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diabetic nephropathy, pathogenesis,pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108100/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-olfactory-dysfunction-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
H Zaghloul, M Pallayova, O Al-Nuaimi, K R Hovis, S Taheri
The increasing global prevalence of diabetes mellitus presents a significant challenge to healthcare systems today. Although diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy are well-established complications of diabetes, there is a paucity of research examining the impact of dysglycaemia on the olfactory system. Olfaction is an important sense, playing a role in the safety, nutrition and quality of life of an individual, but its importance is often overlooked when compared with the other senses. As a result, olfactory dysfunction is often underdiagnosed...
November 6, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080120/clinicopathological-analysis-of-biopsy-proven-diabetic-nephropathy-based-on-the-japanese-classification-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#2
Kengo Furuichi, Miho Shimizu, Yukio Yuzawa, Akinori Hara, Tadashi Toyama, Hiroshi Kitamura, Yoshiki Suzuki, Hiroshi Sato, Noriko Uesugi, Yoshifumi Ubara, Junichi Hohino, Satoshi Hisano, Yoshihiko Ueda, Shinichi Nishi, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Tomoya Nishino, Kentaro Kohagura, Daisuke Ogawa, Koki Mise, Yugo Shibagaki, Hirofumi Makino, Seiichi Matsuo, Takashi Wada
BACKGROUND: The Japanese classification of diabetic nephropathy reflects the risks of mortality, cardiovascular events and kidney prognosis and is clinically useful. Furthermore, pathological findings of diabetic nephropathy are useful for predicting prognoses. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of pathological findings in relation to the Japanese classification of diabetic nephropathy and their ability to predict prognosis. METHODS: The clinical data of 600 biopsy-confirmed diabetic nephropathy patients were collected retrospectively from 13 centers across Japan...
October 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037450/tissue-expression-of-tubular-injury-markers-is-associated-with-renal-function-decline-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#3
Subin Hwang, Jeeeun Park, Jinhae Kim, Hye Ryoun Jang, Ghee Young Kwon, Wooseong Huh, Yoon-Goo Kim, Dae Joong Kim, Ha Young Oh, Jung Eun Lee
AIMS: The pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is complex and multifactorial; increasing evidence suggests that tubular injury and inflammatory process are involved in disease progression. We investigated the potential association of renal expression of tubular injury markers, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 and 2 with renal progression in pathologically proven diabetic nephropathy (DN)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022053/glycated-albumin-ga-and-inflammation-role-of-ga-as-a-potential-marker-of-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
H Vernon Roohk, Asad R Zaidi, Dimple Patel
AIMS: Abnormal levels of glycated albumin (GA) are associated with the onset of both diabetes and inflammation. Although inflammation has long been associated with diabetes, this article aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of this relationship as it pertains to the role of GA. METHODS: We have reviewed 52 research articles since the year 2000. Common search terms used were "(inflammatory mediator) and GA" or "inflammation and GA". The findings have been organized according to diabetic complications with respect to the interactions of GA and inflammatory mediators...
October 11, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974087/the-pathological-role-of-the-ubiquitination-pathway-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#5
Paola Pontrelli, Annarita Oranger, Mariagrazia Barozzino, Francesca Conserva, Massimo Papale, Loreto Gesualdo
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic complication of type 2 diabetes and is the most frequent form of chronic kidney disease that can lead to end-stage renal disease. Different pathways, involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis and cell death, are responsible for the pathogenesis of DN and regulate the progression of the disease. Ubiquitination is a fundamental pathway in intracellular signaling whose role is emerging in the regulation of molecular processes responsible for several human diseases...
October 3, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904427/micrornas-involvement-in-renal-pathophysiology-a-bird-s-eye-view
#6
REVIEW
P Jaswani, S Prakash, A Dhar, R K Sharma, N Prasad, S Agrawal
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to suppress gene expression by binding to messenger RNAs and in turn regulate different pathophysiological processes. Transforming growth factor-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and Wnt signaling-like major pathways associated with miRNAs are involved with kidney diseases. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new insights into kidney pathologies and may provide effective therapeutic strategies. Research has demonstrated the role of miRNAs in a variety of kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, hypertension, nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, renal cell carcinoma, and renal fibrosis...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875851/urotensin-ii-molecular-mechanisms-of-biological-activity
#7
Andrey A Svistunov, Vadim V Tarasov, Svetlana A Shakhmardanova, Susanna S Sologova, Ekaterina T Bagaturija, Vladimir N Chubarev, Pavel A Galenko-Yaroshevsky, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Urotensin II (UT II) is an important factor of cellular homeostasis. This regulatory peptide is involved in the pathophysiology of many disorders. For example, it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases, stressful and adaptive reactions of the body, in the development of cardiovascular pathologies, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, reproductive dysfunction, progression of psychosomatic, psychoendocrinal and psychiatric disorders...
