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Hippocampal volume

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776014/association-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-with-brain-structure-uk-biobank-study
#1
Mark Hamer, Nikhil Sharma, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition but mechanisms are unclear. We examined the association between objectively assessed physical activity and brain volume, with a focus on the hippocampus region. METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank (n=5,272; aged 55.4±7.5 yrs; 45.6% men) collected through 2013-2016. Participants wore the Axivity AX3 wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for seven days to assess habitual physical activity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a standard Siemens Skyra 3T running VD13A SP4 to obtain images of the brain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773998/larger-gray-matter-volume-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-heavy-cannabis-users-detected-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-subcortical-volumetric-analysis
#2
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769639/a-novel-cell-penetrating-peptide-protects-against-neuron-apoptosis-after-cerebral-ischemia-by-inhibiting-the-nuclear-translocation-of-annexin-a1
#3
Xing Li, Lu Zheng, Qian Xia, Lu Liu, Meng Mao, Huijuan Zhou, Yin Zhao, Jing Shi
Nuclear translocation of annexin A1 (ANXA1) has recently been reported to participate in neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. Prevention of the nuclear translocation of ANXA1 should therefore inhibit neuronal apoptosis and protect against cerebral stroke. Here, we found that, in the repeat III domain of ANXA1, the amino-acid residues from R228 to F237 function as a unique nuclear translocation signal (NTS) and are required for nuclear translocation of ANXA1. Intriguingly, we synthesized a cell-penetrating peptide derived by conjugating the trans-activator of transcription (Tat) domain to the NTS sequence...
May 16, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769374/better-diet-quality-relates-to-larger-brain-tissue-volumes-the-rotterdam-study
#4
Pauline H Croll, Trudy Voortman, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Josje D Schoufour, Daniel Bos, Meike W Vernooij
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation of diet quality with structural brain tissue volumes and focal vascular lesions in a dementia-free population. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 4,447 participants underwent dietary assessment and brain MRI scanning between 2005 and 2015. We excluded participants with an implausible energy intake, prevalent dementia, or cortical infarcts, leaving 4,213 participants for the current analysis. A diet quality score (0-14) was calculated reflecting adherence to Dutch dietary guidelines...
May 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766029/seizure-suppressant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-encapsulated-bdnf-producing-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Chiara Falcicchia, Giovanna Paolone, Dwaine F Emerich, Francesca Lovisari, William J Bell, Tracie Fradet, Lars U Wahlberg, Michele Simonato
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may represent a therapeutic for chronic epilepsy, but evaluating its potential is complicated by difficulties in its delivery to the brain. Here, we describe the effects on epileptic seizures of encapsulated cell biodelivery (ECB) devices filled with genetically modified human cells engineered to release BDNF. These devices, implanted into the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats, highly decreased the frequency of spontaneous seizures by more than 80%. These benefits were associated with improved cognitive performance, as epileptic rats treated with BDNF performed significantly better on a novel object recognition test...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765933/a-pilot-study-of-inhaled-co-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-carboxyhemoglobin-concentrations-and-brain-volumes
#6
Martha Douglas-Escobar, Monique Mendes, Candace Rossignol, Nikolay Bliznyuk, Ariana Faraji, Abdullah S Ahmad, Sylvain Doré, Michael D Weiss
Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)) as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates. Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765312/associations-between-daily-mood-states-and-brain-gray-matter-volume-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-task-based-activity-in-healthy-adults
#7
Elmira Ismaylova, Jessica Di Sante, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Florence B Pomares, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Linda Booij
Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761321/correction-to-reduced-interference-in-working-memory-following-mindfulness-training-is-associated-with-increases-in-hippocampal-volume
#8
Jonathan Greenberg, Victoria L Romero, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Matthew A Bezdek, Eric H Schumacher, Sara W Lazar
The article Reduced interference in working memory following mindfulness training is associated with increases in hippocampal volume, written by Jonathan Greenberg, Victoria L. Romero, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Matthew A. Bezdek, Eric H. Schumacher, and Sara W. Lazar.
