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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165566/host-genetic-variation-does-not-determine-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-european-bat-1-lyssavirus
#1
Cécile Troupin, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Simon Dellicour, Isabelle Casademont, Lauriane Kergoat, Anthony Lepelletier, Laurent Dacheux, Guy Baele, Elodie Monchâtre-Leroy, Florence Cliquet, Philippe Lemey, Hervé Bourhy
The majority of bat rabies cases in Europe are attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). Two subtypes have been defined (EBLV-1a and EBLV-1b), each associated with a different geographical distribution. In this study, we undertake a comprehensive sequence analysis based on eighty newly obtained EBLV-1 nearly complete genome sequences from nine European countries over a 45-year period to infer selection pressures, rates of nucleotide substitution and evolutionary time scale of these two subtypes in Europe...
November 20, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155726/visualization-and-live-imaging-of-oligodendrocyte-organelles-in-organotypic-brain-slices-using-adeno-associated-virus-and-confocal-microscopy
#2
Lauritz Hagen Kennedy, Johanne Egge Rinholm
Neurons rely on the electric insulation and trophic support of myelinating oligodendrocytes. Despite the importance of oligodendrocytes, the advanced tools currently used to study neurons, have only partly been taken on by oligodendrocyte researchers. Cell type-specific staining by viral transduction is a useful approach to study live organelle dynamics. This paper describes a protocol for visualizing oligodendrocyte mitochondria in organotypic brain slices by transduction with adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying genes for mitochondrial targeted fluorescent proteins under the transcriptional control of the myelin basic protein promoter...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136012/regional-knockdown-of-ndufs4-implicates-a-thalamocortical-circuit-mediating-anesthetic-sensitivity
#3
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125880/mavs-activates-tbk1-and-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-through-trafs-in-nemo-dependent-and-independent-manner
#4
Run Fang, Qifei Jiang, Xiang Zhou, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Jianli Tao, Jianzhong Xi, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transmits signals from RIG-I-like receptors after RNA virus infections. However, the mechanism by which MAVS activates downstream components, such as TBK1 and IKKα/β, is unclear, although previous work suggests the involvement of NEMO or TBK1-binding proteins TANK, NAP1, and SINTBAD. Here, we report that MAVS-mediated innate immune activation is dependent on TRAFs, partially on NEMO, but not on TBK1-binding proteins. MAVS recruited TBK1/IKKε by TRAFs that were pre-associated with TBK1/IKKε via direct interaction between the coiled-coil domain of TRAFs and the SDD domain of TBK1/IKKε...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119937/use-of-human-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-hdhodh-inhibitors-in-autoimmune-diseases-and-new-perspectives-in-cancer-therapy
#5
Marco L Lolli, Stefano Sainas, Agnese C Pippione, Marta Giorgis, Donatella Boschi, Franco Dosio
BACKGROUND: Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH, EC 1.3.5.2), a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, is a validated therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, human DHODH inhibitors have also been investigated as treatment for cancer, parasite infections (i.e. malaria) and viruses as well as in the agrochemicals industry. OBJECTIVE: An overview of current knowledge of hDHODH inhibitors and their potential uses in diseases where hDHODH is involved...
November 8, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109438/vsig4-inhibits-proinflammatory-macrophage-activation-by-reprogramming-mitochondrial-pyruvate-metabolism
#6
Jialin Li, Bo Diao, Sheng Guo, Xiaoyong Huang, Chengying Yang, Zeqing Feng, Weiming Yan, Qin Ning, Lixin Zheng, Yongwen Chen, Yuzhang Wu
Exacerbation of macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, but the immunometabolic programs underlying regulation of macrophage activation are unclear. Here we show that V-set immunoglobulin-domain-containing 4 (VSIG4), a B7 family-related protein that is expressed by resting macrophages, inhibits macrophage activation in response to lipopolysaccharide. Vsig4 (-/-) mice are susceptible to high-fat diet-caused obesity and murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3)-induced fulminant hepatitis due to excessive macrophage-dependent inflammation...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107932/glycyrrhizin-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-at-g0-g1-in-hpv18-human-cervical-cancer-hela-cell-line
#7
Arshi Farooqui, Fahad Khan, Imran Khan, Irfan A Ansari
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. High-risk Human Papilloma Virus (mostly type 16 & 18) infection is the primary risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. The quest for strong, safe and cost effective natural antiproliferative agents that could reduce cervical cancer have been focussed now a day. Recently, glycyrrhizin, a triterpene glycoside (saponin) from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), has been shown to exhibit potent antiproliferative and anticancer properties in a few preliminary studies...
