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Hippocampal volume

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809859/do-regional-brain-volumes-and-major-depressive-disorder-share-genetic-architecture-a-study-of-generation-scotland-n-19%C3%A2-762-uk-biobank-n-24%C3%A2-048-and-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing-n-5766
#1
E M Wigmore, T-K Clarke, D M Howard, M J Adams, L S Hall, Y Zeng, J Gibson, G Davies, A M Fernandez-Pujals, P A Thomson, C Hayward, B H Smith, L J Hocking, S Padmanabhan, I J Deary, D J Porteous, K K Nicodemus, A M McIntosh
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heritable and highly debilitating condition. It is commonly associated with subcortical volumetric abnormalities, the most replicated of these being reduced hippocampal volume. Using the most recent published data from Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) consortium's genome-wide association study of regional brain volume, we sought to test whether there is shared genetic architecture between seven subcortical brain volumes and intracranial volume (ICV) and MDD...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802917/aerobic-exercise-in-adolescence-results-in-an-increase-of-neuronal-and-non-neuronal-cells-and-in-mtor-overexpression-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-rats
#2
Angélica Begatti Victorino, Fernando Tadeu Serra, Pâmella Pimentel Piñero, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Ivair Matias Junior, Helio Rubens Machado, Roberto Lent, Francisco Romero Cabral, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, Ricardo Mario Arida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Better cognitive performance and greater cortical and hippocampal volume have been observed in individuals who undertook aerobic exercise during childhood and adolescence. One possible explanation for these beneficial effects is that juvenile physical exercise enables better neural development and hence more cells and neuronal circuitries. It is probable that such effects occur through intracellular signaling proteins associated with cell growth, proliferation and survival. Based on this information, we evaluated the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells using isotropic fractionation and the expression and activation of intracellular proteins (ERK, CREB Akt, mTOR and p70S6K) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal formation of the rats submitted to a physical exercise program on a treadmill during adolescence...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801477/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-renal-function-are-associated-with-brain-alterations-and-poststroke-cognitive-decline
#3
Einor Ben Assayag, Roy Eldor, Amos D Korczyn, Efrat Kliper, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Oren Tene, Jeremy Molad, Itzhak Shapira, Shlomo Berliner, Viki Volfson, Ludmila Shopin, Yehuda Strauss, Hen Hallevi, Natan M Bornstein, Eitan Auriel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with diseases of the brain, kidney, and vasculature. However, the relationship between T2DM, chronic kidney disease, brain alterations, and cognitive function after stroke is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the inter-relationship between T2DM, impaired renal function, brain pathology on imaging, and cognitive decline in a longitudinal poststroke cohort. METHODS: The TABASCO (Tel Aviv brain acute stroke cohort) is a prospective cohort of stroke/transient ischemic attack survivors...
August 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797599/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-analysis-of-neurochemical-changes-in-the-atrophic-hippocampus-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#4
Shengxiang Liang, Jia Huang, Weilin Liu, Hao Jin, Long Li, Xiufeng Zhang, Binbin Nie, Ruhui Lin, Jing Tao, Shujun Zhao, Baoci Shan, Lidian Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuropathological changes and progressive cognitive decline, which is associated with the volume loss and neurochemical alterations. However, the specific neurochemical alterations in cerebral regions that contribute to cognitive decline still remain unknown. In the present study, we measured cerebral morphological and neurochemical alterations using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in an AD model of APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777754/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-b3-msrb3-protein-associates-with-synaptic-vesicles-and-its-expression-changes-in-the-hippocampi-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#5
Stephanie L Adams, Laurent Benayoun, Kathy Tilton, Olivia R Chavez, Jayandra J Himali, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Sudha Seshadri, Ivana Delalle
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified susceptibility loci associated with decreased hippocampal volume, and found hippocampal subfield-specific effects at MSRB3 (methionine sulfoxide reductase-B3). The MSRB3 locus was also linked to increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we uncovered novel sites of MsrB3 expression in CA pyramidal layer and arteriolar walls by using automated immunohistochemistry on hippocampal sections from 23 individuals accompanied by neuropathology reports and clinical dementia rating scores...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771634/regional-gray-matter-correlates-of-memory-for-emotion-laden-words-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#6