May 15, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761009/hippocampal-gray-matter-increases-following-multimodal-psychological-treatment-for-combat-related-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Oisin Butler, Gerd Willmund, Tobias Gleich, Jürgen Gallinat, Simone Kühn, Peter Zimmermann
Introduction: Smaller hippocampal volumes are one of the most consistent findings in neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very few prospective studies have assessed changes in hippocampal gray matter prior to and following therapy for PTSD, and no neuroimaging studies to date have longitudinally assessed military populations. Methods: A pilot study was conducted, assessing patients with combat-related PTSD with structural MRI. Participants were then assigned either to a treatment group or waiting-list control group...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761008/the-importance-of-hippocampal-dynamic-connectivity-in-explaining-memory-function-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Quinten van Geest, Hanneke E Hulst, Kim A Meijer, Lieke Hoyng, Jeroen J G Geurts, Linda Douw
Introduction: Brain dynamics (i.e., variable strength of communication between areas), even at the scale of seconds, are thought to underlie complex human behavior, such as learning and memory. In multiple sclerosis (MS), memory problems occur often and have so far only been related to "stationary" brain measures (e.g., atrophy, lesions, activation and stationary (s) functional connectivity (FC) over an entire functional scanning session). However, dynamics in FC (dFC) between the hippocampus and the (neo)cortex may be another important neurobiological substrate of memory impairment in MS that has not yet been explored...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746308/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#11
Stephanie E E C Bauduin, Nic J A van der Wee, Steven J A van der Werff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745531/-hippocampal-subfield-volume-alteration-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#12
Lu Lu, Lianqing Zhang, Xinyu Hu, Xiaoxiao Hu, Lingjiang Li, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
In the current study, we aim to investigate whether post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with structural alterations in specific subfields of hippocampus comparing with trauma-exposed control (TC) in a relatively large sample. We included 67 PTSD patients who were diagnosed under Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition) (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and 78 age- and sex-matched non-PTSD adult survivors who experienced similar stressors. High resolution T1 weighted images were obtained via a GE 3...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744801/a-decade-of-changes-in-brain-volume-and-cognition
#13
Rowa Aljondi, Cassandra Szoeke, Chris Steward, Paul Yates, Patricia Desmond
Brain atrophy can occur several decades prior to onset of cognitive impairments. However, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between brain volume changes and cognition over a long follow-up period in healthy elderly women. In the present study we investigate the relationship between whole brain and hippocampal atrophy rates and longitudinal changes in cognition, including verbal episodic memory and executive function, in older women. We also examine whether baseline brain volume predicts subsequent changes in cognitive performance over a 10-year period...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743884/exploring-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-delirium-in-noncardiac-surgery-using-mri-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Chenxi Huang, Johan Mårtensson, Ismail Gögenur, Mohammad Sohail Asghar
Surgical patients are at high risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and postoperative delirium (POD). POCD and POD are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and worsening functional outcomes leading to severe socioeconomic consequences for the patient and the society in general. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a unique opportunity to study the anatomy and function of the brain. MRI thus plays an important role in elucidating the neuronal component of POCD and POD...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743209/greater-depressive-symptoms-cognition-and-markers-of-brain-aging-northern-manhattan-study
#15
Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Michelle R Caunca, Juan Carlos Nobrega, Tali Elfassy, Ying Kuen Cheung, Noam Alperin, Chuanhui Dong, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Charles DeCarli, Clinton B Wright
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether greater depressive symptoms were associated with domain-specific cognitive performance, change in cognition, and MRI markers of brain atrophy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a diverse sample of older adults from the Northern Manhattan Study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study of mostly Caribbean Hispanic, stroke-free, older adults. A total of 1,111 participants had baseline measures of depressive symptoms, measured as the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, MRI markers, and cognitive function...
May 9, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743006/unique-properties-associated-with-the-brain-penetrant-iron-chelator-hbed-reveal-remarkable-beneficial-effects-after-brain-trauma
#16
Saher Khalaf, Abdullah Shafique Ahmad, K V D Ranga Chamara, Sylvain Dore
Iron is postulated to contribute to secondary injury after brain trauma through various pathways including oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, one goal is to limit iron toxicity by either directly limiting iron activity, or limiting the secondary cascade mediated by iron, therefore rescuing brain damage after trauma. HBED is a unique iron chelator that has the ability to cross the intact blood brain barrier, it has a higher affinity to iron, and it has a longer half-life than most commonly used chelators...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742121/structural-and-functional-alterations-in-the-brain-during-working-memory-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#17
Jens Gisselgård, Alexander V Lebedev, Kathinka Dæhli Kurz, Inge Joa, Jan Olav Johannessen, Kolbjørn Brønnick
Several previous studies suggest that clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) is associated with prefrontal functional abnormalities and more widespread reduced grey matter in prefrontal, temporal and parietal areas. We investigated neural correlates to CHR in medication-naïve patients. 41 CHR patients and 37 healthy controls were examined with 1.5 Tesla MRI, yielding functional scans while performing an N-back task and structural T1-weighted brain images. Functional and structural data underwent automated preprocessing steps in SPM and Freesurfer, correspondingly...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739983/acute-physiology-and-neurologic-outcomes-after-brain-injury-in-scop-phlpp1-ko-mice
#18
Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Vincent Vagni, Shawn E Kotermanski, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
Suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) (a.k.a. PHLPP1) regulates long-term memory consolidation in the brain. Using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) we tested if (1) brain tissue levels of SCOP/PHLPP1 increase after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (2) if SCOP/PHLPP1 gene knockout (KO) mice have improved (or worse) neurologic outcomes. Blood chemistry (pH, pCO2 , pO2 , pSO2 , base excess, sodium bicarbonate, and osmolarity) and arterial pressure (MAP) differed in isoflurane anesthetized WT vs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734228/glucocorticoids-and-hippocampal-structure-and-function-in-ptsd
#19
Philip R Szeszko, Amy Lehrner, Rachel Yehuda
This review examines the putative link between glucocorticoid and hippocampal abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity in PTSD may permit enhanced negative feedback inhibition of cortisol at the pituitary, hypothalamus, or other brain regions comprising the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and would be expected to affect other physiological systems that are regulated by glucocorticoids. Molecular and transcriptional studies of cortisol are consistent with the hypothesis that cortisol actions may be amplified in PTSD as a result of enhanced GR sensitivity in monocytes and some brain regions, although cortisol levels themselves are unchanged and oftentimes lower than normal...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733897/effects-of-low-level-sarin-and-cyclosarin-exposure-on-hippocampal-microstructure-in-gulf-war-veterans
#20
Linda L Chao, Yu Zhang
In early March 1991, shortly after the end of the Gulf War (GW), a munitions dump was destroyed at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. We previously reported evidence of smaller hippocampal volumes in GW veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume compared to unexposed GW veterans. To investigate whether these macroscopic hippocampal volume changes are accompanied by microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, the current study acquired diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), T1-, and T2-weighted images from 170 GW veterans (mean age: 53 ± 7 years), 81 of whom had predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume according to Department of Defense (DOD) plume modeling...
May 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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