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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#1
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#2
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904196/vaccinia-virus-encodes-a-novel-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-that-associates-with-the-apoptosome
#3
Melissa R Ryerson, Monique M Richards, Marc Kvansakul, Christine J Hawkins, Joanna L Shisler
Apoptosis is an important anti-viral host defense mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel apoptosis inhibitor encoded by the vaccinia virus (VACV) M1L gene. M1L is absent in the attenuated MVA strain of VACV, a strain that stimulates apoptosis in several types of immune cells. M1 expression increased the viability of MVA-infected THP-1 and Jurkat cells and reduced several biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis such as PARP-1 and procaspase-3 cleavage. Furthermore, ectopic M1L expression decreased staurosporine-induced (intrinsic) apoptosis in HeLa cells...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901631/equine-behavioral-enrichment-toys-as-tools-for-non-invasive-recovery-of-viral-and-host-dna
#4
Peter A Seeber, Sanatana E Soilemetzidou, Marion L East, Chris Walzer, Alex D Greenwood
Direct collection of samples from wildlife can be difficult and sometimes impossible. Non-invasive remote sampling for the purpose of DNA extraction is a potential tool for monitoring the presence of wildlife at the individual level, and for identifying the pathogens shed by wildlife. Equine herpesviruses (EHV) are common pathogens of equids that can be fatal if transmitted to other mammals. Transmission usually occurs by nasal aerosol discharge from virus-shedding individuals. The aim of this study was to validate a simple, non-invasive method to track EHV shedding in zebras and to establish an efficient protocol for genotyping individual zebras from environmental DNA (eDNA)...
September 12, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887535/metabolic-stress-induced-cardiomyopathy-is-caused-by-mitochondrial-dysfunction-due-to-attenuated-erk5-signaling
#5
Wei Liu, Andrea Ruiz-Velasco, Shoubao Wang, Saba Khan, Min Zi, Andreas Jungmann, Maria Dolores Camacho-Muñoz, Jing Guo, Guanhua Du, Liping Xie, Delvac Oceandy, Anna Nicolaou, Gina Galli, Oliver J Müller, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Yong Ji, Xin Wang
The prevalence of cardiomyopathy from metabolic stress has increased dramatically; however, its molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (Erk5) is lost in the hearts of obese/diabetic animal models and that cardiac-specific deletion of Erk5 in mice (Erk5-CKO) leads to dampened cardiac contractility and mitochondrial abnormalities with repressed fuel oxidation and oxidative damage upon high fat diet (HFD). Erk5 regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (Pgc-1α) is critical for cardiac mitochondrial functions...
September 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860661/long-intergenic-non-coding-rna-galmd3-in-chicken-marek-s-disease
#6
Bo Han, Yanghua He, Li Zhang, Yi Ding, Ling Lian, Chunfang Zhao, Jiuzhou Song, Ning Yang
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are transcribed from non-coding DNA sequences. Studies have revealed that aberrant expressions of lincRNAs are associated with various types of cancers and neurological disorders. Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious T-cell lymphoid neoplasia of chicken induced by Marek's disease virus (MDV). In this study, we first identified and validated linc-GALMD3 highly expressed in MDV-infected CD4+ T cells by RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR. By RNA-Seq analysis in MDCC-MSB1 cells after loss of function of linc-GALMD3 by shRNA, we found that linc-GALMD3 could positively cis-regulate its downstream gga-miR-223 gene expression...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859978/carbonyl-cyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone-cccp-suppresses-sting-mediated-dna-sensing-pathway-through-inducing-mitochondrial-fission
#7
Dohyeong Kwon, Eunbyeol Park, Hiromi Sesaki, Suk-Jo Kang
Besides its important role in innate immune response to DNA virus infection, the regulatory function of STING in autoimmunity and cancer is emerging. Recently, multiple mechanisms regulating the activity of the STING pathway have been revealed. Previous study showed that carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), the protonophore, inhibited STING-mediated IFN-β production via disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, how MMP dissipation leads to the suppression of the STING pathway remains unknown...
