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Motor cortex plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813785/a-pilot-study-on-the-optimal-speeds-for-passive-wrist-movements-by-a-rehabilitation-robot-of-stroke-patients-a-functional-nirs-study
#1
Sung Jin Bae, Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo, Pyung Hun Chang
The optimal conditions inducing proper brain activation during performance of rehabilitation robots should be examined to enhance the efficiency of robot rehabilitation based on the concept of brain plasticity. In this study, we attempted to investigate differences in cortical activation according to the speeds of passive wrist movements performed by a rehabilitation robot for stroke patients. 9 stroke patients with right hemiparesis participated in this study. Passive movements of the affected wrist were performed by the rehabilitation robot at three different speeds: 0...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801619/repetitive-motor-cortex-stimulation-reinforces-the-pain-modulation-circuits-of-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#2
Myeounghoon Cha, Sun Woo Um, Minjee Kwon, Taick Sang Nam, Bae Hwan Lee
Recent evidence indicates that motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a potentially effective treatment for chronic neuropathic pain. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the attenuated hyperalgesia after MCS are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the neural mechanism of the effects of MCS using an animal model of neuropathic pain. After 10 daily sessions of MCS, repetitive MCS reduced mechanical allodynia and contributed to neuronal changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Interestingly, inhibition of protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), a regulator of synaptic plasticity, in the ACC blocked the effects of repetitive MCS...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#3
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760460/different-patterns-of-motor-activity-induce-differential-plastic-changes-in-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-motor-cortex-of-rats-a-golgi-study
#4
Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Diana C González-Tapia, Nestor I Martínez-Torres, David González-Tapia, Ignacio González-Burgos
Rehabilitation is a process which favors recovery after brain damage involving motor systems, and neural plasticity is the only real resource the brain has for inducing neurobiological events in order to bring about re-adaptation. Rats were placed on a treadmill and made to walk, in different groups, at different velocities and with varying degrees of inclination. Plastic changes in the spines of the apical and basal dendrites of fifth-layer pyramidal neurons in the motor cortices of the rats were detected after study with the Golgi method...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748319/diverse-action-of-repeated-corticosterone-treatment-on-synaptic-transmission-neuronal-plasticity-and-morphology-in-superficial-and-deep-layers-of-the-rat-motor-cortex
#5
Joanna Kula, Anna Gugula, Anna Blasiak, Bartosz Bobula, Joanna Danielewicz, Alan Kania, Grzegorz Tylko, Grzegorz Hess
One of the adverse effects of prolonged stress in rats is impaired performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks. The mechanisms that lead to these abnormalities are incompletely understood. Therefore, we compared the effects of twice daily repeated corticosterone injections for 7 days on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), as well as on synaptic plasticity and morphology of layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons of the primary motor cortex (M1) of male Wistar rats. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased frequency, but not amplitude, of mEPSCs in layer II/III neurons accompanied by increased complexity of the apical part of their dendritic tree, with no changes in the density of dendritic spines...
July 27, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721533/minimum-norm-estimation-of-motor-representations-in-navigated-tms-mappings
#6
Minna Pitkänen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Petro Julkunen, Maria Nazarova, Jaakko O Nieminen, Risto J Ilmoniemi
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) can be applied to locate and outline cortical motor representations. This may be important, e.g., when planning neurosurgery or focused nTMS therapy, or when assessing plastic changes during neurorehabilitation. Conventionally, a cortical location is considered to belong to the motor cortex if the maximum electric field (E-field) targeted there evokes a motor-evoked potential in a muscle. However, the cortex is affected by a broad E-field distribution, which tends to broaden estimates of representation areas by stimulating also the neighboring areas in addition to the maximum E-field location...
