using animal models in the setting of hindlimb unloading or botulinum toxin (Botox) injection also reveal that muscle loss can induce bone loss. Moreover, muscle-derived factors such as irisin and leptin can inhibit bone loss with unloading, and knockout of catabolic factors in muscle such as the ubiquitin ligase Murf1 or the myokine myostatin can reduce osteoclastogenesis...
May 18, 2018: Osteoporosis International
M-C Grubbe, J S Thomsen, J R Nyengaard, M Duruox, A Brüel
Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, P<0...
December 2014: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Nadia Rucci, Mattia Capulli, Sara Gemini Piperni, Alfredo Cappariello, Patrick Lau, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Martina Heer, Anna Teti
Mechanical loading represents a crucial factor in the regulation of skeletal homeostasis. Its reduction causes loss of bone mass, eventually leading to osteoporosis. In a previous global transcriptome analysis performed in mouse calvarial osteoblasts subjected to simulated microgravity, the most upregulated gene compared to unit gravity condition was Lcn2, encoding the adipokine Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), whose function in bone metabolism is poorly known. To investigate the mechanoresponding properties of LCN2, we evaluated LCN2 levels in sera of healthy volunteers subjected to bed rest, and found a significant time-dependent increase of this adipokine compared to time 0...
February 2015: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Jens Bay Vegger, Esben Sommer Nielsen, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen
Immobilization is known to cause a rapid bone loss due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption and decreased osteoblastic bone formation. Zoledronate (Zln) is a potent anti-resorptive pharmaceutical, while intermittent PTH is a potent bone anabolic agent. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PTH or Zln alone or in combination could prevent immobilization-induced osteopenia. Immobilization was achieved by injecting 4IU Botox (BTX) into the right hind limb musculature. Seventy-two 16-week-old female Wistar rats were randomized into 6 groups; baseline (Base), control (Ctrl), BTX, BTX+PTH, BTX+Zln, and BTX+PTH+Zln...
September 2014: Bone
Stuart J Warden, Matthew R Galley, Jeffrey S Richard, Lydia A George, Rachel C Dirks, Elizabeth A Guildenbecher, Ashley M Judd, Alexander G Robling, Robyn K Fuchs
Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (botox) into rodent hindlimbs has developed as a useful model for exploring muscle-bone interactions. Botox-induced muscle inhibition rapidly induces muscle atrophy and subsequent bone loss, with the latter hypothesized to result from reduced muscular loading of the skeleton. However, botox-induced muscle inhibition also reduces gravitational loading (as evident by reduced ground reaction forces during gait) which may account for its negative skeletal effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the skeletal effect of botox-induced muscle inhibition in cage control and tail suspended mice, with tail suspension being used to control for the reduced gravitational loading associated with botox...
May 2013: Bone
Brandon R Macias, Per Aspenberg, Fredrik Agholme
The Sost gene encodes Sclerostin, an inhibitor of Wnt-signaling, generally considered a main response gene to mechanical loading in bone. Several papers describe that unloading leads to upregulation of Sost, which in turn may lead to loss of bone. These studies were based on whole bone homogenates or cortical bone. By serendipity, we noted an opposite response to unloading in the proximal rat tibia. Therefore, we hypothesized that Sost-expression in response to changes in mechanical load is bone site specific...
April 2013: Bone
Annemarie Brüel, Jens Bay Vegger, Anders Christer Raffalt, Jens Enevold Thaulov Andersen, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen
PTH and strontium ranelate (SrR) have both been shown to reduce bone loss induced by immobilization. PTH is a potent bone anabolic agent, whereas SrR has been suggested to be an antiresorptive as well as a bone anabolic agent. The aim of the study was to investigate whether PTH, SrR, and PTH and SrR in combination could counteract immobilization-induced bone loss in a rat model. Immobilization was induced by injecting 4IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Seventy-two female Wistar rats, 3-months-old, were divided into the following groups: Baseline, Controls, BTX, BTX+PTH, BTX+SrR, and BTX+PTH+SrR (n=12 in each group)...
March 2013: Bone
Reggie C Hamdy, Kathleen Montpetit, Joanne Ruck-Gibis, Kelly Thorstad, Ellen Raney, Michael Aiona, Robert Platt, Allen Finley, William Mackenzie, James McCarthy, Unni Narayanan
BACKGROUND: Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children...
September 28, 2007: Trials
Susan K Grimston, Matthew J Silva, Roberto Civitelli
To study the effect of unloading followed by reloading on hindlimb bone mineral content (BMC), we used botulinum toxin A (Botox). We studied the timing and degree of recovery upon restoration of muscle function. We also tested to see if reaction to Botox injection occurred as a function of the degree of expression of connexin43 (Cx43). Sixteen mice were divided by gender and genotype; wild-type equivalent (Gja1(+/flox)) and heterozygous (Gja1(+/-)) mice were injected with a single dose of 2U/100 g Botox i.m...
November 2007: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sarah E Warner, David A Sanford, Blair A Becker, Steven D Bain, Sundar Srinivasan, Ted S Gross
The means by which muscle function modulates bone homeostasis is poorly understood. To begin to address this issue, we have developed a novel murine model of unilateral transient hindlimb muscle paralysis using botulinum toxin A (Botox). Female C57BL/6 mice (16 weeks) received IM injections of either saline or Botox (n = 10 each) in both the quadriceps and calf muscles of the right hindleg. Gait dysfunction was assessed by multi-observer inventory, muscle alterations were determined by wet mass, and bone alterations were assessed by micro-CT imaging at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and tibia mid-diaphysis...
February 2006: Bone
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