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Motor cortex plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919535/altered-gray-matter-volume-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-chronic-stroke-patients
#1
Peifang Miao, Caihong Wang, Peng Li, Sen Wei, Chunshan Deng, Dandan Zheng, Jingliang Cheng
It is entangled connections and intensive functional interactions between cortex and subcortical structures that enable our brain to perform delicate movement, and poses plasticity to recover from stroke. However, it is still unclear how cortical structures and functions change in well-recovered patients from subcortical infarctions in motor pathway. In order to reveal neuroplasticity underlying well-recovered stroke patients, both structural (gray matter volume, GMV) and functional reorganizations (cerebral blood flow, CBF and resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) were investigated by using multi-modal MRI...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#2
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916867/reorganization-of-motor-representations-in-patients-with-brain-lesions-a-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#3
Lucia Bulubas, Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Claus Zimmer, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
This is an explorative study applying presurgical navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate the spatial distributions of motor sites to reveal tumor-induced brain plasticity in patients with brain tumors. We analyzed nTMS-based motor maps derived from presurgical mapping of 100 patients with motor eloquently located brain tumors (tumors in the frontal lobe, the precentral gyrus [PrG], the postcentral gyrus [PoG], the remaining parietal lobe, or the temporal lobe). Based on these motor maps, we systematically investigated changes in motor evoked potential (MEP) counts among 4 gyri (PrG, PoG, medial frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus) between subgroups of patients according to the tumor location in order to depict the tumor's influence on reorganization...
September 15, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900413/impaired-cerebellum-to-primary-motor-cortex-associative-plasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#4
Ming-Kuei Lu, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ulf Ziemann, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Functional perturbation of the cerebellum (CB)-motor cortex (M1) interactions may underlie pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Recently, M1 motor excitability can be bidirectionally modulated in young subjects by corticocortical paired associative stimulation (PAS) on CB and contralateral M1 with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), probably through the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical (CDTC) circuit...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898648/motor-control-crf-regulates-coordination-and-gait
#5
Mario Manto
The function of the olivo-cerebellar tract is not restricted to the supervision of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex. There is growing evidence that the climbing fibers also tune motor commands. A novel study unravels a role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in motor coordination and gait control.
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894610/maturation-refinement-and-serotonergic-modulation-of-cerebellar-cortical-circuits-in-normal-development-and-in-murine-models-of-autism
#6
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Pellegrino Lippiello, Bibiana Scelfo, Filippo Tempia, Mirella Ghirardi, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The formation of the complex cerebellar cortical circuits follows different phases, with initial synaptogenesis and subsequent processes of refinement guided by a variety of mechanisms. The regularity of the cellular and synaptic organization of the cerebellar cortex allowed detailed studies of the structural plasticity mechanisms underlying the formation of new synapses and retraction of redundant ones. For the attainment of the monoinnervation of the Purkinje cell by a single climbing fiber, several signals are involved, including electrical activity, contact signals, homosynaptic and heterosynaptic interaction, calcium transients, postsynaptic receptors, and transduction pathways...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893377/induced-sensorimotor-cortex-plasticity-remediates-chronic-treatment-resistant-visual-neglect
#7
Jacinta O'Shea, Patrice Revol, Helena Cousijn, Jamie Near, Pierre Petitet, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Gilles Rode, Yves Rossetti
Right brain injury causes visual neglect - lost awareness of left space. During prism adaptation therapy, patients adapt to a rightward optical shift by recalibrating right arm movements leftward. This can improve left neglect, but the benefit of a single session is transient (~1 day). Here we show that tonic disinhibition of left motor cortex during prism adaptation enhances consolidation, stabilizing both sensorimotor and cognitive prism after-effects. In three longitudinal patient case series, just 20 min of combined stimulation/adaptation caused persistent cognitive after-effects (neglect improvement) that lasted throughout follow-up (18-46 days)...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880414/levodopa-treatment-and-dendritic-spine-pathology
#8
REVIEW
Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Yukihisa Funamizu, Shinya Ueno, Masahiko Tomiyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa is the most effective treatment for the motor symptoms of PD. However, chronic oral levodopa treatment can lead to various motor and nonmotor complications because of nonphysiological pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. Examinations of autopsy cases with PD have revealed a decreased number of dendritic spines of striatal neurons. Animal models of PD have revealed altered density and morphology of dendritic spines of neurons in various brain regions after dopaminergic denervation or dopaminergic denervation plus levodopa treatment, indicating altered synaptic transmission...
