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mRNA degradation

Liyuan Mao, Qiongyun Chen, Ke Gong, Xiaolin Xu, Yurou Xie, Wenqing Zhang, Hanwei Cao, Tianhui Hu, Xiaoting Hong, Yan-Yan Zhan
Hyperactivated glucose uptake and glycolytic metabolism are considered as a hallmark of cancer. Berberine, a natural alkaloid with tumor‑selective anticancer effects, has been shown to promote glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and cells. However, whether and how berberine regulates the glucose metabolism of cancer cells are still poorly understood. In the present study, we revealed that berberine, which suppressed the growth of colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and KM12C, greatly inhibited the glucose uptake and the transcription of glucose metabolic genes, GLUT1, LDHA and HK2 in these two cell lines as assessed by RT‑qPCR...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Qingfen Yu, Sameh Othman, Sabyasachi Dasgupta, Thorsten Auth, Gerhard Gompper
Nanoparticles in biological systems encounter lipid-bilayer membranes as barriers. They interact with plasma membranes, membranous organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, and intracellular and extracellular vesicles, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and exosomes. Extracellular vesicles have recently attracted particular attention, as they are involved in the transmission of biological signals and as regulators for biological processes. For example, exosomes, small vesicles containing proteins, mRNA, and miRNA, that are released by cells into the extracellular environment, have been suggested to participate in tumor metastasis...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Xun Liu, Yang Zhang, Zhanhong Hu, Qian Li, Lu Yang, Guoqiang Xu
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays important roles in the regulation of protein stability, localization, and activity. A myriad of studies have focused on the functions of ubiquitin ligases E3s and deubiquitinating enzymes DUBs due to their specificity in the recognition of downstream substrates. However, the roles of the most ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes E2s are not completely understood except that they transport the activated ubiquitin and form E2-E3 protein complexes. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme CDC34 can promote the degradation of downstream targets through the UPS whereas its non-catalytic functions are still elusive...
March 21, 2018: Protein Journal
Guibin Cui, Fengli Sun, Xinmei Gao, Kunliang Xie, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi
Melatonin-mediated osmotic tolerance was attributed to increased antioxidant capacity, energy metabolism, osmoregulation and autophagy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Melatonin is known to play multiple roles in plant abiotic stress tolerance. However, its role in wheat has been rarely investigated. In this study, 25% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used to simulate osmotic stress, and wheat seeds and seedlings were treated with different concentrations of melatonin under PEG stress. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques were used to identify the differentially accumulated proteins from melatonin-treated and non-treated seedlings...
March 21, 2018: Planta
Tomasz Herjan, Lingzi Hong, Jodi Bubenik, Katarzyna Bulek, Wen Qian, Caini Liu, Xiao Li, Xing Chen, Hui Yang, Suidong Ouyang, Hao Zhou, Junjie Zhao, Kommireddy Vasu, Eric Cockman, Mark Aronica, Kewal Asosingh, Donny D Licatalosi, Jun Qin, Paul L Fox, Thomas A Hamilton, Donna Driscoll, Xiaoxia Li
Mechanisms that degrade inflammatory mRNAs are well known; however, stabilizing mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that Act1, an interleukin-17 (IL-17)-receptor-complex adaptor, binds and stabilizes mRNAs encoding key inflammatory proteins. The Act1 SEFIR domain binds a stem-loop structure, the SEFIR-binding element (SBE), in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Cxcl1 mRNA, encoding an inflammatory chemokine. mRNA-bound Act1 directs formation of three compartmentally distinct RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) that regulate three disparate events in inflammatory-mRNA metabolism: preventing mRNA decay in the nucleus, inhibiting mRNA decapping in P bodies and promoting translation...
April 2018: Nature Immunology
Hongyang Quan, Qianqian Fan, Chuang Li, Yan-Ying Wang, Lin Wang
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated, when the folding capacity is compromised in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To date, most studies focused on the coding genes and microRNAs in UPR. Other non-coding RNAs affected by UPR and their roles in UPR have not been systematically studied. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as powerful epigenetic regulators. In this study, we transcriptomically profiled the lncRNAs and mRNAs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts under ER stress, and identified many differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kathryn E Pendleton, Sung Kyun Park, Olga V Hunter, Stefan M Bresson, Nicholas K Conrad
Transcriptome analysis of human cells has revealed that intron retention controls the expression of a large number of genes with diverse cellular functions. Detained introns (DI) constitute a subgroup of transcripts with retained introns that are not exported to the cytoplasm but instead remain in the nucleus. Previous studies reported that the splicing of DIs in the CLK1 transcript are posttranscriptionally induced to produce mature mRNA in the absence of new transcription. Thus, CLK1-DI serves as a precursor or "reservoir" for the CLK1 mRNA...
