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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077630/mavs-is-essential-for-primary-cd4-t-cell-immunity-but-not-for-recall-t-cell-responses-following-an-attenuated-west-nile-virus-infection
#1
Huanle Luo, Evandro Winkelmann, Guorui Xie, Rong Fang, Bi-Hung Peng, Li Li, Helen M Lazear, Slobodan Paessler, Michael S Diamond, Michael Gale, Alan D Barrett, Tian Wang
: The use of pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) agonists and the molecular mechanisms involved have been the major focus of research in individual vaccine development. West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant has several features for an ideal vaccine candidate, including significantly reduced neuroinvasiveness, induction of strong adaptive immunity, and protection of mice from wild-type (WT) WNV infection. Here, we determined the role of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS), the adaptor protein for RIG-I like receptor in regulating host immunity against the NS4B-P38G vaccine...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077274/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-human-liver
#2
REVIEW
Sander Kersten, Rinke Stienstra
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver...
January 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076378/p62-pathology-model-in-the-rat-substantia-nigra-with-filamentous-inclusions-and-progressive-neurodegeneration
#3
Kasey L Jackson, Wen-Lang Lin, Sumitra Miriyala, Robert D Dayton, Manikandan Panchatcharam, Kevin J McCarthy, Monica Castanedes-Casey, Dennis W Dickson, Ronald L Klein
One of the proteins most frequently found in neuropathological lesions is the ubiquitin binding protein p62 (sequestosome 1). Post-mortem analysis of p62 is a defining diagnostic marker in several neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inclusion body myositis. Since p62 functions in protein degradation pathways including autophagy, the build-up of p62-positive inclusions suggests defects in protein clearance. p62 was expressed unilaterally in the rat substantia nigra with an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) in order to study p62 neuropathology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075229/altered-mitochondrial-dynamics-as-a-consequence-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-infection
#4
Forrest Keck, Taryn Brooks-Faulconer, Tyler Lark, Pavitra Ravishankar, Charles Bailey, Carolina Salvador-Morales, Aarthi Narayanan
Mitochondria are sentinel organelles that are impacted by various forms of cellular stress, including viral infections. While signaling events associated with mitochondria, including those activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are widely studied, alterations in mitochondrial distribution and changes in mitochondrial dynamics are also beginning to be associated with cellular insult. Cells of neuronal origin have been demonstrated to display remarkable alterations in several instances, including neurodegenerative disorders...
January 11, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073399/enterovirus-71-induces-apoptosis-by-directly-modulating-the-conformational-activation-of-pro-apoptotic-protein-bax
#5
Xiaodong Han, Haolong Cong
Enterovirus 71 (EVA71), a virus of the genus enterovirus in the picornaviridae family, is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease in infected infants and young children. In this study, we report that cells with EVA71 infection exhibit increased levels of cytochrome c release and Caspase-3 activation. EVA71 infection induces the conformational activation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and the subsequent formation of oligomers of Bax in mitochondria. Inhibitors that block Caspase-8 activation cannot inhibit apoptosis induced by EVA71 infection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069597/chronic-binge-alcohol-induced-dysregulation-of-mitochondrial-related-genes-in-skeletal-muscle-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques-at-end-stage-disease
#6
Anthony A Duplanty, Liz Simon, Patricia E Molina
AIMS: Alcohol use disorders are more prevalent in HIV patients than the general population. Both chronic alcohol consumption and HIV infection have been linked to mitochondrial dysregulation; and this is considered an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of muscle myopathy. This study investigated if chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration impairs the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis in SIV-infected macaques. METHODS: Male rhesus macaques were administered daily CBA (to achieve peak blood alcohol concentrations of 50-60 mM within 2 h after start of infusion) or sucrose (SUC) intragastrically 3 months prior to intravenous SIVmac251 inoculation and continued until macaques met criteria for end-stage disease...
January 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056776/evidence-for-genetic-variation-in-natterer-s-bats-myotis-nattereri-across-three-regions-in-germany-but-no-evidence-for-co-variation-with-their-associated-astroviruses
#7
Tanja K Halczok, Kerstin Fischer, Robert Gierke, Veronika Zeus, Frauke Meier, Christoph Treß, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Sébastien J Puechmaille, Gerald Kerth
BACKGROUND: As bats have recently been described to harbor many different viruses, several studies have investigated the genetic co-variation between viruses and different bat species. However, little is known about the genetic co-variation of viruses and different populations of the same bat species, although such information is needed for an understanding of virus transmission dynamics within a given host species. We hypothesized that if virus transmission between host populations depends on events linked to gene flow in the bats, genetic co-variation should exist between host populations and astroviruses...