November 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104783/expression-levels-of-the-uridine-cytidine-kinase-like-1-protein-as-a-novel-prognostic-factor-for-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinomas
#8
A Buivydiene, V Liakina, J Valantinas, J Norkuniene, E Mockiene, S Jokubauskiene, R Smaliukiene, L Jancoriene, L Kovalevska, E Kashuba
The expression levels of the two novel oncoproteins uridine-cytidine kinase like-1 (UCKL-1) and mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 (MRPS18-2) were assessed in samples of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using immunohistochemistry. Tissue microarray (TMA) paraffin blocks were prepared from 42 HCC tumor samples with the corresponding peri-tumor tissues and from 11 tissues of a liver with HCV-induced cirrhosis. We found that the UCKL-1 signal in the liver tissues of the peri-tumor zone in the HCC samples was stronger than that in cirrhosis (50 ± 49...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104227/inter-species-host-gene-expression-differences-in-response-to-human-and-avian-influenza-a-virus-strains
#9
Biruhalem Taye, Dawn Yeo, Raphael Tze Chuen Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are a source of sporadic human infections and could also contribute to future pandemic outbreaks but little is known about inter-species differences in the host responses to these viruses. Here, we studied host gene expression signatures of cell lines from three species (human, chicken, and canine) in response to six different viruses (H1N1/WSN, H5N2/F59, H5N2/F118, H5N2/F189, H5N3 and H9N2). Comprehensive microarray probe set re-annotation and ortholog mapping of the host genes was necessary to allow comparison over extended functionally annotated gene sets and orthologous pathways...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100916/molecular-characterization-ontogeny-and-expression-profiling-of-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-adapter-mavs-from-asian-seabass-lates-calcarifer-bloch-1790
#10
Rahul Krishnan, P Girish Babu, K Jeena, Gayathri Tripathi, Kurcheti Pani Prasad
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), an innate immune signaling adapter coordinates the signals received from two independent cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (RIG-1 and MDA5) to induce antiviral genes. In the present study the MAVS gene of Lates calcarifer (LcMAVS) was cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence of LcMAVS was 3160 bp and encodes a poly peptide of 577 amino acids. Structural analysis of LcMAVS revealed an N-terminal CARD-like domain, central proline-rich domain and a C-terminal transmembrane domain...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098151/xbp1-mediated-bip-grp78-upregulation-copes-with-oxidative-stress-in-mosquito-cells-during-dengue-2-virus-infection
#11
Tien-Huang Chen, Yi-Hsuan Chiang, Jiun-Nan Hou, Chih-Chieh Cheng, Eny Sofiyatun, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Wei-June Chen
Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause dengue fever which is an important mosquito-borne disease in tropical areas. Generally, DENV does not cause cellular damage in mosquito cells. However, alterations in cytosolic calcium ions ([Ca(2+)]cyt) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anions (O2(∙-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), can be detected in C6/36 cells with DENV2 infection. Evident upregulation of BiP/GRP78 also appeared at 24 h postinfection in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096158/human-hepatocytes-apoptosis-induced-by-replication-of-hepatitis-b-virus-subgenotypes-f1b-and-f4-role-of-basal-core-promoter-and-precore-mutations
#12
María Mercedes Elizalde, Ina Sevic, María Mora González López Ledesma, Rodolfo Héctor Campos, Luciana Barbini, Diego Martin Flichman
In the context of pathogenesis of HBV infection, HBV genotypes and mutants have been shown to affect the natural course of chronic infection and treatment outcomes. In this work, we studied the induction of apoptosis by the replication of HBV subgenotypes F1b and F4, and the naturally occurring mutants BCP and preCore. Both subgenotypes F1b and F4 HBV genome transfections induced cell death by apoptosis in human hepatocytes. The BCPdm (A1762T/G1764A) and preCore (G1896A) mutants induced higher levels of apoptosis than the wt virus...
October 27, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096025/unravelling-the-genetic-diversity-among-cassava-bemisia-tabaci-whiteflies-using-nextrad-sequencing
#13
Everlyne N Wosula, Wenbo Chen, Zhangjun Fei, James P Legg
Bemisia tabaci threatens production of cassava in Africa through vectoring viruses that cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). B. tabaci sampled from cassava in eight countries in Africa were genotyped using NextRAD sequencing, and their phylogeny and population genetics were investigated using the resultant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. SNP marker data and short sequences of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) obtained from the same insect were compared...
