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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230421/medicare-expenditure-correlates-of-atrophy-and-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#1
Briana S Last, Maria-José García Rubio, Carolyn W Zhu, Stephanie Cosentino, Jennifer J Manly, Charles DeCarli, Yaakov Stern, Adam M Brickman
: Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults. METHODS: A subset of participants (n = 592; mean age = 80 years; 66% women) from the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a community-based observational study of aging in upper Manhattan, received high-resolution MRI and had Medicare expenditure data on file...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229111/the-chronic-mild-stress-cms-model-of-depression-history-evaluation-and-usage
#2
REVIEW
Paul Willner
Now 30 years old, the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression has been used in >1300 published studies, with a year-on-year increase rising to >200 papers in 2015. Data from a survey of users show that while a variety of names are in use (chronic mild/unpredictable/varied stress), these describe essentially the same procedure. This paper provides an update on the validity and reliability of the CMS model, and reviews recent data on the neurobiological basis of CMS effects and the mechanisms of antidepressant action: the volume of this research may be unique in providing a comprehensive account of antidepressant action within a single model...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227960/automated-volumetry-for-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis-detection-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Cristina Martins, Nadia Moreira da Silva, Guilherme Silva, Verena E Rozanski, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Cristina Martins, Nadia Moreira da Silva, Guilherme Silva, Verena E Rozanski, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Guilherme Silva, Verena E Rozanski, Nadia Moreira da Silva, Cristina Martins
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and can be identified in magnetic resonance imaging as hippocampal atrophy and subsequent volume loss. Detecting this kind of abnormalities through simple radiological assessment could be difficult, even for experienced radiologists. For that reason, hippocampal volumetry is generally used to support this kind of diagnosis. Manual volumetry is the traditional approach but it is time consuming and requires the physician to be familiar with neuroimaging software tools...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225578/detection-of-volume-alterations-in-hippocampal-subfields-of-rats-under-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-using-7t-mri-a-follow-up-study
#4
Yuefeng Li, Xiaolan Zhu, Shenghong Ju, Jinchuan Yan, Dongqing Wang, Yan Zhu, Fengchao Zang
PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal subfields volume loss in depression, which was simulated by a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. As different cellular and molecular characteristics in hippocampal subfields, these subfields are regarded as differentially vulnerable to processes associated with stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were exposed to various stressors until the model was successfully established. The effects of physical exercise on recovery of hippocampal volume in depressed rats were simulated using the wheel running test (WRT)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224692/renal-function-affects-hippocampal-volume-and-cognition-the-role-of-vascular-burden-and-amyloid-deposition
#5
Hoyoung An, Booyeol Choi, Sang Joon Son, Eun Young Cho, Seon-Ok Kim, Sooyun Cho, Duk-Hee Kang, Chul Lee, Seong Yoon Kim
AIM: We determined if differences in renal function, even within normal levels, influenced hippocampal volume (HCV) and cognition. METHODS: Cognitively normal (CN) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m(2) were selected from the ADNI database (N = 1,269) and divided into three groups (eGFR 60-75, 75-90 and ≥90). Associations between eGFR, HCV and cognition scores were examined using regression methods, and random-coefficient models...
February 22, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223932/cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-amyloid-beta-1-43-mirror-1-42-in-relation-to-imaging-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Ina S Almdahl, Camilla Lauridsen, Per Selnes, Lisa F Kalheim, Christopher Coello, Beata Gajdzik, Ina Møller, Marianne Wettergreen, Ramune Grambaite, Atle Bjørnerud, Geir Bråthen, Sigrid B Sando, Linda R White, Tormod Fladby
Introduction: Amyloid beta 1-43 (Aβ43), with its additional C-terminal threonine residue, is hypothesized to play a role in early Alzheimer's disease pathology possibly different from that of amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ43 has been suggested as a potential novel biomarker for predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia in Alzheimer's disease. However, the relationship between CSF Aβ43 and established imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease has never been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220103/hippocampal-damage-and-atrophy-secondary-to-status-epilepticus-in-a-patient-with-schizophrenia
#7
Elaine Keiko Fujisao, Nathalia Raquel Cristaldo, Aline Marques da Silva Braga, Paulina Rodrigues Cunha, Seizo Yamashita, Luiz Eduardo Betting
A 59-year-old man was admitted with respiratory tract infection, compromised conscience and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. His medical history included schizophrenia diagnosis, for which he had been being treated since he was 27 years old. EEG disclosed non-convulsive status epilepticus. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) acquired 3 days later showed increased left hippocampal volume with hyperintensity on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. After being treated with antibiotics and antiepileptic medications, the patient's condition improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212893/traffic-related-air-pollution-impact-on-mouse-brain-accelerates-myelin-and-neuritic-aging-changes-with-specificity-for-ca1-neurons
#8
Nicholas C Woodward, Payam Pakbin, Arian Saffari, Farimah Shirmohammadi, Amin Haghani, Constantinos Sioutas, Mafalda Cacciottolo, Todd E Morgan, Caleb E Finch
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with lower cognition and reduced white matter volume in older adults, specifically for particulate matter <2.5-μm diameter (PM2.5). Rodents exposed to TRAP have shown microglial activation and neuronal atrophy. We further investigated age differences of TRAP exposure, with focus on hippocampus for neuritic atrophy, white matter degeneration, and microglial activation. Young- and middle-aged mice (3 and 18 months female C57BL/6J) were exposed to nanoscale-PM (nPM, <0...
