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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526883/openspritzer-an-open-hardware-pressure-ejection-system-for-reliably-delivering-picolitre-volumes
#1
C J Forman, H Tomes, B Mbobo, R J Burman, M Jacobs, T Baden, J V Raimondo
The ability to reliably and precisely deliver picolitre volumes is an important component of biological research. Here we describe a high-performance, low-cost, open hardware pressure ejection system (Openspritzer), which can be constructed from off the shelf components. The device is capable of delivering minute doses of reagents to a wide range of biological and chemical systems. In this work, we characterise the performance of the device and compare it to a popular commercial system using two-photon fluorescence microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523532/progressive-pathological-changes-in-neurochemical-profile-of-the-hippocampus-and-early-changes-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-tau-transgenic-mice-rtg4510
#2
Jieun Kim, In-Young Choi, Karen E Duff, Phil Lee
Tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD-tau) dementia, characterized by pathologic aggregation of the microtubule-associated tau protein and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, have been linked to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. The early detection of cerebral abnormalities and the identification of biological contributors to the continuous pathologic processes of neurodegeneration in tauopathies critically hinge on sensitive and reliable measures of biomarkers in the living brain...
May 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505977/hippocampal-and-clinical-trajectories-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-suspected-non-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#3
Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Shinichiro Nakajima, Fernando Caravaggio, Yusuke Iwata, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) characterizes individuals showing neurodegeneration (e.g., hypometabolism) without amyloid-β (Aβ). Findings from previous studies regarding clinical and structural trajectories of SNAP are inconsistent. Using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were categorized into four groups: amyloid positive with hypometabolism (Aβ+ND+), amyloid only (Aβ+ND-), neither amyloid nor hypometabolism (Aβ-ND-), and SNAP (Aβ-ND+)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497360/neuroprotective-effects-of-nigella-sativa-extract-upon-the-hippocampus-in-ptu-induced-hypothyroidism-juvenile-rats-a-stereological-study
#4
Farimah Asiaei, Alireza Fazel, Ali Akbar Rajabzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam
This study aimed to examine the neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) in the hippocampus of propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats during neonatal and juvenile growth. Twenty- five pregnant rats from early gestation (GD 0) were divided into five groups: (1) control (received drinking water), (2) PTU (received 0.005% PTU in drinking water), (3-5) PTU + NS 0.05%, PTU + NS 0.1%, PTU + NS 0.2% (along with PTU, received 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% W/V of N. sativa respectively) and treatment continued until postnatal day 60 (PN 60)...
May 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491492/associations-between-hippocampal-morphometry-and-neuropathologic-markers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-7%C3%A2-t-mri
#5
Anna E Blanken, Sona Hurtz, Chris Zarow, Kristina Biado, Hedieh Honarpisheh, Johanne Somme, Jenny Brook, Spencer Tung, Emily Kraft, Darrick Lo, Denise W Ng, Harry V Vinters, Liana G Apostolova
Hippocampal atrophy, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are established pathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease. We analyzed the temporal lobes of 9 Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and 7 cognitively normal (NC) subjects. Brains were scanned post-mortem at 7 Tesla. We extracted hippocampal volumes and radial distances using automated segmentation techniques. Hippocampal slices were stained for amyloid beta (Aβ), tau, and cresyl violet to evaluate neuronal counts. The hippocampal subfields, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, and subiculum were manually traced so that the neuronal counts, Aβ, and tau burden could be obtained for each region...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489775/effects-of-nimodipine-on-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-under-general-anesthesia-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#6
Ya-Nan Li, Qi Zhang, Chun-Ping Yin, Yang-Yang Guo, Shu-Ping Huo, Liang Wang, Qiu-Jun Wang
Nimodipine is a clinical commonly used calcium antagonistscan lowering the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neuron to reduce the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of nimodipine on postoperative delirium in elderly under general anesthesia.Sixty patients shceduced spine surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 2 groups using a random number table: control group (Group C) and nimodipine group (Group N). In Group N, nimodipine 7...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480579/longitudinal-epigenetic-predictors-of-amygdala-hippocampus-volume-ratio
#7
Esther Walton, Charlotte A M Cecil, Matthew Suderman, Jingyu Liu, Jessica A Turner, Vince Calhoun, Stefan Ehrlich, Caroline L Relton, Edward D Barker
