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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431284/mitovirus-uga-trp-codon-usage-parallels-that-of-host-mitochondria
#1
Max L Nibert
Mitoviruses replicate in mitochondria of their host fungi. They have small RNA genomes that encompass a single ORF encoding the viral RdRp. Since UGA codons encode Trp in fungal mitochondria, the RdRp ORF of a typical mitovirus includes multiple UGA codons. In some mitoviruses, however, the ORF has no such codons, suggesting that these particular viruses may be under selective pressure to exclude them. In this report, new evidence is presented that host fungi whose mitoviruses have no or few UGA codons are distinctive in also having no or few UGA codons in their core mitochondrial genes...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425914/epstein-barr-virus-ensures-b-cell-survival-by-uniquely-modulating-apoptosis-at-early-and-late-times-after-infection
#2
Alexander M Price, Joanne Dai, Quentin Bazot, Luv Patel, Pavel A Nikitin, Reza Djavadian, Peter S Winter, Cristina A Salinas, Ashley Perkins Barry, Kris C Wood, Eric C Johannsen, Anthony Letai, Martin J Allday, Micah A Luftig
Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFB early after infection...
April 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417591/effective-mosquito-and-arbovirus-surveillance-using-metabarcoding
#3
J Batovska, S E Lynch, N O I Cogan, K Brown, J M Darbro, E A Kho, M J Blacket
Effective vector and arbovirus surveillance requires timely and accurate screening techniques that can be easily upscaled. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a high-throughput technology that has the potential to modernise vector surveillance. When combined with DNA barcoding, it is termed 'metabarcoding'. The aim of our study was to establish a metabarcoding protocol to characterise pools of mosquitoes and screen them for virus. Pools contained 100 morphologically identified individuals, including one Ross River virus (RRV) infected mosquito, with three species present at different proportions: 1, 5, 94%...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407488/the-matrix-protein-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-induces-mitophagy-that-suppresses-interferon-responses
#4
Binbin Ding, Linliang Zhang, Zhifei Li, Yi Zhong, Qiaopeng Tang, Yali Qin, Mingzhou Chen
Mitophagy is a form of autophagy that selectively removes damaged mitochondria. Impaired mitochondria can be tagged by the kinase PINK1, which triggers recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Parkin and subsequent mitochondrial sequestration within autophagosomes. We previously found that human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) infection induces autophagy, but the type and mechanisms of autophagy induction remain unknown. Here, we show that matrix protein (M) of HPIV3 translocates to mitochondria and interacts with Tu translation elongation factor mitochondrial (TUFM)...
April 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405612/microrna-125a-and-b-inhibit-a20-and-mavs-to-promote-inflammation-and-impair-antiviral-response-in-copd
#5
Alan C-Y Hsu, Kamal Dua, Malcolm R Starkey, Tatt-Jhong Haw, Prema M Nair, Kristy Nichol, Nathan Zammit, Shane T Grey, Katherine J Baines, Paul S Foster, Philip M Hansbro, Peter A Wark
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections lead to severe inflammation in the airways. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characteristically have exaggerated airway inflammation and are more susceptible to infections with severe symptoms and increased mortality. The mechanisms that control inflammation during IAV infection and the mechanisms of immune dysregulation in COPD are unclear. We found that IAV infections lead to increased inflammatory and antiviral responses in primary bronchial epithelial cells (pBECs) from healthy nonsmoking and smoking subjects...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394931/a-flavone-polysaccharide-based-prescription-attenuates-the-mitochondrial-dysfunction-induced-by-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-type-1
#6
Hongxu Du, Jingjing Yang, Jingying Bai, Ke Ming, Jintong Shi, Fangke Yao, Wei Zhang, Yang Yu, Yun Chen, Wen Xiong, Yi Wu, Deyun Wang, Yuanliang Hu, Jiaguo Liu
The principal target organ of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is duckling liver, which is an energy-intensive organ and plays important roles in body's energy metabolism and conversion. As the "power house" of the hepatocytes, mitochondria provide more than 90% of the energy. However, mitochondria are much vulnerable to the oxidative stress for their rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although previous researches have demonstrated that DHAV-1 could induce the oxidative stress in the serum of the infected ducklings, no related study on the mitochondria during the pathological process of DVH has been reported by far...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394926/gp73-represses-host-innate-immune-response-to-promote-virus-replication-by-facilitating-mavs-and-traf6-degradation
#7
Xuewu Zhang, Chengliang Zhu, Tianci Wang, Hui Jiang, Yahui Ren, Qi Zhang, Kailang Wu, Fang Liu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a serum biomarker for liver diseases and HCC. However, the mechanism underlying GP73 regulates HCV infection is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that GP73 acts as a novel negative regulator of host innate immunity to facilitate HCV infection. GP73 expression is activated and correlated with interferon-beta (IFN-β) production during HCV infection in patients' serum, primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and human hepatoma cells through mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular regulated protein kinase (MEK/ERK) pathway...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376843/picky-eaters-are-rare-dna-based-blood-meal-analysis-of-culicoides-diptera-ceratopogonidae-species-from-the-united-states
#8
Matthew W Hopken, Bonnie M Ryan, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Antoinette J Piaggio
BACKGROUND: Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of a number of parasites and highly pathogenic viruses. In North America, the complete transmission cycles of many of these pathogens need further elucidation. One way to increase our knowledge about the evolution and ecology of Culicoides species and the pathogens they transmit is to document the diversity of vertebrate hosts that Culicoides feed upon. Our objective was to identify the diversity of Culicoides hosts in the United States...
