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diabetic nephropathy, pathogenesis,pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816946/advanced-glycation-end-products-mediated-cellular-and-molecular-events-in-the-pathology-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#1
Anil Kumar Pasupulati, P Swathi Chitra, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Degenerative changes such as glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, widening of basement membranes, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and podocytopathy manifest in various degrees of proteinuria in DN. One of the key mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of DN is non-enzymatic glycation (NEG). NEG is the irreversible attachment of reducing sugars onto free amino groups of proteins by a series of events, which include the formation of Schiff's base and an Amadori product to yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
December 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799462/sodium-butyrate-activates-nrf2-to-ameliorate-diabetic-nephropathy-possibly-via-inhibition-of-hdac
#2
Wenpeng Dong, Ye Jia, Xiuxia Liu, Huan Zhang, Tie Li, Wenlin Huang, Xudong Chen, Fuchun Wang, Weixia Sun, Hao Wu
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a key role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. NRF2 activators have shown promising preventive effects on DN. Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a known activator of NRF2. However, it is unknown whether NRF2 is required for NaB protection against DN. Therefore, streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 Nrf2 knockout and their wild-type mice were treated in the presence or absence of NaB for 20 weeks...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798458/the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-and-the-kidney
#3
Antonio A B Peluso, Robson A S Santos, Thomas Unger, U Muscha Steckelings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiotensin II is a main regulator of kidney function. Renal actions mediated by the angiotensin AT1 receptor have been well known for many years. In contrast, several details of angiotensin AT2 receptor actions in kidney physiology and pathophysiology were only described very recently. These findings are reviewed in this article. RECENT FINDINGS: Regarding the role of the angiotensin AT2 receptor in kidney physiology, a major recent finding was that the AT2 receptor-mediated inhibition of Na-H exchanger-3 and Na/K-ATPase in the renal proximal tubules is caused by internalisation of these transporters, thus reducing reabsorption and increasing natriuresis/diuresis...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770539/inhibiting-microrna-503-and-microrna-181d-with-losartan-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-kkay-mice
#4
XinWang Zhu, CongXiao Zhang, QiuLing Fan, XiaoDan Liu, Gang Yang, Yi Jiang, LiNing Wang
BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most lethal diabetic microvascular complication; it is a major cause of renal failure, and an increasingly globally prominent healthcare problem. MATERIAL AND METHODS To identify susceptible microRNAs for the pathogenesis of DN and the targets of losartan treatment, microRNA arrays were employed to survey the glomerular microRNA expression profiles of KKAy mice treated with or without losartan. KKAy mice were assigned to either a losartan-treated group or a non-treatment group, with C57BL/6 mice used as a normal control...
October 22, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752226/diabetes-mellitus-and-oxidative-stress-a-concise-review
#5
Ullah Asmat, Khan Abad, Khan Ismail
Human body is continuously exposed to different types of agents that results in the production of reactive species called as free radicals (ROS/RNS) which by the transfer of their free unpaired electron causes the oxidation of cellular machinery. In order to encounter the deleterious effects of such species, body has got endogenous antioxidant systems or it obtains exogenous antioxidants from diet that neutralizes such species and keeps the homeostasis of body. Any imbalance between the RS and antioxidants leads to produce a condition known as "oxidative stress" that results in the development of pathological condition among which one is diabetes...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733370/protease-activated-receptors-in-kidney-disease-progression
#6
REVIEW
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Alexander Staruschenko
Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are members of a well-known family of transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Four PARs have been identified to date, of which PAR1 and PAR2 are the most abundant receptors, and have been shown to be expressed in the kidney vascular and tubular cells. PAR signaling is mediated by an N-terminus tethered ligand that can be unmasked by serine protease cleavage. The receptors are activated by endogenous serine proteases, such as thrombin (acts on PARs 1, 3, and 4) and trypsin (PAR2)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706190/influence-of-different-levels-of-lipoic-acid-synthase-gene-expression-on-diabetic-nephropathy
#7
Longquan Xu, Sylvia Hiller, Stephen Simington, Volker Nickeleit, Nobuyo Maeda, Leighton R James, Xianwen Yi