BACKGROUND: The ratio between amygdala:hippocampal (AH) volume has been associated with multiple psychiatric problems, including anxiety and aggression. Yet, little is known about its biological underpinnings. Here, we used a methylome-wide approach to test (a) whether DNA methylation in early life (birth, age 7) prospectively associates with total AH volume ratio in early adulthood, and (b) whether significant DNA methylation markers are influenced by prenatal risk factors. METHODS: Analyses were based on a subsample (n = 109 males) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, which included measures of prenatal risk, DNA methylation (Infinium Illumina 450k), T1-weighted brain scans and psychopathology in early adulthood (age 18-21)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479278/the-relationship-between-genetic-risk-variants-with-brain-structure-and-function-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-genetic-neuroimaging-studies
#8
REVIEW
Licia P Pereira, Cristiano A Köhler, Rafael T de Sousa, Marco Solmi, Bárbara P de Freitas, Michele Fornaro, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Eduard Vieta, Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho
Genetic-neuroimaging paradigms could provide insights regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, findings have been inconsistent across studies. A systematic review of gene-imaging studies involving individuals with BD was conducted across electronic major databases from inception until January 9th, 2017. Forty-four studies met eligibility criteria (N=2122 BD participants). Twenty-six gene variants were investigated across candidate gene studies and 4 studies used a genome-wide association approach...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472627/neuroimaging-markers-associated-with-maintenance-of-optimal-memory-performance-in-late-life
#9
Maria Dekhtyar, Kathryn V Papp, Rachel Buckley, Heidi I L Jacobs, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Dorene M Rentz
BACKGROUND: Age-related memory decline has been well-documented; however, some individuals reach their 8th-10th decade while maintaining strong memory performance. OBJECTIVE: To determine which demographic and biomarker factors differentiated top memory performers (aged 75+, top 20% for memory) from their peers and whether top memory performance was maintained over 3 years. METHODS: Clinically normal adults (n=125, CDR=0; age: 79.5±3.57 years) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study underwent cognitive testing and neuroimaging (amyloid PET, MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up...
May 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470180/associations-of-the-intellectual-disability-gene-myt1l-with-helix-loop-helix-gene-expression-hippocampus-volume-and-hippocampus-activation-during-memory-retrieval
#10
Agnes Kepa, Lourdes Martinez Medina, Susanne Erk, Deepak P Srivastava, Alinda Fernandes, Roberto Toro, Sabine Lévi, Barbara Ruggeri, Cathy Fernandes, Franziska Degenhardt, Stephanie H Witt, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Jean-Christophe Poncer, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Christian P Müller, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Sylvane Desrivières
The fundamental role of the brain-specific myelin transcription factor 1-like (MYT1L) gene in cases of intellectual disability and in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is increasingly recognised. Yet, its function remains under-investigated. Here, we identify a network of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional regulators controlled by MYT1L, as indicated by our analyses in human neural stem cells and in the human brain. Using cell-based knockdown approaches and microarray analyses we found that (i) MYT1L is required for neuronal differentiation and identified ID1, a HLH inhibitor of premature neurogenesis, as a target...
May 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468552/accelerated-age-dependent-hippocampal-volume-loss-in-parkinson-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Christine B Schneider, Markus Donix, Katharina Linse, Annett Werner, Mareike Fauser, Lisa Klingelhoefer, Matthias Löhle, Rüdiger von Kummer, Heinz Reichmann, Alexander Storch
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464840/sparing-of-normal-tissues-with-volumetric-arc-radiation-therapy-for-glioblastoma-single-institution-clinical-experience
#12
Tina Marie Briere, Mary Frances McAleer, Lawrence B Levy, James N Yang
BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) require radiotherapy as part of definitive management. Our institution has adopted the use of volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) due to superior sparing of the adjacent organs at risk (OARs) compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Here we report our clinical experience by analyzing target coverage and sparing of OARs for 90 clinical treatment plans. METHODS: VMAT and IMRT patient cohorts comprising 45 patients each were included in this study...
May 2, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464381/socioeconomic-status-and-hippocampal-volume-in-children-and-young-adults
#13
Qijing Yu, Ana M Daugherty, Dana M Anderson, Mayu Nishimura, David Brush, Amanda Hardwick, William Lacey, Sarah Raz, Noa Ofen
An individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is often viewed as a proxy for a host of environmental influences. SES disparities have been linked to variance in brain structures particularly the hippocampus, a neural substrate of learning and memory. However, it is unclear whether the association between SES and hippocampal volume is similar in children and adults. We investigated the relationship between hippocampal volume and SES in a group of children (n = 31, age 8-12 years) and a group of young adults (n = 32, age 18-25 years)...
