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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532532/global-phylogenetic-relationships-population-structure-and-gene-flow-estimation-of-trialeurodes-vaporariorum-greenhouse-whitefly
#1
J M Wainaina, P De Barro, L Kubatko, M A Kehoe, J Harvey, D Karanja, L M Boykin
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856) (Greenhouse whitefly) is an agricultural pest of global importance. It is associated with damage to plants during feeding and subsequent virus transmission. Yet, global phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and estimation of the rates of gene flow within this whitefly species remain largely unexplored. In this study, we obtained and filtered 227 GenBank records of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequences of T. vaporariorum, across various global locations to obtain a final set of 217 GenBank records...
May 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#2
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV- and HBV-replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) (AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521201/validation-of-the-use-of-an-artificial-mitochondrial-reporter-dna-vector-containing-a-cytomegalovirus-promoter-for-mitochondrial-transgene-expression
#3
Yuma Yamada, Takuya Ishikawa, Hideyoshi Harashima
Mitochondria have their own gene expression system that is independent of the nuclear system, and control cellular functions in cooperation with the nucleus. While a number of useful technologies for achieving nuclear transgene expression have been reported, only a few have focused on mitochondria. In this study, we validated the utility of an artificial mitochondrial DNA vector with a virus promoter on mitochondrial transgene expression. We designed and constructed pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) that contains a CMV promotor derived from Cytomegalovirus and an artificial mitochondrial genome with a NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504722/thyroid-hormone-protects-hepatocytes-from-hbx-induced-carcinogenesis-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-turnover
#4
H-C Chi, S-L Chen, S-L Lin, C-Y Tsai, W-Y Chuang, Y-H Lin, Y-H Huang, M-M Tsai, C-T Yeh, K-H Lin
Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) accounts for 50-80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development worldwide, in which the HBV-encoded X protein (HBx) has critical role in the induction of carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that thyroid hormone (TH) suppresses HCC development and protects hepatocytes from HBx-induced damage, thus it is of interest to examine whether TH can protect hepatocytes from HBx-induced carcinogenesis. By treating HBx- transgenic mice with or without TH, we confirmed the protective effects of TH on HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, which was achieved via reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inflicted DNA damage...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502235/molecular-analysis-and-genetic-diversity-of-aedes-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-from-china
#5
Zhang Ruiling, Leng Peien, Wang Xuejun, Zhang Zhong
Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive species, which can carry Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus and more than twenty arboviruses. Based on mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and samples collected from 17 populations, we investigated the molecular character and genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus from China. Altogether, 25 haplotypes were detected, including 10 shared haplotypes and 15 private haplotypes. H1 was the dominant haplotype, which is widely distributed in 13 populations. Tajima'D value of most populations was significantly negative, demonstrating that populations experienced rapid range expansion recently...
May 13, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498951/single-target-and-multiplex-discrimination-of-whiteflies-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-bemisia-tabaci-and-trialeurodes-vaporariorum-with-modified-priming-oligonucleotide-thermodynamics
#6
Sharon A Andreason, Mohammad Arif, Judith K Brown, Francisco Ochoa-Corona, Jacqueline Fletcher, Astri Wayadande
The whitefly species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are worldwide agricultural pests and virus vectors. Bemisia tabaci, in particular, is often transported internationally via trade routes leading to potential introductions of exotic whiteflies or plant viruses. Quick identification of agriculturally important whiteflies can facilitate interventions that prevent these cross-border introductions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI) sequence of members of the B...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483922/quantitative-micro-spectroscopic-imaging-reveals-viral-and-cellular-rna-helicase-interactions-in-live-cells
#7
M J Corby, Michael R Stoneman, Gabriel Biener, Joel D Paprocki, Rajesh Kolli, Valerica Raicu, David N Frick
Human cells detect RNA viruses through a set of helicases called RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) that initiate the interferon response via a mitochondrial signaling complex. Many RNA viruses also encode helicases, which sometimes are covalently linked to proteases that cleave signaling proteins. One unresolved question is how RLRs interact with each other and with viral proteins in cells. This study examined the interactions among the hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase and RLR helicases in live cells with quantitative micro-spectroscopic imaging (Q-MSI), a technique that determines Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) efficiency and sub-cellular donor and acceptor concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480979/down-regulation-of-trif-tlr3-and-mavs-in-hcv-infected-liver-correlates-with-the-outcome-of-infection