August 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854788/to-keep-the-host-alive-the-role-of-viral-bcl-2-proteins
#8
P Polčic, M Mentel, G Gavurníková, I Bhatia-Kiššová
Apoptosis, an intrinsic cellular pathway that eliminates unwanted cells from multicellular organisms, represents an important mechanism for protection against viral infections. When cells infected by viruses get recognized by immune cells, apoptosis is triggered in the infected cells. Among the many regulators of apoptosis involved in this process, a family of proteins homologous to oncogene Bcl-2 plays a central role. Their concerted activities converge to permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes and activation of apoptotic pathways in the presence of diverse apoptotic signals, including virus infection...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839138/smac-mimetics-and-oncolytic-viruses-synergize-in-driving-anticancer-t-cell-responses-through-complementary-mechanisms
#9
Dae-Sun Kim, Himika Dastidar, Chunfen Zhang, Franz J Zemp, Keith Lau, Matthias Ernst, Andrea Rakic, Saif Sikdar, Jahanara Rajwani, Victor Naumenko, Dale R Balce, Ben W Ewanchuk, Pankaj Taylor, Robin M Yates, Craig Jenne, Chris Gafuik, Douglas J Mahoney
Second mitochondrial activator of caspase (Smac)-mimetic compounds and oncolytic viruses were developed to kill cancer cells directly. However, Smac-mimetic compound and oncolytic virus therapies also modulate host immune responses in ways we hypothesized would complement one another in promoting anticancer T-cell immunity. We show that Smac-mimetic compound and oncolytic virus therapies synergize in driving CD8(+) T-cell responses toward tumors through distinct activities. Smac-mimetic compound treatment with LCL161 reinvigorates exhausted CD8(+) T cells within immunosuppressed tumors by targeting tumor-associated macrophages for M1-like polarization...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838686/use-of-high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-acute-encephalopathy-encephalitis-during-childhood
#10
Yoshiko Tsubouchi, Shinji Itamura, Yoshiaki Saito, Eijiro Yamashita, Yuki Shinohara, Tetsuya Okazaki, Koyo Ohno, Yoko Nishimura, Masayoshi Oguri, Yoshihiro Maegaki
AIM: To determine the use of high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis and assessment of acute febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis in childhood. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 22 children, for whom we examined DWI with b=1000s/mm(2), DWI with b=3000s/mm(2), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with b=1000 during the acute phase of febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis. Clinical diagnoses included acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD; n=6), clinically mild encephalopathy/encephalitis with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS; n=6), and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE; n=3), unclassified acute encephalopathy/acute encephalitis (n=2); acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS; n=1); other encephalopathy (n=1); infarction (n=1); head injury (n=1); or mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (n=1)...
August 21, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835669/nevirapine-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-hepg2-cells
#11
Atchara Paemanee, Wannapa Sornjai, Suthathip Kittisenachai, Naraporn Sirinonthanawech, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Jeerang Wongtrakul, Duncan R Smith
Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor frequently used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However NVP can cause serious, life-threatening complications. Hepatotoxicity is one of the most severe adverse effects, particularly in HIV patients with chronic hepatitis C virus co-infection as these patients can develop liver toxicity after a relatively short course of treatment...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827059/enhanced-aerobic-glycolysis-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-by-epstein-barr-virus-latent-membrane-protein-1
#12
Wei-Wen Sung, Peir-Rong Chen, Ming-Hui Liao, Jeng-Woei Lee
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a principal viral oncoprotein in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which acts through regulating tumorigenesis and metabolic reprogramming of cancers. In the presence of oxygen, we demonstrated that glucose consumption, lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly increased upon LMP1 expression in NPC cells and in a LMP1 variant derived from NPC patients-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822807/spontaneous-activation-of-a-mavs-dependent-antiviral-signaling-pathway-determines-high-basal-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-cardiac-myocytes
#13
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Nicole DeAngelis, Barbara Sherry
Viral myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden death in young adults as the limited turnover of cardiac myocytes renders the heart particularly vulnerable to viral damage. Viruses induce an antiviral type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response in essentially all cell types, providing an immediate innate protection. Cardiac myocytes express high basal levels of IFN-β to help pre-arm them against viral infections, however the mechanism underlying this expression remains unclear. Using primary cultures of murine cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway is spontaneously activated in unstimulated cardiac myocytes but not cardiac fibroblasts or skeletal muscle cells...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818649/sequence-analysis-of-mtdna-coi-barcode-region-revealed-three-haplotypes-within-culex-pipiens-assemblage
#14
Mona Koosha, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Hassan Vatandoost, Shahyad Azari-Hamidian, Mohammad Reza Abai, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Fatemeh Mohtarami
Members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens assemblage are known vectors of deadly encephalitides, periodic filariasis, and West Nile virus throughout the world. However, members of this assemblage are morphologically indistinguishable or hard to distinguish and play distinct roles in transmission of the diseases. The current study aimed to provide further evidence on utility of the two most popular nuclear (ITS2-rDNA) and mitochondrial (COI barcode region) genetic markers to identify members of the assemblage. Culex pipiens assemblage specimens from different climate zones of Iran were collected and identified to species level based on morphological characteristics...