January 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212354/the-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-oxidative-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-and-the-expression-of-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-icam-1-and-s100b
#9
Yanwen Li, Shikun Liu
BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension...
February 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211988/intrathecal-enzyme-replacement-therapy-reverses-cognitive-decline-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i
#10
Igor Nestrasil, Elsa Shapiro, Alena Svatkova, Patricia Dickson, Agnes Chen, Amy Wakumoto, Alia Ahmed, Edward Stehel, Sarah McNeil, Curtis Gravance, Elizabeth Maher
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease that seriously affects the brain. Severity of neurocognitive symptoms in attenuated MPS subtype (MPS IA) broadly varies partially, due to restricted permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which limits treatment effects of intravenously applied α-L-iduronidase (rhIDU) enzyme. Intrathecal (IT) rhIDU application as a possible solution to circumvent BBB improved brain outcomes in canine models; therefore, our study quantifies effects of IT rhIDU on brain structure and function in an MPS IA patient with previous progressive cognitive decline...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202012/early-life-adversity-is-associated-with-a-smaller-hippocampus-in-male-but-not-female-depressed-in-patients-a-case-control-study
#11
Romain Colle, Tomoyuki Segawa, Marie Chupin, Minh Ngoc Thien Kim Tran Dong, Patrick Hardy, Bruno Falissard, Olivier Colliot, Denis Ducreux, Emmanuelle Corruble
BACKGROUND: Three studies assessed the association of early life adversity (ELA) and hippocampal volumes in depressed patients, of which one was negative and the two others did not control for several potential confounding variables. Since the association of ELA and hippocampal volumes differ in male and female healthy volunteers, we investigated the association of ELA and hippocampal volumes in depressed patients, while focusing specifically on sex and controlling for several relevant socio-demographic and clinical variables...
February 15, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199858/associations-between-hippocampal-morphology-diffusion-characteristics-and-salivary-cortisol-in-older-men
#12
Simon R Cox, Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Jaeil Kim, Natalie A Royle, Sarah E MacPherson, Karen J Ferguson, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Devasuda Anblagan, Benjamin S Aribisala, Mark E Bastin, Jinah Park, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Joanna M Wardlaw
High, unabated glucocorticoid (GC) levels are thought to selectively damage certain tissue types. The hippocampus is thought to be particularly susceptible to such effects, and though findings from animal models and human patients provide some support for this hypothesis, evidence for associations between elevated GCs and lower hippocampal volumes in older age (when GC levels are at greater risk of dysregulation) is inconclusive. To address the possibility that the effects of GCs in non-pathological ageing may be too subtle for gross volumetry to reliably detect, we analyse associations between salivary cortisol (diurnal and reactive measures), hippocampal morphology and diffusion characteristics in 88 males, aged ∼73 years...
