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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732079/lmp1-mediated-glycolysis-induces-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-expansion-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#1
Ting-Ting Cai, Shu-Biao Ye, Yi-Na Liu, Jia He, Qiu-Yan Chen, Hai-Qiang Mai, Chuan-Xia Zhang, Jun Cui, Xiao-Shi Zhang, Pierre Busson, Yi-Xin Zeng, Jiang Li
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722244/risk-of-liver-decompensation-with-cumulative-use-of-mitochondrial-toxic-nucleoside-analogues-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfection
#2
Vincent Lo Re Rd, Bret Zeldow, Michael J Kallan, Janet P Tate, Dena M Carbonari, Sean Hennessy, Jay R Kostman, Joseph K Lim, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Robert Gross, Amy C Justice, Jason A Roy
PURPOSE: Among patients dually infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing mitochondrial toxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (mtNRTIs) might induce chronic hepatic injury, which could accelerate HCV-associated liver fibrosis and increase the risk of hepatic decompensation and death. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among 1747 HIV/HCV patients initiating NRTI-containing ART within the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (2002-2009) to determine if cumulative mtNRTI use increased the risk of hepatic decompensation and death among HIV-/HCV-coinfected patients...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722111/monoamine-oxidase-a-is-highly-expressed-in-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#3
Pei Chuan Li, Imran N Siddiqi, Anja Mottok, Eric Y Loo, Chieh Hsi Wu, Wendy Cozen, Christian Steidl, Jean Chen Shih
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters and dietary amines and produces H2 O2. It facilitates the progression of gliomas and prostate cancer, but its expression and functional relevance have not been studied in lymphoma. Here, we evaluated MAOA in 427 cases of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and in a spectrum of reactive lymphoid tissues by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. MAOA was expressed by Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in the majority of classical Hodgkin lymphomas (cHL) (181/241; 75%), with 34...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717359/the-c-terminal-effector-domain-of-non-structural-protein-1-of-influenza-a-virus-blocks-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-targeting-tnf-receptor-associated-factor-3
#4
Wei Qian, Xiaoqin Wei, Kelei Guo, Yongtao Li, Xian Lin, Zhong Zou, Hongbo Zhou, Meilin Jin
Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antagonizes interferon response through diverse strategies, particularly by inhibiting the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IFN-β transcription. However, the underlying mechanisms used by the NS1 C-terminal effector domain (ED) to inhibit the activation of IFN-β pathway are not well understood. In this study, we used influenza virus subtype of H5N1 to demonstrate that the NS1 C-terminal ED but not the N-terminal RNA-binding domain, binds TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710430/rlr-mediated-antiviral-innate-immunity-requires-oxidative-phosphorylation-activity
#5
Takuma Yoshizumi, Hiromi Imamura, Tomohiro Taku, Takahiro Kuroki, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazuto Nakada, Takumi Koshiba
Mitochondria act as a platform for antiviral innate immunity, and the immune system depends on activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR) signaling pathway via an adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral signaling. We report that RLR-mediated antiviral innate immunity requires oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity, a prominent physiologic function of mitochondria. Cells lacking mitochondrial DNA or mutant cells with respiratory defects exhibited severely impaired virus-induced induction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706276/kanyawara-virus-a-novel-rhabdovirus-infecting-newly-discovered-nycteribiid-bat-flies-infesting-previously-unknown-pteropodid-bats-in-uganda
#6
Tony L Goldberg, Andrew J Bennett, Robert Kityo, Jens H Kuhn, Colin A Chapman
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701693/transcription-factor-hlx-controls-a-systematic-switch-from-white-to-brown-fat-through-prdm16-mediated-co-activation
#7
Lei Huang, Dongning Pan, Qingbo Chen, Lihua J Zhu, Jianhong Ou, Martin Wabitsch, Yong-Xu Wang
Browning of subcutaneous white fat (iWAT) involves several reprograming events, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that the transcription factor Hlx is selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and iWAT, and is translationally upregulated by β3-adrenergic signaling-mediated suppression of the translational inhibitor 4E-BP1. Hlx interacts with and is co-activated by Prdm16 to control BAT-selective gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. Hlx heterozygous knockout mice have defects in brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT, and develop glucose intolerance and high fat-induced hepatic steatosis...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695547/human-immunodeficiency-virus-promotes-mitochondrial-toxicity
#8
REVIEW
Summer J Rozzi, Valeria Avdoshina, Jerel A Fields, Margarita Trejo, Hoai T Ton, Gerard P Ahern, Italo Mocchetti
Combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) have had remarkable success in reducing morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by loss of synapses, remain. cART may maintain an undetectable HIV RNA load but does not eliminate the expression of viral proteins such as trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 in the brain. These two viral proteins are known to promote synaptic simplifications by several mechanisms, including alteration of mitochondrial function and dynamics...
