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Hippocampal volume

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917699/the-impact-of-aging-on-subregions-of-the-hippocampal-complex-in-healthy-adults
#1
Florian Kurth, Nicolas Cherbuin, Eileen Luders
The hippocampal complex, an anatomical composite of several subregions, is known to decrease in size with increasing age. However, studies investigating which subregions are particularly prone to age-related tissue loss revealed conflicting findings. Possible reasons for such inconsistencies may reflect differences between studies in terms of the cohorts examined or techniques applied to define and measure hippocampal subregions. In the present study, we enhanced conventional MR-based information with microscopically defined cytoarchitectonic probabilities to investigate aging effects on the hippocampal complex in a carefully selected sample of 96 healthy subjects (48 males/48 females) aged 18-69 years...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915964/decreased-use-of-spatial-pattern-separation-in-contemporary-lifestyles-may-contribute-to-hippocampal-atrophy-and-diminish-mental-health
#2
Lindy Birkel
The spatial pattern separation process has not yet been proposed as a pivotal neural activity affecting hippocampal volume, a metric of mental health. The dentate gyrus/CA3 region is increasingly implicated in hippocampal atrophy, its putative role in spatial pattern separation appears to be impaired in mental health disorders, and performance on a task indicative of pattern separation correlates with dentate gyrus/CA3 volume. Spatial pattern separation is thought to utilize the heightened neural plasticity of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus to distinguish highly similar aspects of scene so that these remain distinct in memory rather than lost...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899759/hippocampal-metabolism-and-prefrontal-brain-structure-a-combined-1h-mr-spectroscopy-neuropsychological-and-voxel-based-morphometry-vbm-study
#3
Johanna Steinke, Christian Gaser, Kerstin Langbein, Maren Dietzek, Alexander Gussew, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Stefan Smesny, Heinrich Sauer, Igor Nenadić
Hippocampal structural and functional integrity impacts on multiple remote areas of the brain, and this connectivity is central to multiple cognitive functions in healthy and disease. We studied associations of hippocampal metabolic markers N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu and Glx; assessed with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and brain grey matter (studied with voxel-based morphometry, VBM) in 20 healthy subjects. We found a significant correlation between right hippocampal NAA and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortical grey matter (TFCE, p<0...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899429/amyloid-independent-atrophy-patterns-predict-time-to-progression-to-dementia-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Mara Ten Kate, Frederik Barkhof, Pieter Jelle Visser, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Amyloid pathology in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important risk factor for progression to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Predicting the onset of dementia is challenging even in the presence of amyloid, as time to progression varies considerably among patients and depends on the onset of neurodegeneration. Survival analysis can account for variability in time to event, but has not often been applied to MRI measurements beyond singular predefined brain regions such as the hippocampus...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899422/moderating-effects-of-sex-on-the-impact-of-diagnosis-and-amyloid-positivity-on-verbal-memory-and-hippocampal-volume
#5
Jessica Z K Caldwell, Jody-Lynn Berg, Jeffrey L Cummings, Sarah J Banks
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts men and women differently, but the effect of sex on predementia stages is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether sex moderates the impact of florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity (A(+)) on verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume (HV) in normal cognition (NC) and early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI). METHODS: Seven hundred forty-two participants with NC and participants with eMCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (second cohort [ADNI2] and Grand Opportunity Cohort [ADNI-GO]) were included...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899220/diagnosis-of-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-sensitivity-specificity-and-predictive-values-of-the-quantitative-analysis-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Ana María Granados Sánchez, Juan Felipe Orejuela Zapata
In the diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of qualitative assessment using conventional magnetic resonance imaging are low, mainly in mild or bilateral atrophy. Quantitative analysis may improve this performance. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of quantitative analysis using the hippocampal volumetric index (HVI) and hippocampal asymmetry index (HAI) compared with qualitative assessment in the MTS diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893898/left-ventricular-mass-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-performance-results-from-the-strong-heart-study
#7
Bernhard Haring, Adam Omidpanah, Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Lyle G Best, Steven P Verney, Dean K Shibata, Shelley A Cole, Tauqeer Ali, Barbara V Howard, Dedra Buchwald, Richard B Devereux
Left ventricular mass (LVM) has been shown to serve as a measure of target organ damage resulting from chronic exposure to several risk factors. Data on the association of midlife LVM with later cognitive performance are sparse. We studied 721 adults (mean age 56 years at baseline) enrolled in the Strong Heart Study (SHS, 1993-1995) and the ancillary CDCAI (Cerebrovascular Disease and Its Consequences in American Indians) Study (2010-2013), a study population with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. LVM was assessed with transthoracic echocardiography at baseline in 1993 to 1995...
September 11, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890046/effect-of-multiple-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposures-on-hippocampal-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-levels-and-learning-and-memory-abilities
#8
Junli Jiang, Chunchun Tang, Juanjuan Ren, Chao Zhang, Liang Dong, Zhaoqiong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane anesthesia is widely used in pediatric patients. In this study, we investigated whether early multiple exposures to sevoflurane induced cognitive dysfunction by altering the hippocampal expression of ApoE later in development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.6% sevoflurane at postnatal day 7 (P7), P14, and P21 for 2 h. The ability of learning and memory was assessed using the Morris water maze at P37 and P97. The hippocampal volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at P37 and P97...