Carina Saarela, Juho Joutsa, Matti Laine, Riitta Parkkola, Juha O Rinne, Mira Karrasch
Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761928/familiarity-deficits-in-cognitively-normal-aging-individuals-with-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-a-follow-up-investigation-of-medial-temporal-lobe-structural-correlates
#7
Dorothee Schoemaker, Judes Poirier, D Louis Collins, Serge Gauthier, Jens C Pruessner
INTRODUCTION: The apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele is a well-documented risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, aging individuals carrying one or more ε4 alleles are at considerably greater risk of developing AD over time. In an effort to characterize early cognitive manifestations of AD, we previously outlined selective deficits in familiarity-based recognition in otherwise asymptomatic carriers of the APOE ε4 allele (Schoemaker et al., 2016). In this follow-up report, we aimed to explore the neural correlates of this selective cognitive impairment...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761095/associations-between-subjective-well-being-and-subcortical-brain-volumes
#8
D Van 't Ent, A den Braber, B M L Baselmans, R M Brouwer, C V Dolan, H E Hulshoff Pol, E J C de Geus, M Bartels
To study the underpinnings of individual differences in subjective well-being (SWB), we tested for associations of SWB with subcortical brain volumes in a dataset of 724 twins and siblings. For significant SWB-brain associations we probed for causal pathways using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and estimated genetic and environmental contributions from twin modeling. Another independent measure of genetic correlation was obtained from linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression on published genome-wide association summary statistics...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760560/hippocampal-dose-from-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-4-to-10-brain-metastases-risk-factors-feasibility-of-dose-reduction-via-re-optimization-and-patient-outcomes
#9
Samuel R Birer, Adam C Olson, Justus Adamson, Rodney Hood, Matthew Susen, Grace Kim, Joseph K Salama, John P Kirkpatrick
This study aimed to report hippocampal dose from single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for 4 to 10 brain metastases and determine feasibility of hippocampal-sparing SRS. Patients with 4 to 10 brain metastases receiving single-isocenter, multi-target single-fraction SRS were identified. Hippocampi were contoured using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 atlas. RTOG 0933 dose constraints were converted to a biologically effective dose using an alpha/beta of 2 (D100 421 cGy, Dmax 665 cGy)...
July 28, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756237/distinct-resting-state-functional-connections-associated-with-episodic-and-visuospatial-memory-in-older-adults
#10
Sana Suri, Anya Topiwala, Nicola Filippini, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Claire E Sexton, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Clare E Mackay, Stephen Smith, Klaus P Ebmeier
Episodic and spatial memory are commonly impaired in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest a preferential involvement of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), particularly the hippocampus, in episodic and spatial memory processing. The present study examined how these two memory types were related in terms of their associated resting-state functional architecture. 3T multiband resting state fMRI scans from 497 participants (60-82 years old) of the cross-sectional Whitehall II Imaging sub-study were analysed using an unbiased, data-driven network-modelling technique (FSLNets)...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755387/bdnf-genotype-is-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
J P Hayes, A Reagan, M W Logue, S M Hayes, N Sadeh, D R Miller, M Verfaellie, E J Wolf, R E McGlinchey, W P Milberg, A Stone, S A Schichman, M W Miller
The negative long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been a growing concern in recent years, with accumulating evidence suggesting that mTBI combined with additional vulnerability factors may induce neurodegenerative-type changes in the brain. However, the factors instantiating risk for neurodegenerative disease following mTBI are unknown. This study examined the link between mTBI and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype, which has previously been shown to regulate processes involved in neurodegeneration including synaptic plasticity and facilitation of neural survival through its expression...
July 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754803/uric-acid-and-incident-dementia-over-12-years-of-follow-up-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Augustin Latourte, Aicha Soumaré, Thomas Bardin, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Stéphanie Debette, Pascal Richette
OBJECTIVES: In patients with gout, maintaining too low serum uric acid (SUA) level with urate-lowering therapy is a concern because uric acid is thought to be neuroprotective. However, the relation between SUA and dementia remains debated. This study aimed to investigate the impact of SUA level on the incidence of dementia. METHODS: We assessed the longitudinal association between SUA level and incident dementia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Version IV (DSM-IV) criteria) in a large cohort of healthy older people from the community (Three-City Dijon cohort)...