September 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859916/the-effect-of-type-of-afferent-feedback-timed-with-motor-imagery-on-the-induction-of-cortical-plasticity
#9
N Mrachacz-Kersting, M Voigt, Ajt Stevenson, S Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, N Jiang, K Dremstrup, D Farina
A peripherally generated afferent volley that arrives at the peak negative (PN) phase during the movement related cortical potential (MRCP) induces significant plasticity at the cortical level in healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Transferring this type of associative brain-computer interface (BCI) intervention into the clinical setting requires that the proprioceptive input is comparable to the techniques implemented during the rehabilitation process. These consist mainly of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive movement induced by an actuated orthosis...
August 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858700/modulation-of-motor-cortex-excitability-by-paired-peripheral-and-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#10
Hatice Kumru, Sergiu Albu, John Rothwell, Daniel Leon, Cecilia Flores, Eloy Opisso, Josep Maria Tormos, Josep Valls-Sole
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive application of peripheral electrical stimuli paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 cortex at low frequency, known as paired associative stimulation (PAS), is an effective method to induce motor cortex plasticity in humans. Here we investigated the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) combined with low frequency rTMS ('magnetic-PAS') on intracortical and corticospinal excitability and whether those changes were widespread or circumscribed to the cortical area controlling the stimulated muscle...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843862/altered-synaptic-phospholipid-signaling-in-prg-1-deficient-mice-induces-exploratory-behavior-and-motor-hyperactivity-resembling-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Patrick Schneider, Sandra Petzold, Angela Sommer, Robert Nitsch, Herbert Schwegler, Johannes Vogt, Thomas Roskoden
Plasticity related gene 1 (PRG-1) is a neuron specific membrane protein located at the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. PRG-1 modulates signaling pathways of phosphorylated lipid substrates such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Deletion of PRG-1 increases presynaptic glutamate release probability leading to neuronal over-excitation. However, due to its cortical expression, PRG-1 deficiency leading to increased glutamatergic transmission is supposed to also affect motor pathways. We therefore analyzed the effects of PRG-1 function on exploratory and motor behavior using homozygous PRG-1 knockout (PRG-1(-/-)) mice and PRG-1/LPA2-receptor double knockout (PRG-1(-/-)/LPA2(-/-)) mice in two open field settings of different size and assessing motor behavior in the Rota Rod test...