August 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721497/normoalbuminuric-diabetic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Chao Chen, Chang Wang, Chun Hu, Yachun Han, Li Zhao, Xuejing Zhu, Li Xiao, Lin Sun
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the primary causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Early diagnosis is very important in preventing the development of DKD. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are widely accepted as criteria for the diagnosis and clinical grading of DKD, and microalbuminuria has been recommended as the first clinical sign of DKD. The natural history of DKD has been divided into three stages: normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria...
September 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700904/inhibition-of-high-glucose-induced-inflammation-and-fibrosis-by-a-novel-curcumin-derivative-prevents-renal-and-heart-injury-in-diabetic-mice
#9
Hongjin Chen, Xi Yang, Kongqin Lu, Chun Lu, Yunjie Zhao, Suqing Zheng, Jieli Li, Zhangjian Huang, Yi Huang, Yali Zhang, Guang Liang
Hyperglycemia-induced inflammation and fibrosis have important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy. With inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways as important mediators, targeting inflammation may be an effective approach to new avenue for treating diabetic complications. J17, a molecule with structural similarities to curcumin, exhibited good anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. However, its ability to alleviate hyperglycemia-induced injury via its anti-inflammatory actions remained unclear...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497277/brazilin-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-and-inflammation-in-db-db-mice
#10
Zhan-Yuan Li, Yu Zheng, Yan Chen, Min Pan, Shu-Bei Zheng, Wen Huang, Zhi-Hong Zhou, Han-Yang Ye
Hyperglycemia and inflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Brazilin might be an effective pharmacological agent against hyperglycemia and inflammation. In our present study, we explored whether brazilin mitigated pathological progression, inflammation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy. Brazilin reduced aggravated biochemical indices of DN (proteinuria and the serum glucose level) and renal hypertrophy. Brazilin also improved renal morphology and inhibited macrophage infiltration, as manifested by different pathological staining methods...
August 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363842/potential-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#11
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Impairments in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during diabetes mellitus, leading to its dysfunction, have been known since a decade. Hyperglycemia induces several pathological alterations which upregulate this system, accounting for overexpression of its downstream signaling molecules, amongst which angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone hold prime pathological notoriety. Although it is well known that elevated plasma levels of Ang II play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of type-II diabetic mellitus, by inducing and aggravating insulin resistance, it is not quite much known that it equally elevates the possibility/risk of development of diabetic complications...
May 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352321/toll-like-receptor-2-agonist-exacerbates-renal-injury-in-diabetic-mice
#12
Fanglin Li, Ningyu Zhang, Zhiming Li, Lihua Deng, Jianjie Zhang, Yunfeng Zhou
Inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a ligand-activated membrane-bound receptor, which induces an inflammatory response, thus serving a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DN. The present study aimed to determine whether a TLR2 agonist, Pam3CysSK4, modulates the development of DN. A mouse model of DN was induced using streptozotocin (STZ) and, following the confirmation of hyperglycemia, mice were treated with or without Pam3CysSK4. Pathological and functional markers, including the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, expression of TLR2, inflammatory infiltration, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were assessed...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123512/sirt4-overexpression-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-podocyte-apoptosis
#13
Jian-Xia Shi, Qi-Jin Wang, Hui Li, Qin Huang
Diabetic nephropathy is a diabetic complication associated with capillary damage and increased mortality. Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) plays an important role in mitochondrial function and the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, including aging kidneys. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between SIRT4 and diabetic nephropathy in a glucose-induced mouse podocyte model. A CCK-8 assay showed that glucose simulation significantly inhibited podocyte proliferation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816946/advanced-glycation-end-products-mediated-cellular-and-molecular-events-in-the-pathology-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
REVIEW
