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mitochondrial virus

Constanza Morén, Ingrid González-Casacuberta, Carmen Álvarez-Fernández, Maria Bañó, Marc Catalán-Garcia, Mariona Guitart-Mampel, Diana Luz Juárez-Flores, Ester Tobías, José Milisenda, Francesc Cardellach, Josep Maria Gatell, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Glòria Garrabou
To characterize mitochondrial/apoptotic parameters in chronically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected promonocytic and lymphoid cells which could be further used as therapeutic targets to test pro-mitochondrial or anti-apoptotic strategies as in vitro cell platforms to deal with HIV-infection. Mitochondrial/apoptotic parameters of U1 promonocytic and ACH2 lymphoid cell lines were compared to those of their uninfected U937 and CEM counterparts. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was quantified by rt-PCR while mitochondrial complex IV (CIV) function was measured by spectrophotometry...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Alexandre Hassanin, Nicolas Nesi, Julie Marin, Blaise Kadjo, Xavier Pourrut, Éric Leroy, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Prescott Musaba Akawa, Carine Ngoagouni, Emmanuel Nakouné, Manuel Ruedi, Didier Tshikung, Célestin Pongombo Shongo, Céline Bonillo
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae...
October 13, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Marianne Uteng, Andreas Mahl, Nicolau Beckmann, Alessandro Piaia, David Ledieu, Valerie Dubost, Elaine Tritto, Armin Wolf, Pierre Moulin, Li Li, Salah-Dine Chibout, Francois Pognan
The aim of this study was to determine the relative safety of four antiviral drugs (telbivudine, tenofovir, adefovir, entecavir) against hepatitis B virus with respect to kidney function and toxicity in male Spraque-Dawley rats. The antiviral drugs were administered once daily for four weeks by oral gavage at about 10 and 25-40 times the human equivalent dose. Main assessments included markers of renal toxicity in urine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of kidney function, histopathology and electron microscopic examination...
October 13, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Young Bong Choi, Noula Shembade, Kislay Parvatiyar, Siddharth Balachandran, Edward William Harhaj
The host response to RNA virus infection consists of an intrinsic innate immune response and the induction of apoptosis as mechanisms to restrict viral replication. The mitochondrial adaptor molecule MAVS plays critical roles in coordinating both virus-induced type I interferon production and apoptosis; however, the regulation of MAVS-mediated apoptosis is poorly understood. Here, we show that the adaptor protein TAX1BP1 functions as a negative regulator of virus-induced apoptosis. TAX1BP1-deficient cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis in response to infection with the RNA viruses vesicular stomatitis virus and Sendai virus and transfection with poly(I:C)...
October 10, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Sun Jiji, Zhao Xiaoxu, Qiao Lihua, Mei Shuang, Nie Zhipeng, Zhang Qinghai, Ji Yanchun, Jiang Pingping, Guan Min-Xin
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause a variety of mitochondrial DNA-based diseases which have been studied using Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and transmitochondrial cybrids. Individual genetic information is preserved permanently in LCLs while the development of transmitochondrial cybrids provide ex-vivo cellular platform to study molecular mechanism of mitochondrial DNA-based diseases. The cytoplasmic donor cells for previous transmitochondrial cybrids come from patient's tissue or platelet directly...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Maria G Onyango, Nicola C Aitken, Cameron Jack, Aaron Chuah, James Oguya, Appolinaire Djikeng, Steve Kemp, Glenn A Bellis, Adrian Nicholas, Peter J Walker, Jean-Bernard Duchemin
BACKGROUND: The advent of genotyping by Next Generation Sequencing has enabled rapid discovery of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and high throughput genotyping of large populations at an affordable cost. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), a reduced representation library sequencing method, allows highly multiplexed sequencing of genomic subsets. This method has limitations for small organisms with low amounts of genomic DNA, such as the bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors, Culicoides midges...
