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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777913/the-tp53-induced-glycolysis-and-apoptosis-regulator-mediates-cooperation-between-htlv-1-p30-ii-and-the-retroviral-oncoproteins-tax-and-hbz-and-is-highly-expressed-in-an-in-vivo-xenograft-model-of-htlv-1-induced-lymphoma
#1
Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Laçin Yapindi, Rachel Bergeson, Kendra Peck, Megan Romeo, Carolyn Harrod, Jordan Pope, Louisa Smitherman, Wesleigh Gwinn, Lee Ratner, Courtney Yates, Robert Harrod
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30II induces the TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and counters the oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cytotoxicity caused by the viral oncoproteins Tax and HBZ...
May 16, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772718/ectromelia-virus-affects-mitochondrial-network-morphology-distribution-and-physiology-in-murine-fibroblasts-and-macrophage-cell-line
#2
Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski, Joanna Szczepanowska, Felix N Toka, Matylda B Mielcarska, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Małgorzata Gieryńska, Anna Boratyńska-Jasińska, Justyna Struzik, Marek G Niemiałtowski, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that participate in numerous processes in response to viral infection, but they are also a target for viruses. The aim of this study was to define subcellular events leading to alterations in mitochondrial morphology and function during infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV). We used two different cell lines and a combination of immunofluorescence techniques, confocal and electron microscopy, and flow cytometry to address subcellular changes following infection. Early in infection of L929 fibroblasts and RAW 264...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764948/inducible-lung-epithelial-resistance-requires-multisource-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-to-protect-against-viral-infections
#3
Carson T Kirkpatrick, Yongxing Wang, Miguel M Leiva Juarez, Pooja Shivshankar, Jezreel Pantaleón García, Alexandria K Plumer, Vikram V Kulkarni, Hayden H Ware, Fahad Gulraiz, Miguel A Chavez Cavasos, Gabriela Martinez Zayes, Shradha Wali, Andrew P Rice, Hongbing Liu, James M Tour, William K A Sikkema, Ana S Cruz Solbes, Keith A Youker, Michael J Tuvim, Burton F Dickey, Scott E Evans
Viral pneumonias cause profound worldwide morbidity, necessitating novel strategies to prevent and treat these potentially lethal infections. Stimulation of intrinsic lung defenses via inhalation of synergistically acting Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists protects mice broadly against pneumonia, including otherwise-lethal viral infections, providing a potential opportunity to mitigate infectious threats. As intact lung epithelial TLR signaling is required for the inducible resistance and as these cells are the principal targets of many respiratory viruses, the capacity of lung epithelial cells to be therapeutically manipulated to function as autonomous antiviral effectors was investigated...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757522/evidence-of-natural-wolbachia-infections-and-molecular-identification-of-field-populations-of-culex-pipiens-complex-diptera-culicidae-mosquitoes-in-western-turkey
#4
Burçin Morçiçek, Belgin Gocmen Taskin, Ersin Doğaç, Taylan Doğaroğlu, Vatan Taskin
Establishing reliable risk projection information about the distribution pattern of members of the Culex pipiens complex is of particular interest, as these mosquitoes are competent vectors for certain disease-causing pathogens. Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterial symbiont, are distributed in various arthropod species and can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, i.e., reduced egg hatch, in certain crosses. It is being considered as a tool for population control of mosquito disease vectors. The Aegean region is characterized by highly populated, rural, and agricultural areas and is also on the route of the migratory birds...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753892/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-packaging-of-host-rnas-by-brome-mosaic-virus
#5
N Shrestha, P H Weber, S V Burke, W Wysocki, M R Duvall, J J Bujarski
Although RNA viruses evolved the mechanisms of specific encapsidation, miss-packaging of cellular RNAs has been reported in such RNA virus systems as flock house virus or cucumber necrosis virus. To find out if brome mosaic virus (BMV), a tripartite RNA virus, can package cellular RNAs, BMV was propagated in barley and in Nicotiana benthamiana hosts, purified by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient ultracentrifugation followed by nuclease treatment to remove any contaminating cellular (host) RNAs. The extracted virion RNA was then sequenced by using next-generation sequencing (NGS RNA-Seq) with the Illumina protocol...
May 10, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743353/trim21-promotes-innate-immune-response-to-rna-viral-infection-through-lys27-linked-polyubiquitination-of-mavs
#6
Binbin Xue, Huiyi Li, Mengmeng Guo, Jingjing Wang, Yan Xu, Xuan Zou, Rilin Deng, Guangdi Li, Haizhen Zhu
Human innate immunity responds to viral infection by activating the production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. The mitochondrial adaptor molecule MAVS plays a critical role in innate immune response to viral infection. In this study, we show that TRIM21 interacts with MAVS to positively regulate innate immunity. Under viral infection, TRIM21 is upregulated through the IFN/JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRIM21 dramatically impairs innate immune response to viral infection. Moreover, TRIM21 interacts with MAVS and catalyzes the K27-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS, thereby promoting the recruitment of TBK1 to MAVS...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733958/protein-a-from-orange-spotted-nervous-necrosis-virus-triggers-type-i-interferon-production-in-fish-cell
#7
Runqing Huang, Qiong Zhou, Yan Shi, Jing Zhang, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Family Nodaviridae consists of two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus, and the latter is classified into four genotypes, including red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a central role in the innate immune system and antiviral responses, and the interactions between IFN and NNV have been investigated in this study. We have found that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), named protein A, was capable of activating IFN promoter in fathead minnow (FHM) cells...