July 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694700/role-of-sirt1-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#9
Xiaosong Bu, De Wu, Xiaomei Lu, Li Yang, Xiaoyan Xu, Juan Wang, Jiulai Tang
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder and has a high prevalence in children. Recently, mitochondrial oxidative stress has been proposed to be associated with ASD. Besides, SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling plays an important role in combating oxidative stress. In this study, we sought to determine the role of SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling in the ASD lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In this study, the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1/PGC-1α axis genes were assessed in 35 children with ASD and 35 healthy controls (matched for age, gender, and IQ)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692767/reactive-oxygen-species-regulating-polymersome-as-an-antiviral-agent-against-influenza-virus
#10
Hyun-Ouk Kim, Minjoo Yeom, Jihye Kim, Aastha Kukreja, Woonsung Na, Jihye Choi, Aram Kang, Dayeon Yun, Jong-Woo Lim, Daesub Song, Seungjoo Haam
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation play an important role as signal messengers in the immune system and also regulate signal transduction. ROS production, initiated as a consequence of microbial invasion, if generated at high levels, induces activation of the MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway to promote cell survival and proliferation. However, viruses hijack the host cells' pathways, causing biphasic activation of the MEK/ERK cascade...
July 10, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683400/azidothymidine-triphosphate-impairs-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-disrupting-the-quality-control-system
#11
Ryosuke Nomura, Takeya Sato, Yuka Sato, Jeffrey A Medin, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teruyuki Yanagisawa
Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy...
June 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681345/lyssavirus-phosphoproteins-increase-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-levels-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#12
Wafa Kammouni, Heidi Wood, Alan C Jackson
We have previously demonstrated that serine residues at positions 162 and 166 of the rabies virus (RABV) phosphoprotein (P) are critical for oxidative stress induced by CVS in cultured cells. We have now evaluated the P of two street RABV variants and Mokola (MOK) virus. The P of these viruses, like CVS, induces an increase in complex I activities and reactive oxygen species levels in transfected cells. Although the sequence homology of P is only 45% with MOK (higher for street viruses) and CVS, serine residues are conserved at positions 162 and 166, suggesting their potential importance in oxidative stress...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680969/differential-antagonism-of-human-innate-immune-responses-by-tick-borne-phlebovirus-nonstructural-proteins
#13
Veronica V Rezelj, Ping Li, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Richard M Elliott, Dong-Yan Jin, Benjamin Brennan
In recent years, several newly discovered tick-borne viruses causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans have been ascribed to the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. The nonstructural protein (NSs) of bunyaviruses is the main virulence factor and interferon (IFN) antagonist. We studied the molecular mechanisms of IFN antagonism employed by the NSs proteins of human apathogenic Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) and those of Heartland virus (HRTV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), both of which cause severe disease...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669005/phylogenetic-analysis-based-on-mitochondrial-dna-sequences-of-wild-rats-and-the-relationship-with-seoul-virus-infection-in-hubei-china
#14
Dong-Ying Liu, Jing Liu, Bing-Yu Liu, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Hai-Rong Xiong, Wei Hou, Zhan-Qiu Yang
Seoul virus (SEOV), which is predominantly carried by Rattus norvegicus, is one of the major causes of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China. Hubei province, located in the central south of China, has experienced some of the most severe epidemics of HFRS. To investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based phylogenetics of wild rats in Hubei, and the relationship with SEOV infection, 664 wild rats were captured from five trapping sites in Hubei from 2000-2009 and 2014-2015. Using reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR, 41 (6...