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) but outcomes of many clinical trials are controversial. To define the role of antioxidants in kidney protection during the development of diabetic nephropathy, we have generated a novel genetic antioxidant mouse model with over- or under-expression of lipoic acid synthase gene (Lias). These models have been mated with Ins2Akita/+ mice, a type I diabetic mouse model. We compare the major pathologic changes and oxidative stress status in two new strains of the mice with controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664441/terpene-glycoside-component-from-moutan-cortex-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-by-regulating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-inflammatory-responses
#8
Juan Chen, Xue-Feng Hou, Gang Wang, Qing-Xiang Zhong, Ying Liu, Hui-Hui Qiu, Nan Yang, Jun-Fei Gu, Chun-Fei Wang, Li Zhang, Jie Song, Lu-Qi Huang, Xiao-Bin Jia, Ming-Hua Zhang, Liang Feng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Multiple lines of evidences have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related inflammatory responses play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Moutan Cortex (MC), the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used clinically for treating inflammatory diseases in China. The findings from our previous research suggested that terpene glycoside (TG) component of MC possessed favorable anti-inflammatory properties in curing DN...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594114/increased-renal-resistive-index-in-type-2-diabetes-clinical-relevance-mechanisms-and-future-directions
#9
Baris Afsar, Rengin Elsurer
Type 2 diabetes is a global health challenge. In type 2 diabetes both microvascular (nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy) and macrovascular complications arise. In kidney, renal pathological changes leading to diabetic nephropathy are mainly secondary to atherosclerosis of the intra and extra renal arteries together with microangiopathy of the glomerular capillaries, afferent arterioles and efferent arterioles. Renal resistive index (RRI) is defined as a ratio of the difference between maximum and minimum (end-diastolic) flow velocity to maximum flow velocity derived from the Doppler measurements of main renal and intrarenal (segmental/interlobar) arteries...
August 30, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582107/extracellular-vesicles-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-kidney-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Wei Zhang, Xiangjun Zhou, Hao Zhang, Qisheng Yao, Yutao Liu, Zheng Dong
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are endogenously produced, membrane-bound vesicles that contain various molecules. Depending on their size and origins, EVs are classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes. A fundamental function of EVs is to mediate intercellular communication. In kidneys, recent research has begun to suggest a role of EVs, especially exosomes, in cell-cell communication by transferring proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs to recipient cells as nanovectors. EVs may mediate the cross talk between various cell types within kidneys for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488452/resveratrol-inhibits-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-by-regulating-ampk-nox4-ros-pathway
#11
Ting He, Jiachuan Xiong, Ling Nie, Yanlin Yu, Xu Guan, Xinli Xu, Tangli Xiao, Ke Yang, Liang Liu, Daohai Zhang, Yunjian Huang, Jingbo Zhang, Junping Wang, Kumar Sharma, Jinghong Zhao
: Renal interstitial fibrosis is a major pathologic feature of diabetic nephropathy, while the pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions of diabetic renal interstitial fibrosis are not well established. In this study, we first demonstrated that high glucose could induce renal fibroblast (NRK-49F) cell proliferation and activation to myofibroblasts, accompanied by a significant increase in the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4)...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366660/adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#12
REVIEW
Yaeni Kim, Cheol Whee Park
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, and its pathogenesis is complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism is key to understanding the pathogenesis of DN, which can develop in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A hallmark of this disease is the accumulation of glucose and lipids in renal cells, resulting in oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, intracellular hypoxia, and inflammation, eventually leading to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis...
June 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335338/association-of-elevated-frequency-of-micronuclei-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-nephropathy-complications
#13
Mahdieh Salimi, Behrouz Broumand, Hossein Mozdarani
The increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus globally has increased the incidence of diabetes-associated complications such as nephropathy. DNA damage induced by oxidative stress might be one of the important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Two hundred Iranian individuals with the conditions of type 2 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and nephropathy patients with no sign of diabetes and normal unaffected sex- and age-matched controls (50 in each group) were enrolled in the study...