August 31, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888031/disconnection-of-hippocampal-networks-contributes-to-memory-dysfunction-in-individuals-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Travis R Stoub, Ada V Chicharro, Christopher L Grote, Andres M Kanner
A deficit in declarative memory function is common among individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the volume of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex along with the surrounding parahippocampal white matter and memory performance in those with temporal lobe epilepsy. T1 weighted MRI scans were acquired using a 3-D pulse sequence in 50 individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes were derived by manually tracing consecutive coronal slices aligned perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus...
September 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886957/differential-vulnerability-of-hippocampal-subfields-and-anteroposterior-hippocampal-subregions-in-healthy-cognitive-aging
#10
Nikolai V Malykhin, Yushan Huang, Stanislau Hrybouski, Fraser Olsen
In the present study, we investigated whether hippocampal subfields (cornu ammonis 1-3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) and anteroposterior hippocampal subregions (head, body, and tail) follow the same trajectory with age using structural magnetic resonance imaging. We recruited 129 healthy volunteers, aged 18-85 years. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired on a 4.7T system. Hippocampal subfields and subregions were manually segmented using reliable volumetric protocols. We found that all effects of age on the hippocampal volumes were nonlinear and were mainly found in the hippocampal body, while the hippocampal head and the tail volumes were not associated with age...
August 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884957/long-term-sequelae-of-hippocampal-lesions-in-patients-with-transient-global-amnesia-a-multiparametric-mri-study
#11
Xiaochuan Wang, Ran Zhang, Wenping Wei, Haibo Jiang, Zhongming Gao, Jianzhong Lin, Jiaxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: MRI signal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity in the hippocampus in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) are resolved within several days after the onset of TGA. PURPOSE: To use multiparametric MRI to unravel the sequelae of TGA. STUDY TYPE: A prospective longitudinal study. POPULATION: Eight TGA patients. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3.0T Siemens Tim Trio MRI scanner with T1 -weighted MPRAGE, diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging, and multiecho gradient-recalled echo sequences...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878053/subjective-memory-complaints-in-preclinical-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-disease
#12
Daniel J Norton, Rebecca Amariglio, Hillary Protas, Kewei Chen, Daniel C Aguirre-Acevedo, Brendan Pulsifer, Gabriel Castrillon, Victoria Tirado, Claudia Munoz, Pierre Tariot, Jessica B Langbaum, Eric M Reiman, Francisco Lopera, Reisa A Sperling, Yakeel T Quiroz
OBJECTIVE: To cross-sectionally study subjective memory complaints (SMC) in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). METHODS: We examined self-reported and study partner-based SMC in 52 young, cognitively unimpaired individuals from a Colombian kindred with early-onset ADAD. Twenty-six carried the PSEN-1 E280A mutation, averaging 7 years of age younger than the kindred's expected clinical onset. Twenty-six were age-matched noncarriers. Participants also underwent structural MRI and cognitive testing...
September 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868066/distinguishing-depressive-pseudodementia-from-alzheimer-disease-a-comparative-study-of-hippocampal-volumetry-and-cognitive-tests
#13
Sevki Sahin, Tugba Okluoglu Önal, Nilgun Cinar, Meral Bozdemir, Rahmi Çubuk, Sibel Karsidag
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Depressive pseudodementia (DPD) is a condition which may develop secondary to depression. The aim of this study was to contribute to the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer disease (AD) and DPD by comparing the neurocognitive tests and hippocampal volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who met criteria of AD/DPD were enrolled in the study. All patients were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT), Boston Naming Test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
May 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860127/the-haptoglobin-1-1-genotype-modulates-the-association-of-glycemic-control-with-hippocampal-volume-in-elderly-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Abigail Livny, Ramit Ravona-Springer, Anthony Heymann, Rachel Priess, Tammar Kushnir, Galia Tsarfaty, Leeron Rabinov, Reut Moran, Niv Tik, Erin Moshier, Itzik Cooper, Lior Greenbaum, Jeremy Silverman, Andrew Levy, Mary Sano, Barbara B Bendlin, Aron S Buchman, Michal Schnaider Beeri
Recent evidence suggests that glycemic control is associated with cognitive function in older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) carriers of Haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 genotype compared to non-carriers. We assessed whether poor glycemic control in Hp 1-1 carriers is more strongly associated with smaller hippocampal volume than in non-carriers.Hippocampal volume was generated from high-resolution structural T1 MR-imaging obtained for 224 participants (28 Hp 1-1 carriers [12.5%] and 196 non-carriers [87.5%]) from the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study, who had a mean number of years in the MHS registry of 8...
