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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913593/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-vmpfc-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#1
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, SDNN) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913387/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#2
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913110/downregulated-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions...
November 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#4
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912171/the-topographical-distribution-of-epileptic-spikes-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-with-and-without-photosensitivity
#5
P R Bauer, K Gorgels, W Spetgens, N E C van Klink, F S S Leijten, J W Sander, G H Visser, M Zijlmans
OBJECTIVE: Up to 30% of people with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) have photoparoxysmal responses (PPR). Recent studies report on structural and pathophysiological differences between people with JME with (JME+PPR) and without PPR (JME-PPR). We investigated whether electrophysiological features outside photic stimulation differ between these subtypes. METHODS: We analysed EEG recordings of people with JME at a tertiary epilepsy centre and an academic hospital...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#6
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#7
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911748/actions-of-steroids-new-neurotransmitters
#8
Lauren M Rudolph, Charlotte A Cornil, Melinda A Mittelman-Smith, Jennifer R Rainville, Luke Remage-Healey, Kevin Sinchak, Paul E Micevych
Over the past two decades, the classical understanding of steroid action has been updated to include rapid, membrane-initiated, neurotransmitter-like functions. While steroids were known to function on very short time spans to induce physiological and behavioral changes, the mechanisms by which these changes occur are now becoming more clear. In avian systems, rapid estradiol effects can be mediated via local alterations in aromatase activity, which precisely regulates the temporal and spatial availability of estrogens...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911325/autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunctions-as-a-basis-for-a-predictive-model-of-risk-of%C3%A2-neurological-disorders-in-subjects-with%C3%A2-prior-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Lap Ho, Marc Legere, Tongbin Li, Samara Levine, Ke Hao, Breanna Valcarcel, Giulio M Pasinetti
Autonomic dysfunction is very common in patients with dementia, and its presence might also help in differential diagnosis among dementia subtypes. Various central nervous system structures affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also implicated in the central autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. For example, deficits in central cholinergic function in AD could likely lead to autonomic dysfunction. We recently developed a simple, readily applicable evaluation for monitoring ANS disturbances in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910951/molecular-imaging-with-engineered-physiology
#11
Mitul Desai, Adrian L Slusarczyk, Ashley Chapin, Mariya Barch, Alan Jasanoff
In vivo imaging techniques are powerful tools for evaluating biological systems. Relating image signals to precise molecular phenomena can be challenging, however, due to limitations of the existing optical, magnetic and radioactive imaging probe mechanisms. Here we demonstrate a concept for molecular imaging which bypasses the need for conventional imaging agents by perturbing the endogenous multimodal contrast provided by the vasculature. Variants of the calcitonin gene-related peptide artificially activate vasodilation pathways in rat brain and induce contrast changes that are readily measured by optical and magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909992/roles-for-orexin-hypocretin-in-the-control-of-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#12
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909991/the-role-of-orexins-hypocretins-in-alcohol-use-and-abuse
#13
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909926/metals-as-chemical-tracers-to-discriminate-ecological-populations-of-threatened-franciscana-dolphins-pontoporia-blainvillei-from-argentina
#14
M B Romero, P Polizzi, L Chiodi, A Robles, K Das, M Gerpe
Franciscana dolphins are the most impacted small cetacean in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by IUCN. Essential (Fe, Mo, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co) and non-essential (Ag, Pb, Sn) trace elements (TEs) were measured in liver, kidney, and brain samples of by-catch Franciscana dolphins that were living in estuarine (n = 21) and marine (n = 21) habitats (1) to assess whether TEs posed a threat and (2) to evaluate the suitability of TEs for discriminating ecological populations of this species in Argentinean waters...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909404/prefrontal-cortex-activity-is-associated-with-biobehavioral-components-of-the-stress-response
#15
Muriah D Wheelock, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Tyler R Orem, Douglas A Granger, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Contemporary theory suggests that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function is associated with individual variability in the psychobiology of the stress response. Advancing our understanding of this complex biobehavioral pathway has potential to provide insight into processes that determine individual differences in stress susceptibility. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during a variation of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in 53 young adults. Salivary cortisol was assessed as an index of the stress response, trait anxiety was assessed as an index of an individual's disposition toward negative affectivity, and self-reported stress was assessed as an index of an individual's subjective psychological experience...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#16
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909004/pea3-transcription-factors-etv4-and-etv5-are-required-for-proper-hippocampal-dendrite-development-and-plasticity
#17
Paula Aldana Fontanet, Antonella Soledad Ríos, Fernando Cruz Alsina, Gustavo Paratcha, Fernanda Ledda
The proper formation and morphogenesis of dendrites is essential to the establishment of neuronal connectivity. We report that 2 members of the Pea3 family of transcription factors, Etv4 and Etv5, are expressed in hippocampal neurons during the main period of dendritogenesis, suggesting that they have a function in dendrite development. Here, we show that these transcription factors are physiological regulators of growth and arborization of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus. Gain and loss of function assays indicate that Etv4 and Etv5 are required for proper development of hippocampal dendritic arbors and spines...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908788/time-to-wake-up-studying-neurovascular-coupling-and-brain-wide-circuit-function-in-the-un-anesthetized-animal
#18
REVIEW
Yu-Rong Gao, Yuncong Ma, Qingguang Zhang, Aaron T Winder, Zhifeng Liang, Lilith Antinori, Patrick J Drew, Nanyin Zhang
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the noninvasive study of task-based and resting-state brain dynamics in humans by inferring neural activity from blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes. An accurate interpretation of the hemodynamic changes that underlie fMRI signals depends on the understanding of the quantitative relationship between changes in neural activity and changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation and volume. While there has been extensive study of neurovascular coupling in anesthetized animal models, anesthesia causes large disruptions of brain metabolism, neural responsiveness and cardiovascular function...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908617/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cellular-environment-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-thermal-doppler-flowmetry-and-microdialysis-study
#19
D Papadopoulos, A Filippidis, G Krommidas, G Vretzakis, K Paterakis, A Komnos, K N Fountas
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microdialysis enables assessment of regional metabolic physiology and provides biomarkers for clinical correlation in critical conditions, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of our current study was to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and microdialysis parameters (glucose, lactate, glycerol, pyruvate concentrations, and lactate/pyruvate metabolic ratio) in patients with SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with SAH were enrolled in our retrospective study...
November 18, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#20
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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