#8
Premashis Kar, Deepak Kumar, Phani Kumar Gumma, Soumya Jyoti Chowdhury, Vijay Kumar Karra
AIMS: In virus-infected cells, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recruits their specific adaptor molecules, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF6) which induces interferon. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) induces activation of the NF-kappa B (NF-κB) for interferon production. The study has been designed to assess the correlation of TLR3, MAVS, TRIF and TRAF6 outcome of HCV infection...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476934/the-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf125-targets-innate-immune-adaptor-protein-trim14-for-ubiquitination-and-degradation
#9
Xue Jia, Hongli Zhou, Chao Wu, Qiankun Wu, Shichao Ma, Congwen Wei, Ye Cao, Jingdong Song, Hui Zhong, Zhuo Zhou, Jianwei Wang
Tripartite motif-containing 14 (TRIM14) is a mitochondrial adaptor that facilitates innate immune signaling. Upon virus infection, the expression of TRIM14 is significantly induced, which stimulates the production of type-I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines. As excessive immune responses lead to harmful consequences, TRIM14-mediated signaling needs to be tightly balanced. In this study, we identify really interesting new gene-type zinc finger protein 125 (RNF125) as a negative regulator of TRIM14 in the innate antiviral immune response...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474224/a-mitovirus-isolated-from-the-phytopathogenic-fungus-alternaria-brassicicola
#10
Yi Chen, Hong Hong Shang, Hong Qi Yang, Bi Da Gao, Jie Zhong
Alternaria brassicicola is one of the causal agents of alternaria blackspot in rapeseed. In this study, a dsRNA segment was isolated and sequenced from the fungus. The complete nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA was 2506 bp in length and, using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code, was predicted to contain a single large open reading frame (ORF) in the positive strand. This ORF was predicted to encode a protein with 719 amino acids that contains characteristic conserved motifs of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)...
May 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471941/basic-science-and-pathogenesis-of-ageing-with-hiv-potential-mechanisms-and-biomarkers
#11
Claire Lagathu, Andrea Cossarizza, Véronique Béréziat, Milena Nasi, Jacqueline Capeau, Marcello Pinti
: The increased prevalence of age-related comorbidities and mortality is worrisome in ageing HIV-infected patients. Here, we aim to analyse the different ageing mechanisms with regard to HIV infection. Ageing results from the time-dependent accumulation of random cellular damage. Epigenetic modifications and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modulate ageing. In antiretroviral treatment-controlled patients, epigenetic clock appears to be advanced, and some haplogroups are associated with HIV infection severity. Telomere shortening is enhanced in HIV-infected patients because of HIV and some nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469666/anatomical-distributional-defects-in-mutant-genes-associated-with-dominant-intermediate-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-c-in-an-adenovirus-mediated-mouse-model
#12
SeoJin Lee, Sandesh Panthi, Hyun Woo Jo, Jaeyoung Cho, Min-Sik Kim, Na Young Jeong, In Ok Song, Junyang Jung, Youngbuhm Huh
Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type C (DI-CMTC) is a dominantly inherited neuropathy that has been classified primarily based on motor conduction velocity tests but is now known to involve axonal and demyelination features. DI-CMTC is linked to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YARS)-associated neuropathies, which are caused by E196K and G41R missense mutations and a single de novo deletion (153-156delVKQV). It is well-established that these YARS mutations induce neuronal dysfunction, morphological symptoms involving axonal degeneration, and impaired motor performance...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469175/ube2d3-and-ube2n-are-essential-for-rig-i-mediated-mavs-aggregation-in-antiviral-innate-immunity
#13
Yuheng Shi, Bofeng Yuan, Wenting Zhu, Rui Zhang, Lin Li, Xiaojing Hao, She Chen, Fajian Hou
Innate immunity plays a pivotal role in virus infection. RIG-I senses viral RNA and initiates an effective innate immune response for type I interferon production. To transduce RIG-I-mediated antiviral signalling, a mitochondrial protein MAVS forms prion-like aggregates to activate downstream kinases and transcription factors. However, the activation mechanism of RIG-I is incompletely understood. Here we identify two ubiquitin enzymes Ube2D3 and Ube2N through chromatographic purification as activators for RIG-I on virus infection...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460128/inflamed-fat-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-end-stage-renal-disease-links-to-hypoxia-could-curcumin-be-of-benefit
#14
Peter Stenvinkel, Volker H Haase
Inflamed adipose tissue and muscular mitochondrial dysfunction are linked and together these alterations may contribute to several sinister components of the uremic phenotype, such as muscle wasting, frailty, inflammation and dysfunctional adipose tissue with insulin resistance. Although the cause(s) of inflamed fat and mitochondrial dysfunction are likely multifactorial, tissue hypoxia may be an important player since hypoxia promote inflammatory processes and alter mitochondrial function. Among several transcription factors, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) play a prominent role in the adaption to hypoxia at the cellular level...