August 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811654/characterization-of-the-mollusc-rig-i-mavs-pathway-reveals-an-archaic-antiviral-signalling-framework-in-invertebrates
#15
Baoyu Huang, Linlin Zhang, Yishuai Du, Fei Xu, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Despite the mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS)-dependent RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signalling pathway in the cytosol plays an indispensable role in the antiviral immunity of the host, surprising little is known in invertebrates. Here we characterized the major members of RLR pathway and investigated their signal transduction a Molluscs. We show that genes involved in RLR pathway were significantly induced during virus challenge, including CgRIG-I-1, CgMAVS, CgTRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), and CgIRFs (interferon regulatory factors...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805043/fatal-peste-des-petits-ruminants-disease-in-chowsingha
#16
S Jaisree, R P Aravindhbabu, P Roy, M G Jayathangaraj
This communication reports fatal Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease in Chowsingha (Tetracerus quadricornis), a member of the subfamily Bovinae and family Bovidae captured in a Zoological Park. The animals showed clinical signs of acute respiratory disease with frothy nasal discharge (1-2 days) and mortality of twenty animals (80%) within 48 hr. Necropsy of dead Chowsingha showed haemorrhagic patches in trachea and severe congestion of lungs and ocular mucosa. There was no characteristic lesion in the intestine...
August 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804553/sirt3-attenuates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-bnip3
#17
Qiong Du, Bin Zhu, Qing Zhai, Bo Yu
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used in cancer treatment. Although its antitumor efficacy appears to be dose dependent, its clinical use is greatly restricted by development of cardiotoxicity. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is the major deacetylase within the mitochondrial matrix that plays an important role in regulation of cardiac function. This study was performed to identify the regulatory role of Sirt3 on Dox-induced cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats in vivo and in vitro...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757599/different-metabolic-pathways-are-involved-in-response-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-l-a-and-m-viruses
#18
Juliana Lukša, Bazilė Ravoitytė, Aleksandras Konovalovas, Lina Aitmanaitė, Anzhelika Butenko, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Saulius Serva, Elena Servienė
Competitive and naturally occurring yeast killer phenotype is governed by coinfection with dsRNA viruses. Long-term relationship between the host cell and viruses appear to be beneficial and co-adaptive; however, the impact of viral dsRNA on the host gene expression has barely been investigated. Here, we determined the transcriptomic profiles of the host Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon the loss of the M-2 dsRNA alone and the M-2 along with the L-A-lus dsRNAs. We provide a comprehensive study based on the high-throughput RNA-Seq data, Gene Ontology and the analysis of the interaction networks...
July 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753212/aav9-based-gene-therapy-partially-ameliorates-the-clinical-phenotype-of-a-mouse-model-of-leigh-syndrome
#19
I Di Meo, S Marchet, C Lamperti, M Zeviani, C Viscomi
Leigh syndrome (LS) is the most common infantile mitochondrial encephalopathy. No treatment is currently available for this condition. Mice lacking Ndufs4, encoding NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase iron-sulfur protein 4 (NDUFS4) recapitulates the main findings of complex I (cI)-related LS, including severe multisystemic cI deficiency and progressive neurodegeneration. In order to develop a gene therapy approach for LS, we used here an AAV2/9 vector carrying the human NDUFS4 coding sequence (hNDUFS4). We administered AAV2/9-hNDUFS4 by intravenous (IV) and/or intracerebroventricular (ICV) routes to either newborn or young Ndufs4(-/-) mice...
July 27, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750564/selective-antagonism-of-bcl-xl-potentiates-m1-oncolysis-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-apoptosis
#20
Yaqian Tan, Yuan Lin, Kai Li, Xiao Xiao, Jiankai Liang, Jing Cai, Li Guo, Chuntao Li, Wenbo Zhu, Fan Xing, Jialuo Mai, Jiayu Gu, Xiaohong Tan, Wei Yin, Bingzheng Lu, Pengxin Qiu, Xingwen Su, Mingshi Gao, Jun Hu, Songmin He, Ling Lu, Shoufang Gong, Guangmei Yan, Haipeng Zhang
Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel and intriguing treatment strategy for cancer therapy. However, the clinical potential of oncolytic virus as single agent is limited. M1 virus is a promising oncolytic virus that has been tested in preclinical studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of the combination use of M1 virus and Bcl-2 family inhibitors. A chemical compounds screening including ten Bcl-2 family inhibitors demonstrated that pan-Bcl-2 inhibitors selectively augmented M1 virus oncolysis in cancer cells at very low doses...
July 27, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
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