January 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193301/hippocampal-subregion-volume-changes-associated-with-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#13
K Rhindress, D G Robinson, J A Gallego, R Wellington, A K Malhotra, P R Szeszko
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal dysfunction is considered central to many neurobiological models of schizophrenia, yet there are few longitudinal in vivo neuroimaging studies that have investigated the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and morphologic changes within specific hippocampal subregions among patients with psychosis. METHOD: A total of 29 patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis with little or no prior antipsychotic exposure received structural neuroimaging examinations at illness onset and then following 12 weeks of treatment with either risperidone or aripiprazole in a double-blind randomized clinical trial...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188918/evaluation-of-multimodal-segmentation-based-on-3d-t1-t2-and-flair-weighted-images-the-difficulty-of-choosing
#14
Tobias Lindig, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Daniel Schweikardt, Pascal Martin, Friedemann Bender, Uwe Klose, Ulrike Ernemann, Niels K Focke, Benjamin Bender
Voxel-based morphometry is still mainly based on T1-weighted MRI scans. Misclassification of vessels and dura mater as gray matter has been previously reported. Goal of the present work was to evaluate the effect of multimodal segmentation methods available in SPM12, and their influence on identification of age related atrophy and lesion detection in epilepsy patients. 3D T1-, T2- and FLAIR-images of 77 healthy adults (mean age 35.8 years, 19-66 years, 45 females), 7 patients with malformation of cortical development (MCD) (mean age 28...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188846/sexual-differentiation-of-the-adolescent-rat-brain-a-longitudinal-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#15
Akira Sumiyoshi, Hiroi Nonaka, Ryuta Kawashima
The sexual differentiation of the rat brain during the adolescent period has been well documented in post-mortem histological studies. However, to further understand the morphological changes occurring in the entire brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the sexual differentiation of the rat brain during the adolescent period using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188659/hippocampal-subfields-at-ultra-high-field-mri-an-overview-of-segmentation-and-measurement-methods
#16
Alessia Giuliano, Graziella Donatelli, Mirco Cosottini, Michela Tosetti, Alessandra Retico, Maria Evelina Fantacci
The hippocampus is one of the most interesting and studied brain regions because of its involvement in memory functions and its vulnerability in pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative processes. In the recent years, the increasing availability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners that operate at ultra-high field (UHF), i.e. with static magnetic field strength ≥ 7T, has opened new research perspectives. Compared to conventional high-field scanners, these systems can provide new contrasts, increased signal-to-noise ratio and higher spatial resolution, thus they may improve the visualization of very small structures of the brain, such as the hippocampal subfields...
February 11, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187125/aerobic-exercise-for-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#17
Jill K Morris, Eric D Vidoni, David K Johnson, Angela Van Sciver, Jonathan D Mahnken, Robyn A Honea, Heather M Wilkins, William M Brooks, Sandra A Billinger, Russell H Swerdlow, Jeffrey M Burns
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185945/age-related-volumetric-change-of-limbic-structures-and-subclinical-anxious-depressed-symptomatology-in-typically-developing-children-and-adolescents
#18
Matthew D Albaugh, Tuong-Vi Nguyen, Simon Ducharme, D Louis Collins, Kelly N Botteron, Nicholas D'Alberto, Alan C Evans, Sherif Karama, James J Hudziak
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which subclinical variation in anxious/depressed psychopathology is associated with volume and age-related volumetric change of limbic structures in a longitudinal sample of healthy youths. METHODS: Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging data (up to 3 data points per subject, collected at 2 year-intervals) in 371 typically developing youths, from 4 to 18 years of age (196 females; 723 MRIs)...
February 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182655/regional-analysis-of-volumes-and-reproducibilities-of-automatic-and-manual-hippocampal-segmentations
#19
Fabian Bartel, Hugo Vrenken, Fetsje Bijma, Frederik Barkhof, Marcel van Herk, Jan C de Munck
PURPOSE: Precise and reproducible hippocampus outlining is important to quantify hippocampal atrophy caused by neurodegenerative diseases and to spare the hippocampus in whole brain radiation therapy when performing prophylactic cranial irradiation or treating brain metastases. This study aimed to quantify systematic differences between methods by comparing regional volume and outline reproducibility of manual, FSL-FIRST and FreeSurfer hippocampus segmentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used a dataset from ADNI (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), including 20 healthy controls, 40 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180075/independent-value-added-by-diffusion-mri-for-prediction-of-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#20
Julia A Scott, Duygu Tosun, Meredith N Braskie, Pauline Maillard, Paul M Thompson, Michael Weiner, Charles DeCarli, Owen T Carmichael
The purpose of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides independent information about baseline level or change in executive function (EF) or memory (MEM) in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Longitudinal data was acquired from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study from phases GO and 2 (2009-2015). ADNI participants included were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 46), early mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 48), late MCI (n = 29), and dementia (n = 39) at baseline...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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