October 31, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093090/inducible-microrna-3570-feedback-inhibits-the-rig-i-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-rhabdovirus-in-teleost-fish-by-targeting-mavs-ips-1
#14
Tianjun Xu, Qing Chu, Junxia Cui, Dekun Bi
Effectively recognizing invading viruses and subsequently inducing the innate antiviral immunity are essential for the host antiviral defense. Although these processes are closely regulated by the host to maintain the immune balance, viruses have evolved the abilities to downregulate or upregulate these processes for their survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs that play vital roles in modulating host immune response. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that host miRNAs as mediators are involved in regulating viral replication and host anti-viral immunity in mammals...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081026/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-influences-bovine-herpesvirus-1-replication-through-upregulation-of-sirt3-and-cytoskeletal-reorganization
#15
Filomena Fiorito, Valentina Iovane, Annarosaria Marullo, Anna Costagliola, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Luisa De Martino
Infection of kidney cells (MDBK) with Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is affected by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which accelerates BoHV-1-induced apoptosis and increases virus replication. Herein, to elucidate the mechanism through TCDD modifies BoHV-1 infection, we analyzed the modulation of a members of Sirtuin proteins family in MDBK cells. We found that mitochondrial SIRT3 was upregulated during infection. This change was accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell extensions. All these trends were drastically modified by TCDD...
December 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079574/interferon-regulatory-factor-5-irf5-suppresses-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-replication-and-hcv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Ozge Cevik, Dan Li, Erdene Baljinnyam, Dinesh Manvar, Erica M Pimenta, Gulam Waris, Betsy J Barnes, Neerja Kaushik-Basu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of chronic liver disease. The disease typically progresses from chronic HCV to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death. Chronic inflammation associated with HCV infection is implicated in cirrhosis and HCC, but the molecular players and signaling pathways contributing to these processes remain largely unknown. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a molecule of interest in HCV-associated HCC because it has critical roles in virus-, Tolllike receptor (TLR)-, and interferon (IFN)- induced signaling pathways...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077752/isg15-governs-mitochondrial-function-in-macrophages-following-vaccinia-virus-infection
#17
Sara Baldanta, Mercedes Fernández-Escobar, Rebeca Acín-Perez, Manuel Albert, Emilio Camafeita, Inmaculada Jorge, Jesús Vázquez, José Antonio Enríquez, Susana Guerra
The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) after vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074131/grouper-mavs-functions-as-a-crucial-antiviral-molecule-against-nervous-necrosis-virus-infection
#18
Youhua Huang, Jingcheng Zhang, Zhengliang Ouyang, Jiaxin Liu, Ya Zhang, Yin Hu, Xiaohong Huang, Qiwei Qin
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), also known as IPS-1, VISA, and Cardif, has been well studied for its crucial roles in the mammalian interferon immune response. To better understand the actions of MAVS in fish immune response, a MAVS homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcMAVS) was cloned and characterized in this study. EcMAVS encoded a 563-amino acid peptide which showed 64% and 20% identity to rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and human (Homo sapiens), respectively...
October 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069650/dnajb1-hsp40-suppresses-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-function-in-conjunction-with-hsp70
#19
Ken Takashima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes cytoplasmic viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and initiates rapid innate antiviral responses. MDA5 forms a filament-like multimer along the dsRNA leading to oligomerization, which in turn activates the adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) to provide a signal platform for the induction of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. The conformational switch of MDA5 causes antiviral defense, but excessive activation of the MDA5-MAVS pathway may result in autoimmune diseases...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067097/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-virus-h5n1-non-structural-protein-1-is-associated-with-apoptotic-activation-of-the-intrinsic-mitochondrial-pathway
#20
Qian Bian, Jing Lu, Li Zhang, Ying Chi, Yan Li, Hongxiong Guo
Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection have significant health and economic consequences. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is an essential virulence factor of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and of the apoptosis associated with the pathogenesis of H5N1. Previous studies have revealed that the NS1 protein is able to induce apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway. However, it remains unclear whether the intrinsic pathway is also associated with this apoptosis. The present study used a clone of the NS1 gene from avian influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2007 and observed the localization of the NS1 protein and cytochrome c release from mitochondria and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in lung cancer cells...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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