May 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458035/vitamin-a-and-retinoic-acid-combination-attenuates-neonatal-hyperoxia-induced-neurobehavioral-impairment-in-adult-mice
#14
Manimaran Ramani, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Lori L McMahon
Preterm infants exposed to supra-physiological levels of oxygen often have poor executive and memory function associated with reductions in hippocampal volume later in life. We recently showed that adult mice exposed to neonatal hyperoxia have deficits in spatial navigation and increased exploratory behavior associated with hippocampal shrinkage. Retinoids attenuate hyperoxia-induced lung injury in animal models and reduce neonatal chronic lung disease in preterm infants. We hypothesized that retinoid (combination of Vitamin A+Retinoic Acid [VARA]) administration in mice during neonatal hyperoxia would attenuate oxygen-induced cognitive impairment when assessed in adult life...
April 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455226/the-effect-of-selective-opioid-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-on-epileptiform-activity-in-morphine-dependent-infant-mice-hippocampal-slices
#15
Yousef Panahi, Ehsan Saboory, Ali Rassouli, Goudarz Sadeghi-Hashjin, Shiva Roshan-Milani, Leila Derafshpour, Yousef Rasmi
Hippocampal slices of mouse brain were used to estimate how selective agonist and antagonist of opioid receptors alter Low-Mg(+2) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (LM-ACSF)-induced epileptiform activities in normal and morphine-dependent mice. Brain slices were obtained from control and morphine-dependent mice. The morphine-dependent group received morphine once a day for 5 consecutive days, and the control group received saline. All injections were administered subcutaneously (s.c) in a volume of 0.1mL on postnatal days 14-18...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453482/higher-peripheral-trem2-mrna-levels-relate-to-cognitive-deficits-and-hippocampal-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Yi Jayne Tan, Adeline S L Ng, Ashwati Vipin, Joseph K W Lim, Russell J Chander, Fang Ji, Yingwei Qiu, Simon K S Ting, Shahul Hameed, Tih-Shih Lee, Li Zeng, Nagaendran Kandiah, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Recent studies have reported inconsistent peripheral TREM2 mRNA expression levels and relationship with cognitive scores in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Additionally, no study has examined the association of peripheral TREM2 levels with neuroimaging measures in AD and MCI. OBJECTIVE: To determine peripheral TREM2 mRNA levels in AD, amnestic MCI (aMCI) and healthy controls, and the association with cognitive performance and brain structural changes...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453481/the-association-between-montreal-cognitive-assessment-memory-scores-and-hippocampal-volume-in-a-neurodegenerative-disease-sample
#17
Aaron Ritter, Nanako Hawley, Sarah J Banks, Justin B Miller
Despite widespread use, there have been few investigations into the neuroanatomical correlates of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In a sample of 138 consecutive patients presenting with cognitive complaints, we report significant correlations between lower MoCA memory scores and smaller hippocampal volumes (r = 0.36-0.41, p < 0.001). We also report that the newly devised memory index score, designed to better capture encoding deficits than the standard delayed recall score, was not significantly better for predicting hippocampal volume...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450849/striatal-and-hippocampal-atrophy-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-patients-without-dementia-a-morphometric-analysis
#18
Jared J Tanner, Nikolaus R McFarland, Catherine C Price
BACKGROUND: Analyses of subcortical gray structure volumes in non-demented idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) often, but not always, show volume loss of the putamen, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. There is building evidence that structure morphometry might be more sensitive to disease-related processes than volume. OBJECTIVE: To assess morphometric differences of subcortical structures (putamen, caudate nucleus, thalamus, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala) as well as the hippocampus in non-demented individuals with PD relative to age and education matched non-PD peers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450301/neuron-specific-caveolin-1-overexpression-improves-motor-function-and-preserves-memory-in-mice-subjected-to-brain-trauma
#19
Junji Egawa, Jan M Schilling, Weihua Cui, Edmund Posadas, Atsushi Sawada, Basheer Alas, Alice E Zemljic-Harpf, McKenzie J Fannon-Pavlich, Chitra D Mandyam, David M Roth, Hemal H Patel, Piyush M Patel, Brian P Head
Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes...
April 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441118/mechanisms-of-hippocampal-aging-and-the-potential-for-rejuvenation
#20
Xuelai Fan, Elizabeth G Wheatley, Saul A Villeda
The past two decades have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the multifactorial drivers of hippocampal aging and cognitive decline. Recent findings have also raised the possibility of functional rejuvenation in the aged hippocampus. In this review, we aim to synthesize the mechanisms that drive hippocampal aging and evaluate critically the potential for rejuvenation. We discuss the functional changes in synaptic plasticity and regenerative potential of the aged hippocampus, followed by mechanisms of microglia aging, and assess the cross talk between these proaging processes...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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