January 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053656/mouse-mammary-tumor-like-virus-mmtv-is-present-in-human-breast-tissue-before-development-of-virally-associated-breast-cancer
#8
Teiko Nartey, Chiara M Mazzanti, Stella Melana, Wendy K Glenn, Generoso Bevilacqua, James F Holland, Noel J Whitaker, James S Lawson, Beatriz G T Pogo
BACKGROUND: There is substantial evidence that a virus homologous to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) may have a role in human breast cancer. The present study indicates that those who developed breast cancer associated with an MMTV-like virus had this virus in their non-cancerous breast tissues years before the cancer developed. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and sequencing were used to identify MMTV-like envelope gene sequences (MMTV-like env sequences) in Australian benign breast biopsy specimens from women who several years later developed breast cancer...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053556/assessment-of-the-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-renal-and-liver-functions-among-hiv-infected-patients-a-retrospective-study
#9
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Mikiyas Gebremichael, Gebrehawaria Birhane, Wabe Kedir, Belete Biadgo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved quality of life in prolonging survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on treatment in developed as well as developing countries. However, the main shortcoming of HAART in long-term use is its potential to cause liver and kidney derangements that may be life threatening. The drugs are actively accumulated in the proximal renal tubule resulting in functional disturbance with mitochondrial injury being one of the most important targets recognized...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053098/the-viral-bcl-2-homologs-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-and-rhesus-rhadinovirus-share-an-essential-role-for-viral-replication
#10
Antonio Gallo, Melanie Lampe, Thomas Günther, Wolfram Brune
: KS-Bcl-2 is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded viral Bcl-2 homolog (vBcl-2), which has apoptosis and autophagy inhibiting activity when expressed in transfected cells. However, little is known about its function during viral infection. As KS-Bcl-2 is expressed during the lytic replication cycle, we used constitutively lytic and inducible-lytic KSHV mutants to investigate the role of KS-Bcl-2 during the lytic cycle. We show that KSHV cannot complete the lytic replication cycle and produce infectious progeny in the absence of KS-Bcl-2, indicating that the protein is essential for KSHV replication...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034779/a-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-is-a-target-for-rice-ragged-stunt-virus-in-its-insect-vector
#11
Hai-Jian Huang, Cheng-Wen Liu, Xiang Zhou, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Yan-Yuan Bao
Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV; Reoviridae) is exclusively transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens in a persistent-propagative manner. It is understood that RNA viral proliferation is associated with the intracellular membranes of the insect host cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the RRSV proliferation and the intracellular membranes remain essentially unknown. It will be of great interest to determine whether RRSV protein(s) directly interact with intracellular membrane components of its host cells...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995576/serine-residues-at-positions-162-and-166-of-the-rabies-virus-phosphoprotein-are-critical-for-the-induction-of-oxidative-stress-in-rabies-virus-infection
#12
Wafa Kammouni, Heidi Wood, Alan C Jackson
Our previous work in a mouse model of experimental rabies showed neuronal process (dendrites and axons) degeneration in association with severe clinical disease. Cultured adult rodent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons infected with the challenge virus standard-11 (CVS) strain of rabies virus (RABV) showed axonal swellings and reduced axonal growth with evidence of oxidative stress. We have shown that CVS infection alters a variety of mitochondrial parameters and increases mitochondrial complex I activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995135/trim25-identification-in-the-chinese-goose-gene-structure-tissue-expression-profiles-and-antiviral-immune-responses-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#13
Yunan Wei, Hao Zhou, Anqi Wang, Lipei Sun, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Kunfeng Sun, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng, Shun Chen
The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein play a critical role in the interferon (IFN) response during RNA virus infection. The tripartite motif containing 25 proteins (TRIM25) was reported to modify caspase activation and RIG-I recruitment domains (CARDs) via ubiquitin. These modifications allow TRIM25 to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecules (MAVs) and form CARD-CARD tetramers. Goose TRIM25 was cloned from gosling lungs, which possess a 1662 bp open reading flame (ORF)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956705/arfgap-domain-containing-protein-2-adap2-integrates-upstream-and-downstream-modules-of-rig-i-signaling-and-facilitates-type-i-interferon-production
#14
Pradeep Bist, Soo Yeon Kim, Niyas Kudukil Pulloor, Kathleen McCaffrey, Sajith Kumar Nair, Yiliu Liu, Rongtuan Lin, Manoj N Krishnan
: Transcription of Type I interferon during RNA virus infection requires signal communication between several Pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-adaptor complexes located at distinct subcellular membranous compartments and a central cytoplasmic TBK1-IRF3 kinase-transcription factor module. However, how cell integrates signal transduction through spatially distinct modules of antiviral signaling pathways is less defined. RIG-I is a major cytosolic PRR involved in the control of several RNA viruses...