May 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703474/platelets-nets-and-cancer
#8
Jessica Cedervall, Anahita Hamidi, Anna-Karin Olsson
In addition to the central role of platelets in hemostasis, they contribute to pathological conditions such as inflammation and tumor progression. Aberrant expression and/or exposure of pro-coagulant factors in the tumor microenvironment induce platelet activation and subsequent release of growth factors from platelet granules. Cancer patients are commonly affected by thrombotic events, as a result of tumor-induced platelet activation. A novel player potentially contributing to cancer-associated thrombosis is the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689279/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-elevates-parkin-mediated-mitophagy-through-lon-peptidase-in-starvation
#9
Xiao-Yun Huang, Dan Li, Zhi-Xin Chen, Yue-Hong Huang, Wen-Yu Gao, Bi-Yun Zheng, Xiao-Zhong Wang
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most prevalent cancer worldwide. Specially, Hepatitis B viurs X protein (HBx) is a leading factor in the progression of Hepatitis B viurs-related HCC. Nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment also contributes to tumor development. However, the role of HBx in nutrient-deprived HCC has received little investigation. Here, we show that HBx elevates PINK1-Parkin mediating mitophagy in starvation. HBx not only increases the PINK1/Parkin gene expression but also accelerates Parkin recruitment to partial mitochondria...
April 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684791/the-role-of-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-in-steatosis-associated-hepatic-tumors-related-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#10
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
The persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a risk factor for the development of steatosis-associated tumors in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, yet little is known about the metabolic link with this factor. We correlated HBV-related pathogenesis in genetically engineered mice and human carriers with metabolic proteomics and lipogenic gene expression profiles. The immunohistochemistry showed that the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML, a tumor suppressor involved in genome maintenance and fatty acid oxidation), being inversely influenced by the dynamic HBsAg levels from acute phase to seroclearance, appeared as a lipo-metabolic switch linking HBsAg-induced steatosis (lipogenesis) to HBsAg-lost fat-burning hepatocarcinogenesis (lipolysis)...
April 20, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673092/using-dna-metabarcoding-for-simultaneous-inference-of-common-vampire-bat-diet-and-population-structure
#11
Kristine Bohmann, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Martin Nielsen, Luisa Dos Santos Bay Nielsen, Gareth Jones, Daniel G Streicker, M Thomas P Gilbert
Metabarcoding diet analysis has become a valuable tool in animal ecology; however, co-amplified predator sequences are not generally used for anything other than to validate predator identity. Exemplified by the common vampire bat, we demonstrate the use of metabarcoding to infer predator population structure alongside diet assessments. Growing populations of common vampire bats impact human, livestock and wildlife health in Latin America through transmission of pathogens, such as lethal rabies viruses. Techniques to determine large scale variation in vampire bat diet and bat population structure would empower locality- and species-specific projections of disease transmission risks...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661811/murine-models-of-hepatitis-a-virus-infection
#12
Asuka Hirai-Yuki, Jason K Whitmire, Michael Joyce, D Lorne Tyrrell, Stanley M Lemon
Mechanistic analyses of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-induced pathogenesis have long been thwarted by the lack of tractable small animal models that recapitulate disease observed in humans. Several approaches have shown success, including infection of chimeric mice with human liver cells. Other recent studies show that HAV can replicate to high titer in mice lacking expression of the type I interferon (IFN) receptor (IFN-α/β receptor) or mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein. Mice deficient in the IFN receptor show critical features of type A hepatitis in humans when challenged with human HAV, including histological evidence of liver damage, leukocyte infiltration, and the release of liver enzymes into blood...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644096/cameroonian-fruit-bats-harbor-divergent-viruses-including-rotavirus-h-bastroviruses-and-picobirnaviruses-using-an-alternative-genetic-code
#13
Claude Kwe Yinda, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Leen Beller, Ward Deboutte, Emiel Vanhulle, Piet Maes, Marc Van Ranst, Jelle Matthijnssens
Most human emerging infectious diseases originate from wildlife and bats are a major reservoir of viruses, a few of which have been highly pathogenic to humans. In some regions of Cameroon, bats are hunted and eaten as a delicacy. This close proximity between human and bats provides ample opportunity for zoonotic events. To elucidate the viral diversity of Cameroonian fruit bats, we collected and metagenomically screened eighty-seven fecal samples of Eidolon helvum and Epomophorus gambianus fruit bats. The results showed a plethora of known and novel viruses...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626093/restoring-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-expression-in-diabetic-mouse-heart-improves-mitochondrial-calcium-handling-and-cardiac-function
#14
Jorge Suarez, Federico Cividini, Brian T Scott, Kim Lehmann, Julieta Diaz-Juarez, Tanja Diemer, Anzhi Dai, Jorge A Suarez, Mohit Jain, Wolfgang H Dillmann