September 30, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Paulo G Hofstatter, Alexander K Tice, Seungho Kang, Matthew W Brown, Daniel J G Lahr
Recombinase enzymes promote DNA repair by homologous recombination. The genes that encode them are ancestral to life, occurring in all known dominions: viruses, Eubacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. Bacterial recombinases are also present in viruses and eukaryotic groups (supergroups), presumably via ancestral events of lateral gene transfer. The eukaryotic recA genes have two distinct origins (mitochondrial and plastidial), whose acquisition by eukaryotes was possible via primary (bacteria-eukaryote) and/or secondary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiotic gene transfers (EGTs)...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Antoine Heni Chaanine, Erik Kohlbrenner, Scott I Gamb, Adam J Guenzel, Katherine A Klaus, Ahmed U Fayyaz, K Sreekumaran Nair, Roger J Hajjar, Margaret M Redfield
The Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) transcription factor has been shown to regulate glucose metabolism, muscle atrophy and cell death in post-mitotic cells. Its role in regulating mitochondrial and myocardial function is not well studied. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that FOXO3a, through BNIP3, modulates mitochondrial morphology and function in HF. We modulated the FOXO3a-BNIP3 pathway in normal and phenylephrine (PE) stressed adult cardiac myocytes (ACM) in vitro and developed a cardiotropic adeno-associated virus serotype 9 encoding dominant-negative FOXO3a (AAV9...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Vladimir A Morozov, Shaun Wynyard, Shinichi Matsumoto, Adrian Abalovich, Joachim Denner, Robert Elliott
Xenotransplantation of pig islet cells is a promising alternative for the treatment of diabetes with insulin and may help to prevent numerous late complications such as blindness and amputation. First encouraging results using porcine islets have been reported in preclinical animal models as well in the first clinical trial in New Zealand. The goal of this manuscript is to examine the biological safety of a second trial performed in Argentina, specifically in regards to the transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) using improved detection methods As in the first trial encapsulated islet cells from the well-characterised Auckland Island pigs were used...
September 24, 2016: Virus Research
Sevİn Kirdar, Asli Gamze Sener, Merve Cengİz, Nerİman Aydin
The prevalence of autoantibody in the patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, and the relationship between the autoantibodies and HCV genotypes were investigated in this study. One hundred and eight anti-HCV positive and 86 anti-HCV negative patients were included in the study. Anti-HCV were studied by enzyme immunassay (EIA). HCV RNA was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and HCV genotypes were determined by a reverse-line blot hybridization. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), liver kidney microsomal antibodies (LKM) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay...
November 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Changsun Yu, Bok-Seok Kim, Eunhee Kim
Cumulative damage caused by oxidative stress results in diverse pathological conditions. Therefore, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying cell death following oxidative stress is important. Here, we describe a novel role for Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) as a crucial regulator of necrotic cell death elicited by hydrogen peroxide. Upon oxidative insult, FAF1 translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and promoted the catalytic activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) through physical interaction...
November 1, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Mara Simopoulou, Laertis Gkoles, Panagiotis Bakas, Polina Giannelou, Theodoros Kalampokas, Konstantinos Pantos, Michael Koutsilieris
: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most frequently applied method for fertilization making the process of identifying the perfect spermatozoon fundamental. Herein we offer a critical and thorough presentation on the techniques reported regarding (i) handling and preparing semen samples, (ii) identifying and 'fishing' spermatozoa, and (iii) improving key factors, such as motility for a successful ICSI practice. These approaches are suggested to make the process easier and more effective especially in atypical and challenging circumstances...
September 20, 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Sabine Matou-Nasri, Zaki Rabhan, Haya Al-Baijan, Hamad Al-Eidi, Wesam Bin Yahya, Abdelkareem Al Abdulrahman, Nasser Almobadel, Mona Alsubeai, Saleh Al Ghamdi, Ahmed Alaskar, Mohammed AlBalwi, Mohsen Alzahrani, Ibrahim Alabdulkareem
B-cells of the high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) overexpress survival oncoproteins, including the proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukaemia virus kinase (Pim)-1, and become apoptosis resistant. Activated death receptor CD95 after ligation with anti-CD95 monoclonal antibody (mAb) resulted in the regression of BL via induction of apoptosis, suggesting a decrease of survival protein expression. Here, CD95-mediated apoptotic pathways in BL B-cell lines (Raji and Daudi) following treatment with anti-CD95 mAb was investigated with the cause-and-effects on pim-1 gene expression, in comparison with leukemic cell line (K562) used as CD95-negative cells...