December 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943637/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-paired-cancerous-and-normal-colon-epithelial-cells-isolated-freshly-from-colorectal-cancer-patients
#15
Chengjian Tu, Wilfrido Mojica, Robert M Straubinger, Jun Li, Shichen Shen, Miao Qu, Lei Nie, Rick Roberts, Bo An, Jun Qu
PURPOSE: The heterogeneous structure in tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients excludes an informative comparison between tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Here, we develop and apply a strategy to compare paired cancerous (CEC) vs. normal (NEC) epithelial cells enriched from patients and discover potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CRC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CEC and NEC cells were respectively isolated from five different tumor and normal locations in the resected colon tissue from each patient (N = 12 patients) using an optimized epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based enrichment approach...
December 12, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934592/generation-of-merrf-patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-imerrf-c7
#16
Dong Liang, Huanran Hu, Tianhui Xu, Yan Wang, Ping Hu, Zhengfeng Xu
Human iPSC line iMERRF-C7 was generated from PBMCs of a patient with mitochondrial disorder MERRF. Using Sendai virus, the reprogramming factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc were delivered non-integratively. The resulting iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers, could differentiate into the three germ layers in vivo, had normal genomic structure, and retained the disease-causing m.8344 mutation with similar heteroplasmic level.
November 5, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922198/dnmt1-modulation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-and-hypothetic-influence-on-mitochondrial-dna-methylation-status-during-long-term-nucleo-t-side-analogues-therapy
#17
Giordano Madeddu, Silvia Ortu, Giovanni Garrucciu, Ivana Maida, Michela Melis, Alberto Augusto Muredda, Maria Stella Mura, Sergio Babudieri
Inhibition of viral replication is the most important goal in patients with Hepatitis B virus chronic infection (CHB). Currently, five oral nucleo(t)side analogues (NAs), including Lamivudine, Adefovir, Telbivudine, Entecavir and Tenofovir, have been approved for treatment. The widespread use of NAs has also been linked with a progressive growth of unlikely anomaly attributable to mitochondrial dysfunctions, not previously recognized. Here we explore the hypothesis that NAs may cause persistent epigenetic changes during prolonged NAs therapy in CHB patients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917263/changes-in-cellular-proliferation-and-plasma-products-are-associated-with-liver-failure
#18
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Frederico Marianetti Soriani, Pedro Henrique Ferreira Sucupira, Leonardo Assaf Pinheiro, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Cristina Carvalho Vianna Araújo, Lúcio Filgueiras Pacheco-Moreira, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Claudia Lamarca Vitral, Marcelo Alves Pinto
AIM: To study the differences in immune response and cytokine profile between acute liver failure and self-limited acute hepatitis. METHODS: Forty-six patients with self-limited acute hepatitis (AH), sixteen patients with acute liver failure (ALF), and twenty-two healthy subjects were involved in this study. The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory products in plasma samples were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays and quantitative real-time PCR...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914997/transcriptomic-profiles-of-striped-snakehead-fish-cells-ssn-1-infected-with-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus-rgnnv-with-an-emphasis-on-apoptosis-pathway
#19
Wenjie Chen, Lizhu Yi, Shuangshuang Feng, Xiaodan Liu, Muhammad Asim, Yongcan Zhou, Jiangfeng Lan, Sanjie Jiang, Jiagang Tu, Li Lin
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease, has caused mass mortality of cultured marine and freshwater fish worldwide, resulting in enormous economic losses in the aquaculture industry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of NNV are still poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus) cells (SSN-1) infected with red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) were investigated using deep RNA sequencing technique...
November 30, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913620/pb1-f2-derived-from-avian-influenza-a-virus-h7n9-induces-inflammation-via-activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#20
Anita Pinar, Jennifer K Dowling, Natalie J Bitto, Avril B Robertson, Eicke Latz, Cameron R Stewart, Grant R Drummond, Matthew A Cooper, Julie L McAuley, Michelle D Tate, Ashley Mansell
The emergence of avian H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) in humans with associated high mortality, has highlighted the threat of a potential pandemic. Fatal H7N9 infections are characterised by hyperinflammation and increased cellular infiltrates in the lung. Currently there are limited therapies to address the pathologies associated with H7N9 infection and what virulence factors may contribute to these pathologies. We have found that PB1-F2 derived from H7N9 activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and induces lung inflammation and cellular recruitment that is NLRP3 dependent...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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