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Hippocampal volume

Matthew S Panizzon, Richard L Hauger, Hong Xian, Kristen Jacobson, Michael J Lyons, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen
Animal and human research suggests that testosterone is associated with hippocampal structure and function. Studies examining the association between testosterone and either hippocampal structure or hippocampal-mediated cognitive processes have overwhelmingly focused on the effects of testosterone alone, without considering the interaction of other neuroendocrine factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the interactive effects of testosterone and cortisol in relation to hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a sample of late-middle aged men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging...
March 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, V S Lekha, Sunitha Justus, P Sankara Sarma, Ramshekhar Menon
Context: Annually 10-12% of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are likely to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The morphometric profile in stable non-converters has not been adequately characterized. Aims: To determine the structural differences between amnestic MCI and early AD using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with neuropsychological test performances. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case-control study...
March 2018: Neurology India
Katherine M Satrom, Kathleen Ennis, Brian M Sweis, Tatyana M Matveeva, Jun Chen, Leif Hanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yong-Ku Kim, Byung-Joo Ham, Kyu-Man Han
The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Yu Mao, Qiuyue Kong, Rongrong Li, Xiaojin Zhang, Yali Gui, Yuehua Li, Chuanfu Li, Yanlin Zhao, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
Heat shock protein A12A (HSPA12A) is a newly discovered member of the Hsp70 family. The biological characteristics and functional roles of HSPA12A are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of HSPA12A on ischaemic stroke in mice. Ischaemic stroke was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h followed by blood reperfusion. We observed that HSPA12A was highly expressed in brain neurons, and neuronal HSPA12A expression was downregulated by ischaemic stroke and stroke-associated risk factors (aging, obesity and hyperglycaemia)...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Emily A Boeke, Stefan Ehrlich, Stephanie N DeCross, Shahin Nasr, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Delusions are a defining and common symptom of psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that subclinical and clinical delusions may represent distinct stages on a phenomenological and biological continuum. However, few studies have tested whether subclinical psychotic experiences are associated with neural changes that are similar to those observed in clinical psychosis. For example, it is unclear if overactivity of the hippocampus, a replicated finding of neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia, is also present in individuals with subclinical psychotic symptoms...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Noriko Kudo, Hidenaga Yamamori, Tamaki Ishima, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Hirotsugu Azechi, Tomihisa Niitsu, Shusuke Numata, Manabu Ikeda, Masaomi Iyo, Tetsuro Ohmori, Masaki Fukunaga, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kenji Hashimoto, Ryota Hashimoto
Background: An imbalance in the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) system, including soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methods: We measured the plasma levels of sTNFR2 in 256 healthy controls and 250 patients with schizophrenia including antipsychotic drug-free patients and treatment-resistant patients. We also explored the possible association between plasma sTNFR2 levels and cognitive performance in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-Ⅲ), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Vejay N Vakharia, Rachel Sparks, Kuo Li, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew W McEvoy, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan, Chengyuan Wu
OBJECTIVE: Surgical resection of the mesial temporal structures brings seizure remission in 65% of individuals with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) is a novel therapy that may provide a minimally invasive means of ablating the mesial temporal structures with similar outcomes, while minimizing damage to the neocortex. Systematic trajectory planning helps ensure safety and optimal seizure freedom through adequate ablation of the amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC)...
March 12, 2018: Epilepsia
Lea M Gerischer, Andreas Fehlner, Theresa Köbe, Kristin Prehn, Daria Antonenko, Ulrike Grittner, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Agnes Flöel
Dementia due to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which treatment strategies at an early stage are of great clinical importance. So far, there is still a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools to sensitively detect AD in early stages and to predict individual disease progression. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) of the brain may be a promising novel tool. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated whether multifrequency-MRE (MMRE) can detect differences in hippocampal stiffness between patients with clinical diagnosis of dementia due to AD and healthy controls (HC)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Susanne G Mueller, Paul A Yushkevich, Sandhitsu Das, Lei Wang, Koen Van Leemput, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Kate Alpert, Adam Mezher, Peter Ng, Katrina Paz, Michael W Weiner
Objective: Subfield-specific measurements provide superior information in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases compared to global hippocampal measurements. The overall goal was to systematically compare the performance of five representative manual and automated T1 and T2 based subfield labeling techniques in a sub-set of the ADNI2 population. Methods: The high resolution T2 weighted hippocampal images (T2-HighRes) and the corresponding T1 images from 106 ADNI2 subjects (41 controls, 57 MCI, 8 AD) were processed as follows...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lindsay R Clark, Sara E Berman, Derek Norton, Rebecca L Koscik, Erin Jonaitis, Kaj Blennow, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Sterling C Johnson, Henrik Zetterberg, Cynthia M Carlsson
OBJECTIVE: Compare cognitive and hippocampal volume trajectories in asymptomatic middle-aged and older adults with positive CSF markers of β-amyloid (Aβ) or tau to adults without an Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated biomarker profile. METHODS: Three hundred ninety-two adults enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study (Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention or Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center) completed a lumbar puncture and at least 2 biennial or annual neuropsychological evaluations...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
Vyacheslav L Murzin, Kaley Woods, Vitali Moiseenko, Roshan Karunamuni, Kathryn R Tringale, Tyler M Seibert, Michael J Connor, Daniel R Simpson, Ke Sheng, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidental irradiation of normal brain tissue during radiotherapy is linked to cognitive decline, and may be mediated by damage to healthy cortex. Non-coplanar techniques may be used for cortical sparing. We compared normal brain sparing and probability of cortical atrophy using 4π radiation therapy planning vs. standard fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plans from previously irradiated brain tumor patients ("original IMRT", n = 13) were re-planned to spare cortex using both 4π optimization ("4π") and IMRT optimization ("optimized IMRT")...