July 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720981/cerebral-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-survivors-after-virtual-reality-based-training-a-preliminary-study
#7
Xiang Xiao, Qiang Lin, Wai-Leung Lo, Yu-Rong Mao, Xin-Chong Shi, Ryan S Cates, Shu-Feng Zhou, Dong-Feng Huang, Le Li
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. METHODS: Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706475/focal-stroke-in-the-developing-rat-motor-cortex-induces-age-and-experience-dependent-maladaptive-plasticity-of-corticospinal-system
#8
Mariangela Gennaro, Alessandro Mattiello, Raffaele Mazziotti, Camilla Antonelli, Lisa Gherardini, Andrea Guzzetta, Nicoletta Berardi, Giovanni Cioni, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705495/glial-associated-changes-in-the-cerebral-cortex-after-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-the-rat-striatum
#9
J D Neves, D Aristimunha, A F Vizuete, F Nicola, C Vanzella, L Petenuzzo, R G Mestriner, E F Sanches, C A Gonçalves, C A Netto
Striatum and the cerebral cortex are regions susceptible to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and glial cells in tissue adjacent to the hematoma may modulate cellular vulnerability after brain damage. Nonetheless, while the glial- associated changes occurring in the cerebral cortex after ICH may be important in maximizing brain recovery, they are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal profile of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after ICH. First, the motor consequences of ICH and its relation to the lesion volume were analyzed...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704733/reversal-of-long-term-potentiation-like-plasticity-in-primary-motor-cortex-in-patients-with-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#10
Matteo Bologna, Kelly Bertram, Giulia Paparella, Claudia Papi, Daniele Belvisi, Antonella Conte, Antonio Suppa, David R Williams, Alfredo Berardelli
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal primary motor cortex plasticity might be involved in the pathophysiology of progressive supranuclear palsy. In the present study we aimed to investigate possible abnormalities of depotentiation, a mechanism involved in plasticity regulation, in this condition. METHODS: Primary motor cortex excitability, investigated with single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, as well as long-term potentiation-like plasticity and its reversibility, were studied using theta burst stimulation in 15 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and 11 healthy controls...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701541/afferent-input-and-sensory-function-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Recep Ali Ozdemir, Monica A Perez
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often disrupts the integrity of afferent (sensory) axons projecting through the spinal cord dorsal columns to the brain. Examinations of ascending sensory tracts, therefore, are critical for monitoring the extent of SCI and recovery processes. In this review, we discuss the most common electrophysiological techniques used to assess transmission of afferent inputs to the primary motor cortex (i.e., afferent-input induced facilitation and inhibition) and the somatosensory cortex (i.e...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697581/altered-gray-matter-volume-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-motor-network-in%C3%A2-young%C3%A2-divers
#12
Xia Liu, Liansheng Liu, Fen Hou, Zhifeng Zhou, Qingying Wu, Hengguo Li
BACKGROUND: Motor learning and professional sports training can induce plastic changes in brain structures that are associated with distinct training demands. OBJECTIVE: To testify the hypothesis of that regional gray matter structures in the motor-related cortex and its functional connectivity (FC) are altered in young divers. METHODS: We undertook T1-voxel-based morphometry (VBM) structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in groups of diving athletes (DAs) and demographically-matched healthy controls...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677413/high-intensity-chronic-stroke-motor-imagery-neurofeedback-training-at-home-three-case-reports
#13
Catharina Zich, Stefan Debener, Clara Schweinitz, Annette Sterr, Joost Meekes, Cornelia Kranczioch
Motor imagery (MI) with neurofeedback has been suggested as promising for motor recovery after stroke. Evidence suggests that regular training facilitates compensatory plasticity, but frequent training is difficult to integrate into everyday life. Using a wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system, we implemented a frequent and efficient neurofeedback training at the patients' home. Aiming to overcome maladaptive changes in cortical lateralization patterns we presented a visual feedback, representing the degree of contralateral sensorimotor cortical activity and the degree of sensorimotor cortex lateralization...