August 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843131/left-hemispheric-breakdown-of-ltp-like-cortico-cortical-plasticity-in-schizophrenic-patients
#12
Michele Ribolsi, Giulia Lisi, Viviana Ponzo, Alberto Siracusano, Carlo Caltagirone, Cinzia Niolu, Giacomo Koch
OBJECTIVE: Altered cortical connectivity and plasticity seems to be asymmetrical between the hemispheres in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). We evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP) in parietal-frontal circuits of both hemispheres using a cortico-cortical Paired Associative Stimulation (cc-PAS) protocol testing the rules of Hebbian-like spike timing dependent plasticity (SPTD). METHODS: 12 SCZ and 12 healthy subjects (HS) underwent a cc-PAS protocol to activate, by means of paired pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the short-latency connection between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and primary motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839226/provision-of-somatosensory-inputs-during-motor-imagery-enhances-learning-induced-plasticity-in-human-motor-cortex
#13
Gaia Bonassi, Monica Biggio, Ambra Bisio, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove, Laura Avanzino
Motor learning via physical practice leads to long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in motor cortex (M1) and temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Motor learning can be achieved through simulation of movement, namely motor imagery (MI). When combined with electrical stimulation, MI influenced M1 excitability to a larger extent than MI itself. We explored whether a training based on the combination of MI and peripheral nerve stimulation (ESMI) modulates M1 LTP-like plasticity inducing retention of a new acquired skill...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833921/recovery-related-indicators-of-motor-network-plasticity-according-to-impairment-severity-after-stroke
#14
J Lee, E Park, A Lee, W H Chang, D-S Kim, Y-H Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain connectivity analysis has been widely used to investigate brain plasticity and recovery-related indicators of patients with stroke. However, results remain controversial because of interindividual variability of initial impairment and subsequent recovery of function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences in network plasticity and motor recovery-related indicators according to initial severity. METHODS: We divided participants (16 males and 14 females, aged 54...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831198/methamphetamine-abuse-impairs-motor-cortical-plasticity-and-function
#15
X Huang, Y-Y Chen, Y Shen, X Cao, A Li, Q Liu, Z Li, L-B Zhang, W Dai, T Tan, O Arias-Carrion, Y-X Xue, H Su, T-F Yuan
Exposure to addictive drugs triggers synaptic plasticity in reward-related brain regions, such as the midbrain, nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. Effects of chronic drug exposure on other brain areas have not been fully investigated. Here, we characterize synaptic plasticity in motor cortex after methamphetamine self-administration in rats. We show that this causes a loss of corticostriatal plasticity in rat brain slices and impaired motor learning in the rotarod task. These findings are paralleled by the observation of a lack of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced potentiation or depression of motor evoked potentials in human patients with addiction, along with poor performance in rotary pursuit task...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829980/cortical-involvement-in-myopathies-insights-from-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#16
Raffaele Nardone, Viviana Versace, Luca Sebastianelli, Francesco Brigo, Stefan Golaszewski, Monica Christova, Eugen Gallasch, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that an involvement of central nervous system (CNS) can occur in several myopathies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may represent a valuable tool for investigating important neurophysiological and pathophysiological aspects of cortical involvement in neuromuscular disorders. In this review paper we aimed to perform a systematic search of the studies employing TMS techniques in subjects suffering from myopathies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed and Embase...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822654/polarity-independent-effects-of-tdcs-on-paired-associative-stimulation-induced-plasticity
#17
Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821677/disruption-of-m1-activity-during-performance-plateau-impairs-consolidation-of-motor-memories
#18
Raphaël Hamel, Maxime Trempe, Pierre-Michel Bernier
Upon exposure to a new sensorimotor relationship, motor behaviors iteratively change early in adaptation, but eventually stabilize as adaptation proceeds. Behavioral work suggests that motor memory consolidation is initiated upon the attainment of asymptotic levels of performance. Separate lines of evidence point to a critical role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in consolidation. However, a causal relationship between M1 activity during asymptote and consolidation has yet to be demonstrated. The present study investigated this issue in male and female participants using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with post-movement activity in M1 in two behavioral phases of a ramp-and-hold visuomotor adaptation paradigm...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#19
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813785/a-pilot-study-on-the-optimal-speeds-for-passive-wrist-movements-by-a-rehabilitation-robot-of-stroke-patients-a-functional-nirs-study
#20
Sung Jin Bae, Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo, Pyung Hun Chang
The optimal conditions inducing proper brain activation during performance of rehabilitation robots should be examined to enhance the efficiency of robot rehabilitation based on the concept of brain plasticity. In this study, we attempted to investigate differences in cortical activation according to the speeds of passive wrist movements performed by a rehabilitation robot for stroke patients. 9 stroke patients with right hemiparesis participated in this study. Passive movements of the affected wrist were performed by the rehabilitation robot at three different speeds: 0...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
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