April 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368370/mnsod-mediated-by-hsv-vectors-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-suppresses-morphine-withdrawal-in-rats
#9
T Iida, H Yi, S Liu, D Ikegami, W Zheng, Q Liu, K Takahashi, Y Kashiwagi, W F Goins, J C Glorioso, S Hao
Morphine appears to be the most active metabolite of heroin, therefore, the effects of morphine are important in understanding the ramifications of heroin abuse. Opioid physical dependence (withdrawal response) may have very long-lasting effects on the motivation for reward, including the incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. However, the exact mechanisms of morphine withdrawal (MW) are not clear yet, and its treatment remains elusive. Periaqueductal gray (PAG) is one of the important sites in the pathogenesis of MW...
April 3, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346446/dengue-virus-ns2b-protein-targets-cgas-for-degradation-and-prevents-mitochondrial-dna-sensing-during-infection
#10
Sebastian Aguirre, Priya Luthra, Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Ana M Maestre, Jenish Patel, Francise Lamothe, Anthony C Fredericks, Shashank Tripathi, Tongtong Zhu, Jessica Pintado-Silva, Laurence G Webb, Dabeiba Bernal-Rubio, Alexander Solovyov, Benjamin Greenbaum, Viviana Simon, Christopher F Basler, Lubbertus C F Mulder, Adolfo García-Sastre, Ana Fernandez-Sesma
During the last few decades, the global incidence of dengue virus (DENV) has increased dramatically, and it is now endemic in more than 100 countries. To establish a productive infection in humans, DENV uses different strategies to inhibit or avoid the host innate immune system. Several DENV proteins have been shown to strategically target crucial components of the type I interferon system. Here, we report that the DENV NS2B protease cofactor targets the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) for lysosomal degradation to avoid the detection of mitochondrial DNA during infection...
March 27, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337269/the-role-of-prrx1-in-the-apoptosis-of-a549-cells-induced-by-cisplatin
#11
Hongbin Zhu, Gengyun Sun, Jiahui Dong, Liming Fei
Paired related homeobox1 (PRRX1) was a newly identified Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. It was found that the decreased expression of PRRX1 in breast cancer and liver cancer could enable tumor cells to obtain tumor stem cell characteristics in vitro studies. However, the role of PRRX1 in lung cancer was still unknown. The down-regulated PRRX1 gene in A549 cells was established by slow virus infection in this study. The apoptosis of A549 cells was observed after the treatment of different concentrations of cisplatin and the role of PRRX1 in the apoptosis of A549 cells was explored...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332314/the-mitochondrial-hinge-protein-uqcrh-is-a-novel-prognostic-factor-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Eun-Ran Park, Sang-Bum Kim, Jee-San Lee, Yang-Hyun Kim, Dong-Hyoung Lee, Eung-Ho Cho, Sun-Hoo Park, Chul Ju Han, Bu-Yeo Kim, Dong Wook Choi, Young Do Yoo, Ami Yu, Jae Won Lee, Ja June Jang, Young Nyun Park, Kyung-Suk Suh, Kee-Ho Lee
Alterations in mitochondrial respiration contribute to the development and progression of cancer via abnormal biogenesis, including generation of reactive oxygen species. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein (UQCRH) consists of the cytochrome bc1 complex serving respiration in mitochondria. In the present study, we analyzed UQCRH abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with clinical outcomes of patients. UQCRH expression in HCC was determined via semiquantitative and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of 96 surgically resected HCC tissues positive for hepatitis B virus surface antigen...
April 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329914/ginsenoside-rg3-restores-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-aberrant-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-inhibits-virus-propagation
#13
Seong-Jun Kim, Jae Young Jang, Eun-Jung Kim, Eun Kyung Cho, Dae Gyun Ahn, Chonsaeng Kim, Han Seul Park, Soung Won Jeong, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim, Ji-Hyung Lee, Aleem Siddiqui
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters mitochondrial dynamics associated with persistent viral infection and suppression of innate immunity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also a pathologic feature of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. Despite the high efficacy of DAAs, their treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C in interferon-sparing regimens occasionally produces undesirable side effects such as fatigue, migraine and other conditions, which may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we show that clinically prescribed DAAs, including Sofosbuvir, affect mitochondrial dynamics...