June 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664308/a-cell-clone-strain-from-mythimna-separata-lepidoptera-noctuidae-highly-susceptible-to-autographa-californica-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus-acmnpv-and-m-separata-npv-msnpv
#15
Xiang-Qian Meng, Gui-Ling Zheng, Chuan-De Zhao, Fang-Hao Wan, Chang-You Li
In this study, we describe a cell line, Ms-10C, cloned from the line QAU-Ms-E-10 (simplified Ms-10), an embryonic line from Mythimna separata. The cloned cell line was significantly more sensitive to nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). Ms-10C cells were mainly spherical with a diameter of 14.42 ± 2.23 μm. DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) confirmed the profile of PCR-amplified bands of the cloned cell line was consistent with those of the parental cell line, Ms-10. The sequencing result of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCO I) fragment confirmed that the amplified 636-bps mtCOI fragment was 100% identical to that of M...
August 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659978/cell-connections-by-tunneling-nanotubes-effects-of-mitochondrial-trafficking-on-target-cell-metabolism-homeostasis-and-response-to-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Marie-Luce Vignais, Andrés Caicedo, Jean-Marc Brondello, Christian Jorgensen
Intercellular communications play a major role in tissue homeostasis and responses to external cues. Novel structures for this communication have recently been described. These tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) consist of thin-extended membrane protrusions that connect cells together. TNTs allow the cell-to-cell transfer of various cellular components, including proteins, RNAs, viruses, and organelles, such as mitochondria. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are both naturally present and recruited to many different tissues where their interaction with resident cells via secreted factors has been largely documented...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654219/a-comparative-study-of-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-mutants-k130m-v131i-and-kv130-131mi-to-investigate-their-roles-in-fibrosis-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Zaheenul Islam Siddiqui, Sabihur Rahman Farooqui, Syed Ali Azam, Masarrat Afroz, Saima Wajid, Shama Parveen, Syed Naqui Kazim
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomic mutations A1762T, G1764A and AG1762/1764TA cause production of HBV X protein (HBx) mutants, namely K130M, V131I and KV130/131MI. These mutations are important biomarkers for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic HBV patients. The present study comparatively analyzes the impact of intracellular expression of HBx mutants on HCC cell line Huh7. It was found that expression of KV130/131MI induced: cell proliferation; altered expression of cell cycle regulatory genes in favor of cell proliferation; intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial depolarization...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653620/cryo-electron-tomography-reveals-novel-features-of-a-viral-rna-replication-compartment
#18
Kenneth J Ertel, Desirée Benefield, Daniel Castaño-Diez, Janice G Pennington, Mark Horswill, Johan A den Boon, Marisa S Otegui, Paul Ahlquist
Positive-strand RNA viruses, the largest genetic class of viruses, include numerous important pathogens such as Zika virus. These viruses replicate their RNA genomes in novel, membrane-bounded mini-organelles, but the organization of viral proteins and RNAs in these compartments has been largely unknown. We used cryo-electron tomography to reveal many previously unrecognized features of Flock house nodavirus (FHV) RNA replication compartments. These spherular invaginations of outer mitochondrial membranes are packed with electron-dense RNA fibrils and their volumes are closely correlated with RNA replication template length...
June 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641051/beneficial-role-of-citrus-fruit-polyphenols-against-hepatic-dysfunctions-a-review
#19
Md Mohabbulla Mohib, Kazi Afnan, Tasfiq Zaman Paran, Salma Khan, Juthika Sarker, Nahid Hasan, Istiaque Hasan, Md Abu Taher Sagor
Alcoholic liver diseases and virus-induced hepatic dysfunctions are prevalent in western countries. Evidence also suggests that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of hepatic diseases and their complications. Since the comorbid diseases like obesity, diabetes and vascular dysfunctions primarily affect liver, the modern therapies against other hepatic dysfunctions are becoming a major challenge to treat. In addition to these, polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are further aggravating the phenomenon...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633455/fetal-metabolic-stress-disrupts-immune-homeostasis-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-hiv-1-and-cart-exposed-infants
#20
Johannes C Schoeman, Gontse P Moutloatse, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Henriette J Scherpbier, Liesbeth Van Leeuwen, Taco W Kuijpers, Carools J Reinecke, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Madeleine J Bunders
Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART)-exposure on the infants' immune-metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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