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Motor cortex plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641235/computer-aided-training-sensorimotor-cortex-functions-in-humans-before-the-upper-limb-transplantation-using-virtual-reality-and-sensory-feedback
#1
Marek Kurzynski, Anna Jaskolska, Jaroslaw Marusiak, Andrzej Wolczowski, Przemyslaw Bierut, Lukasz Szumowski, Jerzy Witkowski, Katarzyna Kisiel-Sajewicz
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation...
June 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638332/commentary-skilled-bimanual-training-drives-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#2
COMMENT
Deborah J Serrien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633996/effects-of-monoaminergic-drugs-on-training-induced-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-older-adults
#3
Trisha M Kesar, Samir R Belagaje, Paola Pergami, Marc W Haut, Gerald Hobbs, Cathrin M Buetefisch
Primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is involved in motor learning and stroke motor recovery, and enhanced by increasing monoaminergic transmission. Age impacts these processes but there is a paucity of systematic studies on the effects of monoaminergic drugs in older adults. Here, in ten older adults (age 61+ 4 years, 4 males), we determine the effects of a single oral dose of carbidopa/levodopa (DOPA), d-amphetamine (AMPH), methylphenidate (MEPH) and placebo (PLAC) on M1 excitability and motor training-induced M1 plasticity...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#4
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611693/paired-associative-stimulation-induced-long-term-potentiation-like-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-healthy-adolescents
#5
Jonathan C Lee, Paul E Croarkin, Stephanie H Ameis, Yinming Sun, Daniel M Blumberger, Tarek K Rajji, Zafiris J Daskalakis
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using paired-associative stimulation (PAS) to study excitatory and inhibitory plasticity in adolescents while examining variables that may moderate plasticity (such as sex and environment). METHODS: We recruited 34 healthy adolescents (aged 13-19, 13 males, 21 females). To evaluate excitatory plasticity, we compared mean motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after PAS at 0, 15, and 30 min...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607173/tactile-defensiveness-and-impaired-adaptation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-fmr1-knockout-mouse-model-of-autism
#6
Cynthia X He, Daniel A Cantu, Shilpa S Mantri, William A Zeiger, Anubhuti Goel, Carlos Portera-Cailliau
Sensory hypersensitivity is a common symptom in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), and frequently leads to tactile defensiveness. In mouse models of ASDs, there is mounting evidence of neuronal and circuit hyperexcitability in several brain regions, which could contribute to sensory hypersensitivity. However, it is not yet known whether or how sensory stimulation might trigger abnormal sensory processing at the circuit level or abnormal behavioral responses in ASD mouse models, especially during an early developmental time when experience-dependent plasticity shapes such circuits...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606723/changes-in-cortical-excitability-during-paired-associative-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#7
Aleksandra Kačar, Sladjan D Milanović, Saša R Filipović, Miloš R Ljubisavljević
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combines repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation with motor cortex (M1) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to induce plastic-like changes of cortical excitability. While much attention has been dedicated to post-PAS effects little is known about processes during PAS. We compared the time-course of changes in M1 excitability during standard facilitatory PAS intervention among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), known to have diminished post-PAS response, and healthy subjects...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579362/changes-in-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-outcome-measures-in-response-to-upper-limb-physical-training-in-stroke-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
Louis-David Beaulieu, Marie-Hélène Milot
BACKGROUND: Physical training is known to be an effective intervention to improve sensorimotor impairments after stroke. However, the link between brain plastic changes, assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and sensorimotor recovery in response to physical training is still misunderstood. We systematically reviewed reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the use of TMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) to probe brain plasticity after upper-limb physical training interventions in people with stroke...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577024/voluntary-movement-reverses-the-effect-of-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-corticomotor-excitability
#9
Esra Erkoc Ataoglu, Hale Batur Caglayan, Bülent Cengiz
Motor cortex activity level is a critical part of the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on corticomotor excitability. Based on homeostatic plasticity, the state of the stimulated cortical area influences the direction of neuroplastic changes induced by stimuli. Owing to homeostatic plasticity, cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS) would likely have a pronounced inhibitory effect on corticomotor excitability during a motor task, compared with the resting state. To test this hypothesis, we detected motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude changes before and during c-tDCS with voluntary movement...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576309/bndf-heterozygosity-is-associated-with-memory-deficits-and-alterations-in-cortical-and-hippocampal-eeg-power
#10
Phillip A Geist, Brooke N Dulka, Abigail Barnes, Michael Totty, Subimal Datta
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in structural plasticity, learning, and memory. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power in the cortex and hippocampus has also been correlated with learning and memory. In this study, we investigated the effect of globally reduced BDNF levels on learning behavior and EEG power via BDNF heterozygous (KO) rats. We employed several behavioral tests that are thought to depend on cortical and hippocampal plasticity to varying degrees: novel object recognition, a test that is reliant on a variety of cognitive systems; contextual fear, which is highly hippocampal-dependent; and cued fear, which has been shown to be amygdala-dependent...