July 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677224/brain-changes-following-four-weeks-of-unimanual-motor-training-evidence-from-behavior-neural-stimulation-cortical-thickness-and-functional-mri
#14
Martin V Sale, Lee B Reid, Luca Cocchi, Alex M Pagnozzi, Stephen E Rose, Jason B Mattingley
Although different aspects of neuroplasticity can be quantified with behavioral probes, brain stimulation, and brain imaging assessments, no study to date has combined all these approaches into one comprehensive assessment of brain plasticity. Here, 24 healthy right-handed participants practiced a sequence of finger-thumb opposition movements for 10 min each day with their left hand. After 4 weeks, performance for the practiced sequence improved significantly (P < 0.05 FWE) relative to a matched control sequence, with both the left (mean increase: 53...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674487/pyramidal-neurons-in-different-cortical-layers-exhibit-distinct-dynamics-and-plasticity-of-apical-dendritic-spines
#15
Michelle Tjia, Xinzhu Yu, Lavpreet S Jammu, Ju Lu, Yi Zuo
The mammalian cerebral cortex is typically organized in six layers containing multiple types of neurons, with pyramidal neurons (PNs) being the most abundant. PNs in different cortical layers have distinct morphology, physiology and functional roles in neural circuits. Therefore, their development and synaptic plasticity may also differ. Using in vivo transcranial two-photon microscopy, we followed the structural dynamics of dendritic spines on apical dendrites of layer (L) 2/3 and L5 PNs at different developmental stages...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674174/cooperation-not-competition-bihemispheric-tdcs-and-fmri-show-role-for-ipsilateral-hemisphere-in-motor-learning
#16
Sheena Waters, Tobias Wiestler, Jörn Diedrichsen
What is the role of ipsilateral motor and premotor areas in motor learning? One view is that ipsilateral activity suppresses contralateral motor cortex and, accordingly, that inhibiting ipsilateral regions can improve motor learning. Alternatively, the ipsilateral motor cortex may play an active role in the control and/or learning of unilateral hand movements. We approached this question by applying double-blind bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over both contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortex in a between-group design during 4 d of unimanual explicit sequence training in human participants...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671694/reorganization-of-corticospinal-output-during-motor-learning
#17
Andrew J Peters, Jun Lee, Nathan G Hedrick, Keelin O'Neil, Takaki Komiyama
Motor learning is accompanied by widespread changes within the motor cortex, but it is unknown whether these changes are ultimately funneled through a stable corticospinal output channel or whether the corticospinal output itself is plastic. We investigated the consistency of the relationship between corticospinal neuron activity and movement through in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in mice learning a lever-press task. Corticospinal neurons exhibited heterogeneous correlations with movement, with the majority of movement-modulated neurons decreasing activity during movement...
August 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659863/neural-plasticity-in-moderate-to-severe-chronic-stroke-following-a-device-assisted-task-specific-arm-hand-intervention
#18
Kevin B Wilkins, Meriel Owen, Carson Ingo, Carolina Carmona, Julius P A Dewald, Jun Yao
Currently, hand rehabilitation following stroke tends to focus on mildly impaired individuals, partially due to the inability for severely impaired subjects to sufficiently use the paretic hand. Device-assisted interventions offer a means to include this more severe population and show promising behavioral results. However, the ability for this population to demonstrate neural plasticity, a crucial factor in functional recovery following effective post-stroke interventions, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate neural changes related to hand function induced by a device-assisted task-specific intervention in individuals with moderate to severe chronic stroke (upper extremity Fugl-Meyer < 30)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659764/associative-memory-extinction-is-accompanied-by-decayed-plasticity-at-motor-cortical-neurons-and-persistent-plasticity-at-sensory-cortical-neurons
#19
Rui Guo, Rongjing Ge, Shidi Zhao, Yulong Liu, Xin Zhao, Li Huang, Sodong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
Associative memory is essential for cognition, in which associative memory cells and their plasticity presumably play important roles. The mechanism underlying associative memory extinction vs. maintenance remains unclear, which we have studied in a mouse model of cross-modal associative learning. Paired whisker and olfaction stimulations lead to a full establishment of odorant-induced whisker motion in training day 10, which almost disappears if paired stimulations are not given in a week, and then recovers after paired stimulation for an additional day...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659614/dopamine-dependent-changes-of-cortical-excitability-induced-by-transcranial-static-magnetic-field-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
M Dileone, M C Carrasco-López, J C Segundo-Rodriguez, L Mordillo-Mateos, N López-Ariztegui, F Alonso-Frech, M J Catalan-Alonso, J A Obeso, A Oliviero, G Foffani
Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) is a recent low-cost non-invasive brain stimulation technique that decreases cortical excitability in healthy subjects. The objective of the present study was to test the ability of tSMS to modulate cortical excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease. We performed a randomized double-blind sham-controlled cross-over study to assess cortical excitability before and immediately after tSMS (or sham) applied for 10 min to the more affected motor cortex of patients with Parkinson's disease...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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