July 28, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751857/the-bdnf-val-66-met-polymorphism-affects-neuronal-morphology-and-synaptic-transmission-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-from-rett-syndrome-mice
#13
Xin Xu, Jordi Garcia, Rachel Ewalt, Shelly Nason, Lucas Pozzo-Miller
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) has been implicated in several neurological disorders including Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). The human BDNF gene has a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-a methionine (met) substitution for valine (val) at codon 66-that affects BDNF's trafficking and activity-dependent release and results in cognitive dysfunction. Humans that are carriers of the met-BDNF allele have subclinical memory deficits and reduced hippocampal volume and activation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748803/serial-mri-scan-of-posterior-fossa-tumours-predict-patients-at-risk-of-developing-neurocognitive-impairment
#14
Ramadhan Othman, Kurdistan Gh Abdullah
Background: Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours in children. More than 50% of these tumours develop in the posterior cranial fossa. Long term survivors of posterior fossa tumours (PFT) suffer from neurocognitive and memory issues. We hypothesized that serial MRI scanning of brain would show differences in hippocampal and ACC volume change in PFT patients treated with and without chemo-radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Twelve patients (8 females and 4 males) underwent 76 serial MR imaging examinations before and during treatment for posterior fossa tumours...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744248/experience-with-the-cardinal-coordinate-system-contributes-to-the-precision-of-cognitive-maps
#15
Xin Hao, Yi Huang, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Jia Liu
The coordinate system has been proposed as a fundamental and cross-culturally used spatial representation, through which people code location and direction information in the environment. Here we provided direct evidence demonstrating that daily experience with the cardinal coordinate system (i.e., east, west, north, and south) contributed to the representation of cognitive maps. Behaviorally, we found that individuals who relied more on the cardinal coordinate system for daily navigation made smaller errors in an indoor pointing task, suggesting that the cardinal coordinate system is an important element of cognitive maps...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741422/longitudinal-study-of-hippocampal-volumes-in-heavy-cannabis-users
#16
L Koenders, V Lorenzetti, L de Haan, C Suo, Wam Vingerhoets, W van den Brink, R W Wiers, C J Meijer, Mwj Machielsen, A E Goudriaan, D J Veltman, M Yücel, J Cousijn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. METHODS: Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2...
August 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740744/hippocampal-volume-as-an-amplifier-of-the-effect-of-social-context-on-adolescent-depression
#17
Roberta A Schriber, Zainab Anbari, Richard W Robins, Rand D Conger, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Recent models have focused on how brain-based individual differences in social sensitivity shape affective development in adolescence, when rates of depression escalate. Given the importance of the hippocampus in binding contextual and affective elements of experience, as well as its putative role in depression, we examined hippocampal volume as a moderator of the effects of social context on depressive symptoms in a sample of 209 Mexican-origin adolescents. Adolescents with larger versus smaller hippocampal volumes showed heightened sensitivity in their depressive symptoms to a protective factor inside the home (sense of family connectedness) and a risk factor outside of it (community crime exposure)...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739584/distinct-trajectories-of-cortisol-response-to-prolonged-acute-stress-are-linked-to-affective-responses-and-hippocampal-gray-matter-volume-in-healthy-females
#18
Roee Admon, Michael T Treadway, Linda Valeri, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Diego A Pizzagalli
The development of robust laboratory procedures for acute stress induction over the last decades has greatly advanced our understanding of stress responses in humans and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, attempts to uncover linear relationships between endocrine, neural, and affective responses to stress have generally yielded inconsistent results. Here, 79 healthy females completed a well-established laboratory procedure of acute stress induction that was modified in order to prolong its effect...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736106/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-approach-to-trimethyltin-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rats
#19
Ladislav Baciak, Zdenka Gasparova, Tibor Liptaj, Ivo Juranek
Trimethyltin (TMT) is commonly used to induce neurodegeneration in mice and rats; however, only scarce data of in vivo MR spectroscopy and imaging characterizing TMT neurotoxicity are available. Our aim was to assess brain metabolite changes and brain atrophy by in vivo MR in the rat model of neurodegeneration induced by TMT. Adult male Wistar rats exposed to TMT (8mg/kg, i.p.) were used in the study. Proton MRS was applied on the dorsal hippocampus to reveal changes in neurochemical profile and MRI was used to assess the volume of the entire hippocampus, ventricles and whole brain...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734903/the-olfactory-bulbectomized-rat-model-is-not-an-appropriate-model-for-studying-depression-based-on-morphological-stereological-studies-of-the-hippocampus
#20
Canan Yurttas, Christoph Schmitz, Mehmet Turgut, Tatyana Strekalova, Harry W M Steinbusch
Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as an animal model for major depression that results in behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrinological changes were reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressants, including fluoxetine. However, both etiological and construct validities are lacking in OBX for rats. In the present study, we investigated the morphological changes in the hippocampi of rats undergoing OBX that were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o. once daily for 4 and 12 weeks) using stereological techniques...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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