November 2016: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186267/early-protective-role-of-mst1-knockdown-in-response-to-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
Weihua Wu, Maoping Zhang, Santao Ou, Xing Liu, Ling Xue, Jian Liu, Yuke Wu, Ying Li, Qi Liu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by the damage of capillaries in kidney's glomeruli. Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) has been reported to play an important role in many disease, such as diabetes, cardiac disease and ect. However, the potential role of MST1 pathway in DN has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we hypothesized that MST1 could be involved in DN, and MST1 knockdown would attenuate the DN injury in experimental diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986757/amelioration-of-diabetic-mouse-nephropathy-by-catalpol-correlates-with-down-regulation-of-grb10-expression-and-activation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-signaling
#15
Shasha Yang, Huacong Deng, Qunzhou Zhang, Jing Xie, Hui Zeng, Xiaolong Jin, Zixi Ling, Qiaoyun Shan, Momo Liu, Yuefei Ma, Juan Tang, Qianping Wei
Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) is an adaptor protein that can negatively regulate the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). The IGF1-1R pathway is critical for cell growth and apoptosis and has been implicated in kidney diseases; however, it is still unknown whether Grb10 expression is up-regulated and plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Catalpol, a major active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicine, Rehmannia, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activities and then used to treat diabetes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26794829/animal-models-of-light-chain-deposition-disease-provide-a-better-understanding-of-nodular-glomerulosclerosis
#16
Guillermo A Herrera, Elba A Turbat-Herrera, Jiamin Teng
BACKGROUND: Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a model of glomerulosclerosis. The mature lesion of LCDD mimics nodular glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved are similar in both disorders, though the causative factors are entirely different. This fact highlights the generic response of the mesangium to varied stimuli. In-vitro work has provided much insight into the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis in LCDD where the mesangium is the main target for initiation and progression of the disease...
2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26775556/downregulation-of-mir-30c-promotes-renal-fibrosis-by-target-ctgf-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Jinyang Wang, Lijun Duan, Tiankang Guo, Yanbin Gao, Limin Tian, Jing Liu, Shaocheng Wang, Jinkui Yang
MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in initiation and progression of many pathologic processes. However, the role of miR-30c in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear. This study was to determine whether miR-30c was involved in the mechanism of renal fibrosis by inhibiting target CTGF expression in DN. In this study, In Situ Hybridization(ISH), RT-PCR, cell transfection, western blotting and laser confocal telescope were used, respectively. ISH showed that miR-30c, concentrated in cytoplasmic foci in the proximity of the nucleus, was mainly localized in glomerular and renal tubular epithelial cells within the cortex...
April 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26601192/role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-diabetic-renal-lesions-in-a-miniature-pig-model
#18
Yuanyuan Feng, Shulin Yang, Yuxiang Ma, Xue-Yuan Bai, Xiangmei Chen
The mechanisms of diabetic renal injury remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that immunological and inflammatory elements play important roles in the initiation and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a superfamily of innate immune system receptors. The roles and mechanisms of TLRs in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal lesions are mostly unknown. Compared with rodents, miniature pigs are more similar to humans with respect to metabolism, kidney structure, and immune system, and therefore represent an ideal large-animal model for DN mechanistic studies...
June 2015: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551740/regulation-of-trpc6-ion-channels-in-podocytes-implications-for-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-and-acquired-forms-of-proteinuric-diseases
#19
REVIEW
T Szabó, L Ambrus, N Zákány, Gy Balla, T Bíró
The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized tri-layer structure with unique functional properties. Podocyte dysfunction and cytoskeletal disorganization leads to disruption of the slit diaphragma, and proteinuria. Inflammatory diseases involving the kidney as well as inherited podocytopathies or diabetic nephropathy cause injury of the podocyte network. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity that is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with severe proteinuria in both adults and children...
September 2015: Acta Physiologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26538441/mini-review-emerging-roles-of-micrornas-in-the-pathophysiology-of-renal-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Kirti Bhatt, Mitsuo Kato, Rama Natarajan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously produced short noncoding regulatory RNAs that can repress gene expression by posttranscriptional mechanisms. They can therefore influence both normal and pathological conditions in diverse biological systems. Several miRNAs have been detected in kidneys, where they have been found to be crucial for renal development and normal physiological functions as well as significant contributors to the pathogenesis of renal disorders such as diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury, lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and others, due to their effects on key genes involved in these disease processes...
January 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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