March 5, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Tracy Riggins, Fengji Geng, Morgan Botdorf, Kelsey Canada, Lisa Cox, Gregory R Hancock
The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for memory. Previous studies have shown that age-related differences in specialization along the longitudinal axis of this structure (i.e., subregions) and within its internal circuitry (i.e., subfields) relate to age-related improvements in memory in school-age children and adults. However, the influence of age on hippocampal development and its relations with memory ability earlier in life remains under-investigated. This study examined effects of age and sex on hippocampal subregion (i...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Ling-Yun Fan, Ya-Mei Lai, Ta-Fu Chen, Yung-Chin Hsu, Pin-Yu Chen, Kuo-Zhou Huang, Ting-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yi Isaac Tseng, Mau-Sun Hua, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses insidiously from the preclinical stage to dementia. While people with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have normal cognitive performance, some may be in the preclinical stage of AD. Neurofibrillary tangles appear first in the transentorhinal cortex, followed by the entorhinal cortex in the clinically silent stage of AD. We expected the earliest changes in subjects with SCD to occur in medial temporal subfields other than the hippocampal proper. These selective structural changes would affect specific memory subcomponents...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Deirdre M O'Shea, Vonetta M Dotson, Adam J Woods, Eric C Porges, John B Williamson, Andrew O'Shea, Ronald Cohen
Objective: Research has shown that depression is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subsequent cognitive decline. This is compounded by evidence showing an association between depression and reduced hippocampal volumes; a primary structure implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Less is known about the relationship between depression and other AD vulnerable regions such as the entorhinal cortex. Given the heterogeneity of depressive symptom presentation, we examined whether symptom dimensions were associated with hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes in community dwelling older adults...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Katherine A Koenig, Stephen M Rao, Mark J Lowe, Jian Lin, Ken E Sakaie, Lael Stone, Robert A Bermel, Bruce D Trapp, Micheal D Phillips
BACKGROUND: Episodic memory loss is one of the most common cognitive symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the pathophysiology of this symptom remains unclear. Both the hippocampus and thalamus have been implicated in episodic memory and show regional atrophy in patients with MS. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a verbal episodic memory task, lesion load, and volumetric measures of the hippocampus and thalamus to assess the relative contributions to verbal and visual-spatial episodic memory...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal studies have found that physical activity protects against Alzheimer disease, but the mechanism is unknown. The prevailing model derives from animal research and has physical activity directly affecting brain physiology by increasing brain volume, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and hippocampal neurogenesis with consequent gains in neuropsychological test scores. Supporting evidence has been mixed, with physical-activity-related gains across multiple neuropsychological domains considered indicative of the protective effect...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Gabriele Sani, Alessio Simonetti, Delfina Janiri, Nerisa Banaj, Elisa Ambrosi, Pietro De Rossi, Valentina Ciullo, David B Arciniegas, Fabrizio Piras, Gianfranco Spalletta
BACKGROUND: Prior studies on the effects of lithium on limbic and subcortical gray matter volumes are mixed. It is possible that discrepant findings may be explained by the duration of lithium exposure. We investigated this issue in individuals with type I bipolar disorder (BP-I). METHODS: Limbic and subcortical gray matter volume was measured using FreeSurfer in 60 subjects: 15 with BP-I without prior lithium exposure [no-exposure group (NE)]; 15 with BP-I and lithium exposure < 24 months [short-exposure group (SE)]; 15 with BP-I and lithium exposure > 24 months [long-exposure group (LE)]; and 15 healthy controls (HC)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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