Anil Kumar Pasupulati, P Swathi Chitra, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Degenerative changes such as glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, widening of basement membranes, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and podocytopathy manifest in various degrees of proteinuria in DN. One of the key mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of DN is non-enzymatic glycation (NEG). NEG is the irreversible attachment of reducing sugars onto free amino groups of proteins by a series of events, which include the formation of Schiff's base and an Amadori product to yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
December 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799462/sodium-butyrate-activates-nrf2-to-ameliorate-diabetic-nephropathy-possibly-via-inhibition-of-hdac
#15
Wenpeng Dong, Ye Jia, Xiuxia Liu, Huan Zhang, Tie Li, Wenlin Huang, Xudong Chen, Fuchun Wang, Weixia Sun, Hao Wu
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a key role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. NRF2 activators have shown promising preventive effects on DN. Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a known activator of NRF2. However, it is unknown whether NRF2 is required for NaB protection against DN. Therefore, streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 Nrf2 knockout and their wild-type mice were treated in the presence or absence of NaB for 20 weeks...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798458/the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-and-the-kidney
#16
Antonio A B Peluso, Robson A S Santos, Thomas Unger, U Muscha Steckelings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiotensin II is a main regulator of kidney function. Renal actions mediated by the angiotensin AT1 receptor have been well known for many years. In contrast, several details of angiotensin AT2 receptor actions in kidney physiology and pathophysiology were only described very recently. These findings are reviewed in this article. RECENT FINDINGS: Regarding the role of the angiotensin AT2 receptor in kidney physiology, a major recent finding was that the AT2 receptor-mediated inhibition of Na-H exchanger-3 and Na/K-ATPase in the renal proximal tubules is caused by internalisation of these transporters, thus reducing reabsorption and increasing natriuresis/diuresis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770539/inhibiting-microrna-503-and-microrna-181d-with-losartan-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-kkay-mice
#17
XinWang Zhu, CongXiao Zhang, QiuLing Fan, XiaoDan Liu, Gang Yang, Yi Jiang, LiNing Wang
BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most lethal diabetic microvascular complication; it is a major cause of renal failure, and an increasingly globally prominent healthcare problem. MATERIAL AND METHODS To identify susceptible microRNAs for the pathogenesis of DN and the targets of losartan treatment, microRNA arrays were employed to survey the glomerular microRNA expression profiles of KKAy mice treated with or without losartan. KKAy mice were assigned to either a losartan-treated group or a non-treatment group, with C57BL/6 mice used as a normal control...
October 22, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752226/diabetes-mellitus-and-oxidative-stress-a-concise-review
#18
REVIEW
Ullah Asmat, Khan Abad, Khan Ismail
Human body is continuously exposed to different types of agents that results in the production of reactive species called as free radicals (ROS/RNS) which by the transfer of their free unpaired electron causes the oxidation of cellular machinery. In order to encounter the deleterious effects of such species, body has got endogenous antioxidant systems or it obtains exogenous antioxidants from diet that neutralizes such species and keeps the homeostasis of body. Any imbalance between the RS and antioxidants leads to produce a condition known as "oxidative stress" that results in the development of pathological condition among which one is diabetes...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733370/protease-activated-receptors-in-kidney-disease-progression
#19
REVIEW
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Alexander Staruschenko
Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are members of a well-known family of transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Four PARs have been identified to date, of which PAR1 and PAR2 are the most abundant receptors, and have been shown to be expressed in the kidney vascular and tubular cells. PAR signaling is mediated by an N-terminus tethered ligand that can be unmasked by serine protease cleavage. The receptors are activated by endogenous serine proteases, such as thrombin (acts on PARs 1, 3, and 4) and trypsin (PAR2)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706190/influence-of-different-levels-of-lipoic-acid-synthase-gene-expression-on-diabetic-nephropathy
#20
Longquan Xu, Sylvia Hiller, Stephen Simington, Volker Nickeleit, Nobuyo Maeda, Leighton R James, Xianwen Yi
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) but outcomes of many clinical trials are controversial. To define the role of antioxidants in kidney protection during the development of diabetic nephropathy, we have generated a novel genetic antioxidant mouse model with over- or under-expression of lipoic acid synthase gene (Lias). These models have been mated with Ins2Akita/+ mice, a type I diabetic mouse model. We compare the major pathologic changes and oxidative stress status in two new strains of the mice with controls...
2016: PloS One
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