August 31, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857334/preventive-effects-of-an-intergenerational-program-on-age-related-hippocampal-atrophy-in-older-adults-the-reprints-study
#15
Ryota Sakurai, Kenji Ishii, Naoko Sakuma, Masashi Yasunaga, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yoh Murayama, Mariko Nishi, Hayato Uchida, Shoji Shinkai, Yoshinori Fujiwara
OBJECTIVES: A growing body of literature indicates that social engagements, such as intergenerational programs, are effective strategies to improve a range of cognitive abilities. The present study examined whether the intergenerational program-REPRINTS-prevents age-related hippocampal atrophy. METHODS: After comprehensive baseline assessment, participants were allowed to decide whether to participate in the REPRINTS intervention or in the control group, which required only completion of assessments...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856963/performance-on-a-1-week-delayed-recall-task-is-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-structures-in-neurologically-normal-older-adults
#16
R Saloner, K B Casaletto, G Marx, S Dutt, A B Vanden Bussche, M You, E Fox, J Stiver, J H Kramer
OBJECTIVE: Traditional episodic memory tests employ a delayed recall length ranging from 10 to 30 min. The neurobiological process of memory consolidation extends well beyond these time intervals, however, raising the possibility that these tests might not be fully sensitive to the subtle neurocognitive changes found in early disease or age-related decline. We aimed to determine the sensitivity of a 1-week delayed recall paradigm to medial temporal lobe (MTL) structure among neurologically normal older adults...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856235/regional-tau-deposition-and-subregion-atrophy-of-medial-temporal-structures-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-combined-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#17
Daichi Sone, Etsuko Imabayashi, Norihide Maikusa, Nobuyuki Okamura, Shozo Furumoto, Yukitsuka Kudo, Masayo Ogawa, Harumasa Takano, Yuma Yokoi, Masuhiro Sakata, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Koichi Kato, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Molecular imaging and selective hippocampal subfield atrophy are a focus of recent Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Here, we investigated correlations between molecular imaging and hippocampal subfields in early AD. METHODS: We investigated 18 patients with early AD and 18 healthy control subjects using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-THK5351 PET and automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852028/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-reductions-in-specific-cognitive-domains-and-increases-in-csf-tau-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#18
Simon M Laws, Scott Gaskin, Amy Woodfield, Velandai Srikanth, David Bruce, Paul E Fraser, Tenielle Porter, Philip Newsholme, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Samantha Burnham, Vincent Doré, Qiao-Xin Li, Paul Maruff, Colin L Masters, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Christopher C Rowe, Olivier Salvado, Victor L Villemagne, Ralph N Martins, Giuseppe Verdile
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk of developing dementia. Experimental evidence from mouse models demonstrates that the induction of T2D/insulin resistance (IR) can promote the accumulation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological features. However, the association of T2D with pathological and clinical phenotypes in humans is unclear. Here we investigate the relationship of indices of IR (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-B) with cognitive performance across several domains (Verbal/Visual Episodic Memory, Executive Function, Language and a measure of Global cognition) and AD biomarkers (CSF Aβ42, T-tau/P-tau, hippocampal volume and neocortical Aβ-amyloid burden)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851447/cognitive-and-imaging-markers-in-non-demented-subjects-attending-a-memory-clinic-study-design-and-baseline-findings-of-the-memento-cohort
#19
Carole Dufouil, Bruno Dubois, Bruno Vellas, Florence Pasquier, Frédéric Blanc, Jacques Hugon, Olivier Hanon, Jean-François Dartigues, Sandrine Harston, Audrey Gabelle, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Olivier Beauchet, Pierre Krolak-Salmon, Renaud David, Olivier Rouaud, Olivier Godefroy, Catherine Belin, Isabelle Rouch, Nicolas Auguste, David Wallon, Athanase Benetos, Jérémie Pariente, Marc Paccalin, Olivier Moreaud, Caroline Hommet, François Sellal, Claire Boutoleau-Bretonniére, Isabelle Jalenques, Armelle Gentric, Pierre Vandel, Chabha Azouani, Ludovic Fillon, Clara Fischer, Helen Savarieau, Gregory Operto, Hugo Bertin, Marie Chupin, Vincent Bouteloup, Marie-Odile Habert, Jean-François Mangin, Geneviève Chêne
BACKGROUND: The natural history and disease mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) are still poorly understood. Very few resources are available to scrutinise patients as early as needed and to use integrative approaches combining standardised, repeated clinical investigations and cutting-edge biomarker measurements. METHODS: In the nationwide French MEMENTO cohort study, participants were recruited in memory clinics and screened for either isolated subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI; defined as test performance 1...
August 29, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846566/activation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-activity-bydichloroacetate-improves-survival-and-neurologic-outcomes-after-cardiac-arrest-in-rats
#20
Peng Wang, Mingdi Chen, Zhengfei Yang, Tao Yu, Jie Zhu, Lili Zhou, Jiali Lin, Xiangshao Fang, Zitong Huang, Longyuan Jiang, Wanchun Tang
No pharmacological interventions are currently available to provide neuroprotection for patients suffering from cardiac arrest. Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, which activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and increases cell adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by promoting influx of pyruvate into the Krebs cycle. In this study, we investigated the effects of DCA on post-resuscitation neurological injury in an asphyxial cardiac arrest rat model. Asphyxial cardiac arrest was established by endotracheal tube clamping...
August 25, 2017: Shock
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