May 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570644/comparison-of-the-adolescent-and-adult-mouse-prefrontal-cortex-proteome
#11
Abigail E Agoglia, Sarah E Holstein, Amanda T Small, Marina Spanos, Brainard M Burrus, Clyde W Hodge
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by unique behavioral phenotypes (increased novelty seeking, risk taking, sociability and impulsivity) and increased risk for destructive behaviors, impaired decision making and psychiatric illness. Adaptive and maladaptive adolescent traits have been associated with development of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that mediates regulatory control of behavior. However, the molecular changes that underlie brain development and behavioral vulnerability have not been fully characterized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570549/non-invasive-assessment-of-changes-in-corticomotoneuronal-transmission-in-humans
#12
Wolfgang Taube, Christian Leukel, Jens Bo Nielsen, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen
The corticospinal pathway is the major pathway connecting the brain with the muscles and is therefore highly relevant for movement control and motor learning. There exists a number of noninvasive electrophysiological methods investigating the excitability and plasticity of this pathway. However, most methods are based on quantification of compound potentials and neglect that the corticospinal pathway consists of many different connections that are more or less direct. Here, we present a method that allows testing excitability of different fractions of the corticospinal transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560155/grey-matter-abnormalities-in-children-and-adolescents-with-functional-neurological-symptom-disorder
#13
Kasia Kozlowska, Kristi R Griffiths, Sheryl L Foster, James Linton, Leanne M Williams, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar
OBJECTIVE: Functional neurological symptom disorder refers to the presence of neurological symptoms not explained by neurological disease. Although this disorder is presumed to reflect abnormal function of the brain, recent studies in adults show neuroanatomical abnormalities in brain structure. These structural brain abnormalities have been presumed to reflect long-term adaptations to the disorder, and it is unknown whether child and adolescent patients, with illness that is typically of shorter duration, show similar deficits or have normal brain structure...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558817/effects-of-exercise-on-brain-activity-during-walking-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Hiroyuki Shimada, Kenji Ishii, Hyuma Makizako, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Megumi Suzukawa
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553342/low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-motor-dysfunction-after-cerebral-infarction
#15
Zhi-Yong Meng, Wei-Qun Song
Low frequency (≤ 1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can affect the excitability of the cerebral cortex and synaptic plasticity. Although this is a common method for clinical treatment of cerebral infarction, whether it promotes the recovery of motor function remains controversial. Twenty patients with cerebral infarction combined with hemiparalysis were equally and randomly divided into a low frequency rTMS group and a control group. The patients in the low frequency rTMS group were given 1-Hz rTMS to the contralateral primary motor cortex with a stimulus intensity of 90% motor threshold, 30 minutes/day...
April 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553212/evidence-for-ancestral-programming-of-resilience-in-a-two-hit-stress-model
#16
Jamshid Faraji, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Mirela Ambeskovic, Fabiola C R Zucchi, Pierre Beaumier, Igor Kovalchuk, Gerlinde A S Metz
In a continuously stressful environment, the effects of recurrent prenatal stress (PS) may accumulate across generations and alter stress vulnerability and resilience. Here, we report in female rats that a family history of recurrent ancestral PS facilitates certain aspects of movement performance, and that these benefits are abolished by the experience of a second hit, induced by a silent ischemia during adulthood. Female F4-generation rats with and without a family history of cumulative multigenerational PS (MPS) were tested for skilled motor function before and after the induction of a minor ischemic insult by endothelin-1 infusion into the primary motor cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549277/reliability-of-lower-limb-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-outcomes-in-the-ipsi-and-contralesional-hemispheres-of-adults-with-chronic-stroke
#17
Louis-David Beaulieu, Hugo Massé-Alarie, Edith Ribot-Ciscar, Cyril Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) outcomes in the chronic stroke population to (i) track individual plastic changes and (ii) detect differences between individuals. To this end, intrarater "test-retest" reliability (relative and absolute) was tested for the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. METHODS: Thirteen participants with a unilateral stroke (≥6months ago) and sensorimotor impairments were enrolled...
July 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539421/sound-making-actions-lead-to-immediate-plastic-changes-of-neuromagnetic-evoked-responses-and-induced-%C3%AE-band-oscillations-during-perception
#18
Bernhard Ross, Masihullah Barat, Takako Fujioka
Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as talking and singing or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at β-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536821/impaired-motor-coordination-and-learning-in-mice-lacking-anoctamin-2-calcium-gated-chloride-channels
#19
Franziska Neureither, Katharina Ziegler, Claudia Pitzer, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Neurons communicate through excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Both lines of communication are adjustable and allow the fine tuning of signal exchange required for learning processes in neural networks. Several distinct modes of plasticity modulate glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex to promote motor control and learning. In the present paper, we present evidence for a role of short-term ionic plasticity in the cerebellar circuit activity. This type of plasticity results from altered chloride driving forces at the synapses that molecular layer interneurons form on Purkinje cell dendrites...
May 23, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#20
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
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