Diabetes mellitus is a growing health care problem, resulting in significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetes also increases the risk for heart failure (HF) and decreased cardiac myocyte function, which are linked to changes in cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism. The free mitochondrial calcium level ([Ca2+]m) is fundamental in activating the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and ATP production and is also known to regulate pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex (MCUC) plays a major role in mediating mitochondrial Ca2+ import, and its expression and function therefore have a marked impact on cardiac myocyte metabolism and function...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625557/case-report-lactic-acidosis-and-rhabdomyolysis-during-telbivudine-and-tenofovir-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#15
Yue Ying, Yue-Kai Hu, Jia-Lin Jin, Ji-Ming Zhang, Wen-Hong Zhang, Yu-Xian Huang
BACKGROUND: Current treatment options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are pegylated interferon alpha and nucleoside analogues (NAs). NAs have relatively fewer side effects than interferon alpha, and generally well tolerated. Previously 12.9% of patients on telbivudine treatment were reported to develop severe elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels, but related clinical disease, like lactic acidosis (LA) and rhabdomyolysis (RM) were rare. The pathophysiology may be mitochondrial toxicity, for the NAs inhibit not only hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase, but also the host mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ...
April 6, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625090/dna-barcoding-of-five-japanese-encephalitis-mosquito-vectors-culex-fuscocephala-culex-gelidus-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-culex-pseudovishnui-and-culex-vishnui
#16
Pushparaj Karthika, Chithravel Vadivalagan, Durairaj Thirumurugan, Rangaswamy Ravi Kumar, Kadarkarai Murugan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequel caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Effective vector control and early diagnosis, along with continuous serosurveillance in animals are crucial to fight this arboviral disease. However, the success of vector control operations is linked with the fast and reliable identification of targeted species and knowledge about their biology and ecology...
April 3, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619366/targeting-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-or-mitochondrial-ca-2-fluxes-as-therapeutic-strategy-for-hcv-infection
#17
Rosella Scrima, Claudia Piccoli, Darius Moradpour, Nazzareno Capitanio
Chronic hepatitis C is characterized by metabolic disorders and by a microenvironment in the liver dominated by oxidative stress, inflammation and regeneration processes that can in the long term lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunctions play a central role in these processes. However, how these dysfunctions are induced by the virus and whether they play a role in disease progression and neoplastic transformation remains to be determined...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619244/antiviral-effects-of-ferric-ammonium-citrate
#18
Hongbin Wang, Zheng Li, Junling Niu, Yongfen Xu, Li Ma, Ailing Lu, Xun Wang, Zhikang Qian, Zhong Huang, Xia Jin, Qibin Leng, Jianhua Wang, Jin Zhong, Bing Sun, Guangxun Meng
Iron is an essential nutrient for cell survival and is crucial for DNA replication, mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. However, the immunological role of iron in viral infections has not been well defined. Here we found the iron salt ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) inhibited Influenza A virus, HIV virus, Zika virus, and Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections. Of note, both iron ion and citrate ion were required for the antiviral capability of FAC, as other iron salts and citrates did not exhibit viral inhibition...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615994/hepatitis-e-virus-induces-hepatocyte-apoptosis-via-mitochondrial-pathway-in-mongolian-gerbils
#19
Yifei Yang, Ruihan Shi, Majid H Soomro, Fengjiao Hu, Fang Du, Ruiping She
Previous studies demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils can be infected by hepatitis E virus (HEV), which induces the hepatic injury. Here, the mitochondria in hepatocytes from HEV-infected gerbils were considerably swollen, thin cristae. After HEV infection, the activity of superoxide dismutase significantly decreased ( p < 0.01), while malondialdehyde concentrations significantly increased, compared with those in the control group ( p < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphatase levels decreased significantly in the hepatocyte of the inoculated groups, compared with those in control group ( p < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615737/longterm-reversal-of-severe-visual-loss-by-mitochondrial-gene-transfer-in-a-mouse-model-of-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#20
Hong Yu, Vittorio Porciatti, Alfred Lewin, William Hauswirth, John Guy
In many human disorders mitochondrial dysfunction is central to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. As these cells do not regenerate, vision is irreversibly lost. Here we show reversal of visual dysfunction by a mitochondrially targeted adeno associated virus in transgenic mice harboring a G11778A mutation in the ND4 subunit of complex I persists longterm and it is associated with reduced loss of RGCs and their axons, improved oxidative phosphorylation, persistence of transferred ND4 DNA and transcription of ND4 mRNA...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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