September 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Krishna Kumar Ganta, Anirban Mandal, Binay Chaubey
Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and an active constituent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy regime. It has significantly contributed in control and management of human immunodeficiency virus propagation. However, EFV administration has also led to severe adverse effects, several reports highlighted the role of EFV in mitochondrial dysfunction and toxicity but the molecular mechanism has been poorly understood. In present study, human hepatoma cells Huh 7.5 were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of EFV and parameters like cytotoxicity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, mitochondrial morphology, cytochrome c release, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, mtDNA and mtRNA levels and EFV distribution into mitochondrial compartment were evaluated to understand sequence of events leading to cell death in EFV-treated cells...
September 17, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Pascale Krejbich-Trotot, Essia Belarbi, Miora Ralambondrainy, Chaker El-Kalamouni, Wildriss Viranaicken, Pierre Roques, Philippe Desprès, Gilles Gadea
Alphaviruses such as Chikungunya and Ross River (RRV) viruses are associated with persistent arthritis and arthralgia in humans. Monocytes and macrophages are believed to play an important role in alphaviral arthritides. In this study, we evaluated RRV permissiveness of the human acute leukemia MM6 cell line. Viral growth analysis showed that RRV infection of MM6 cells resulted in a very low virus progeny production with daily output. Using recombinant RRV expressing the reporter gene Renilla luciferase, a weak viral replication level was detected in infected cells at the early stages of infection...
October 2, 2016: Virus Research
Luisa Rubino, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Sergio Giannattasio
A universal feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the association with intracellular membranes. Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) replication in plants occurs in vesicles derived from the mitochondrial outer membrane. The product encoded by CIRV ORF1, p36, is required for targeting the virus replication complex to the outer mitochondrial membrane both in plant and yeast cells. Here the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model host to study the effect of CIRV p36 on cell survival and death...
September 13, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Zhongying Cao, Zhangchuan Xia, Yaqin Zhou, Xiaodan Yang, Hua Hao, Nanfang Peng, Shi Liu, Ying Zhu
RNA virus infections are detected by the RIG-I family of receptors, which signal through the adaptor molecule mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). MAVS then recruits the adaptor's tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 3 and TRAF6, which in turn activate IRF3 and NF-κB, respectively, to induce interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory responses. Here we show that the biotin-containing enzyme methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (MCCC1) enhances virus-induced, MAVS-mediated IFN and inflammatory cytokine expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway...
2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel G Streicker, Jamie C Winternitz, Dara A Satterfield, Rene Edgar Condori-Condori, Alice Broos, Carlos Tello, Sergio Recuenco, Andrés Velasco-Villa, Sonia Altizer, William Valderrama
Anticipating how epidemics will spread across landscapes requires understanding host dispersal events that are notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we contrast host and virus genetic signatures to resolve the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying geographic expansions of vampire bat rabies virus (VBRV) in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis revealed recent viral spread between populations that, according to extreme geographic structure in maternally inherited host mitochondrial DNA, appeared completely isolated. In contrast, greater population connectivity in biparentally inherited nuclear microsatellites explained the historical limits of invasions, suggesting that dispersing male bats spread VBRV between genetically isolated female populations...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carolina Torres-Gutierrez, Eduardo Sterlino Bergo, Kevin J Emerson, Tatiane M P de Oliveira, Susan Greni, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
The subgenus Melanoconion is the second largest subgenus within the genus Culex, with 160 described species. Several of the species are proven vectors of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Species of Melanoconion are well distributed from southern North America to most countries of South America and display the highest species diversity in tropical regions. Taxonomical identification within this group has been primarily based on morphological characters, with the male genitalia as the source of the most solid diagnostic features...
September 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
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