March 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314479/new-insights-into-the-effects-and-mechanism-of-a-classic-traditional-chinese-medicinal-formula-on-influenza-prevention
#14
Huan Chen, Chong Jie, Lu-Ping Tang, He Meng, Xiao-Bo Li, Yan-Bing Li, Le-Xing Chen, Chang Yan, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Rong-Rong He
BACKGROUND: KangBingDu (KBD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicinal formula widely used to treat influenza. However, little information is available from controlled studies regarding the anti-influenza pharmacological activities of KBD and its underlying mechanisms, at least partly due to the lack of appropriate study models. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that KBD might provide a protection against influenza infection by reducing the host's susceptibility to viruses...
April 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295214/negative-regulators-of-the-rig-i-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#15
REVIEW
Kendra M Quicke, Michael S Diamond, Mehul S Suthar
Upon recognition of specific molecular patterns on microbes, host cells trigger an innate immune response, which culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFNs), pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and restricts pathogen replication and spread within the host. At each stage of this response, there are stimulatory and inhibitory signals that regulate the magnitude, quality, and character of the response. Positive regulation promotes an antiviral state to control and eventually clear infection, whereas negative regulation dampens inflammation and prevents immune-mediated tissue damage...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288321/phomopsis-longicolla-rna-virus-1-novel-virus-at-the-edge-of-myco-and-plant-viruses
#16
Lenka Hrabáková, Igor Koloniuk, Karel Petrzik
The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)...
March 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277148/adverse-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-liver-hepatocytes-and-endothelium-in-hiv-patients-an-ultrastructural-perspective
#17
Sarah Chwiki, Maria Mercedes Campos, Mary E McLaughlin, David E Kleiner, Joseph A Kovacs, Caryn G Morse, Mones S Abu-Asab
Human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral therapy (ART) together can be far more detrimental to liver cells than either of the two unaided. However, ultrastructural aspects of the synergistic effects of HIV and ART have been understudied. In a patient cohort receiving ART, this study characterizes ultrastructurally sinusoidal degeneration, hepatocytic aberrations, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of bulky lipid droplets (steatosis), and occlusion of sinusoidal lumina. Mitochondrial dysfunction causes the accumulation of acetyl-CoA which leads to insulin upregulation and resistance, lipid synthesis, and steatosis...
March 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273895/the-dynamic-interacting-landscape-of-mapl-reveals-essential-functions-for-sumoylation-in-innate-immunity
#18
Karine Doiron, Vanessa Goyon, Etienne Coyaud, Sanjeeva Rajapakse, Brian Raught, Heidi M McBride
Activation of the innate immune response triggered by dsRNA viruses occurs through the assembly of the Mitochondrial Anti-Viral Signaling (MAVS) complex. Upon recognition of viral dsRNA, the cytosolic receptor RIG-I is activated and recruited to MAVS to activate the immune signaling response. We here demonstrate a strict requirement for a mitochondrial anchored protein ligase, MAPL (also called MUL1) in the signaling events that drive the transcriptional activation of antiviral genes downstream of Sendai virus infection, both in vivo and in vitro...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272885/lead-development-of-thiazolylsulfonamides-with-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitory-action
#19
Fabrizio Carta, Alexander Birkmann, Tamara Pfaff, Helmut Buschmann, Wilfried Schwab, Holger Zimmermann, Alfonso Maresca, Claudiu T Supuran
A series of congeners structurally related to pritelivir, N-[5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-2-[4-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]acetamide, a helicase-primase inhibitor for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, was prepared. The synthesized primary and secondary sulfonamides were investigated as inhibitors of six physiologically and pharmacologically relevant human (h) carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic enzymes hCA I and II, the mitochondrial ones hCA VA and VB, and the transmembrane, tumor associated hCA IX and XII...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265856/dram-is-involved-in-regulating-nucleoside-analog-induced-neuronal-autophagy-in-a-p53-independent-manner
#20
Ziyun Gao, Junqi Shan, Bishi Wang, Luxin Qiao, Dexi Chen, Yulin Zhang
The widespread use of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has not decreased the prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a type of neurodegenerative disease, even though cART effectively inhibits virus colonization in the central nervous system. Therefore, anti-retroviral agents cannot be fully excluded from the pathogenesis of HAND. Our previous study reported that long-term nucleoside analogue (NA) exposure induced mitochondrial toxicity in the cortical neurons of HAND patients and mice, but the exact mechanism of NA-associated neurotoxicity has remained unclear...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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