April 28, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455958/csfv-induced-mitochondrial-fission-and-mitophagy-to-inhibit-apoptosis
#15
Hongchao Gou, Mingqiu Zhao, Hailuan Xu, Jin Yuan, Wencheng He, Mengjiao Zhu, Hongxing Ding, Lin Yi, Jinding Chen
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which causes typical clinical characteristics in piglets, including hemorrhagic syndrome and immunosuppression, is linked to hepatitis C and dengue virus. Oxidative stress and a reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential are disturbed in CSFV-infected cells. The balance of mitochondrial dynamics is essential for cellular homeostasis. In this study, we offer the first evidence that CSFV induces mitochondrial fission and mitophagy to inhibit host cell apoptosis for persistent infection...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455444/endophilin-b2-facilitates-endosome-maturation-in-response-to-growth-factor-stimulation-autophagy-induction-and-influenza-a-virus-infection
#16
Jacob M Serfass, Yoshinori Takahashi, Zhixiang Zhou, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Ying Liu, Nikolaos Tsotakos, Megan M Young, Zhenyuan Tang, Linlin Yang, Jennifer M Atkinson, Zissis C Chroneos, Hong-Gang Wang
Endocytosis, and the subsequent trafficking of endosomes, requires dynamic physical alterations in membrane shape that are mediated in part by endophilin proteins. The endophilin B family of proteins contains an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (N-BAR) domain that induces membrane curvature to regulate intracellular membrane dynamics. While endophilin B1 (SH3GLB1/Bif-1) is known to be involved in a number of cellular processes, including apoptosis, autophagy and endocytosis, the cellular function of endophilin B2 (SH3GLB2) is not well understood...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454566/apoptosis-induced-effects-of-extract-from-artemisia-annua-linn%C3%A3-by-modulating-pten-p53-pdk1-akt-signal-pathways-through-pten-p53-independent-manner-in-hct116-colon-cancer-cells
#17
Eun Ji Kim, Guen Tae Kim, Bo Min Kim, Eun Gyeong Lim, Sang-Yong Kim, Young Min Kim
BACKGROUND: The extracts from Artemisia annua Linné (AAE) has been known to possess various functions including anti-bacterial, anti-virus and anti-oxidant effects. However, the mechanism of those effects of AAE is not well known. Pursuantly, we determined the apoptotic effects of extract of AAE in HCT116 cell. In this study, we suggested that AAE may exert cancer cell apoptosis through PTEN/PDK1/Akt/p53signal pathway and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic proteins. METHODS: We measured 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-PI staining, Mitopotential assay, immunofluorescence (IF) and Western blotting...
April 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451899/determination-of-the-complete-genomic-sequence-of-neofusicoccum-luteum-mitovirus-1-nlmv1-a-novel-mitovirus-associated-with-a-phytopathogenic-botryosphaeriaceae
#18
Armelle Marais, Aurélia Nivault, Chantal Faure, Sébastien Theil, Gwenaëlle Comont, Thierry Candresse, Marie-France Corio-Costet
Neofusicoccum luteum species belongs to the Botryosphaeriaceae family and is involved in grapevine wood decay diseases. The present study reports the discovery and the molecular characterization of a novel mitovirus infecting this fungus. Double-stranded RNAs were purified from cultivated N. luteum and analysed by next generation sequencing. Using contigs showing BlastX homology with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of various members of the family Narnaviridae, a single contig of approximately 1...
April 27, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446676/grass-carp-reovirus-vp41-targets-fish-mita-to-abrogate-the-ifn-response
#19
Long-Feng Lu, Shun Li, Zhao-Xi Wang, Si-Qi Du, Dan-Dan Chen, Pin Nie, Yong-An Zhang
Although fish possess an efficient interferon (IFN) system to defend against aquatic virus infection, the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) still causes hemorrhagic disease in grass carp. To date, GCRV's strategy for evading the fish IFN response is still unknown. Here, we report that the GCRV VP41 inhibits fish IFN production by suppressing the phosphorylation of the mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA). First, the activation of the IFN promoter (IFNpro) stimulated by the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and MITA was decreased by the overexpression of VP41, whereas such activation induced by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) was not affected...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446607/juvenile-hormone-and-its-receptor-methoprene-tolerant-promote-ribosomal-biogenesis-and-vitellogenesis-in-the-aedes-aegypti-mosquito
#20
Jia-Lin Wang, Tusar T Saha, Yang Zhang, Changyu Zhang, Alexander S Raikhel
Juvenile hormone (JH) controls many biological activities in insects, including development, metamorphosis and reproduction. In the Aedes aegypti mosquito, a vector of Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, the metabolic tissue, the fat body, which is an analogue of the vertebrate liver, produces yolk proteins (YPs) for developing oocytes. JH is important for the fat body to acquire competence for YP production. However, the molecular mechanisms of how JH promotes mosquito reproduction are not completely understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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