March 21, 2018: RNA
Jie Meng, Wen-Xiong Wang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shimpei Morimoto, Koji Yahara
Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays...
March 2018: Heliyon
Monica Traverso, Stefania Assereto, Serena Baratto, Michele Iacomino, Marina Pedemonte, Maria Cristina Diana, Marta Ferretti, Paolo Broda, Carlo Minetti, Elisabetta Gazzerro, Francesca Madia, Claudio Bruno, Federico Zara, Chiara Fiorillo
We present a 13-year-old patient with persistent increase of serum Creatine Kinase (CK) and myalgia after exertion. Skeletal muscle biopsy showed marked reduction of dystrophin expression leading to genetic analysis of DMD gene by MLPA, which detected a single deletion of exon 78. To the best of our knowledge, DMD exon 78 deletion has never been described in literature and, according to prediction, it should lead to loss of reading frame in the dystrophin gene. To further assess the actual effect of exon 78 deletion, we analysed cDNA from muscle mRNA...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Ping-Er Wang, Lei Zhang, Jun Ying, Xing Jin, Cheng Luo, Shibing Xu, Rui Dong, Luwei Xiao, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage degeneration plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushenhuoxue formula (BSHXF) has been widely used in the treatment of OA in clinics. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the chondroprotective effect of BSHXF remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of BSHXF on OA mice model. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of BSHXF on destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced chondrocyte degradation in OA mice model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Gwang Hun Park, Hun Min Song, Su Bin Park, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Hyun-Seok Kim, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Because twigs of Cinnamomum cassia (TC) have been reported to exert anti-cancer activity, the mechanistic study for TC's anti-cancer activity is required. Thus, we elucidated the potential molecular mechanism of TC's anti-proliferative effect and the induction of apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: How water extracts form TC (TC-HW) was used in this study. Anti-cell proliferative effect of TC-HW was evaluated by MTT assay. The change of protein or mRNA level by TC-HW was evaluated by Western blot and RT-RCR, respectively...
January 25, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Wolf Achim Hassenpflug, Tobias Obser, Julia Bode, Florian Oyen, Ulrich Budde, Sonja Schneppenheim, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Maria Alexandra Brehm
Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) is caused by severe ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) deficiency due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene. Previous studies suggest three possible disease mechanisms: (1) reduced secretion of ADAMTS13 variants, (2) impaired proteolytic activity, (3) defective biosynthesis due to nonsense-mediated decay. Expression studies have failed to establish a clear genotype/phenotype correlation that could explain the significant variability in the age of onset and patients' clinical courses...
March 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Mahmood Ahmad Khan, Mohd Jahir Khan
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, affecting almost 1% of world population. Although the exact cause of RA is not known but the complex interaction between inflammatory mediators like tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide (NO) is accountable for cartilage destruction in joints. Gold is used for arthritis treatment since long without knowing its mechanism of action. Hence, the present study was designed to assess antiarthritic activity of nanogold (AuNGs) in collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) rat model by virtue of decreasing inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress...
March 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Airi Ohsaki, Yuki Miyano, Rei Tanaka, Sei-Ichi Tanuma, Shuji Kojima, Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto
Skin inflammation is caused by excessive production of cytokines and chemokines in response to an external stimulus, such as radiation, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism of γ-irradiation-induced IL-6 production mediated by P2Y11 receptors in epidermal cells. After irradiation of HaCaT cells derived from human epidermal keratinocytes with 5 Gy of γ-rays (137 Cs : 0.78 Gy/min), IL-6 production was unchanged at 24 h after γ-irradiation, but was increased at 48 h...
March 16, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Chengliang Zhang, Yanfeng Zhang, Hong Zhu, Jiajia Hu, Zhongshang Xie
Cardiac fibrosis is associated with diverse heart diseases. In response to different pathological irritants, cardiac fibroblasts may be induced to proliferate and differentiate into cardiac myofibroblasts, thus contributing to cardiac fibrosis. TGF-β signaling is implicated in the development of heart failure through the induction of cardiac fibrosis. C-Ski, an inhibitory regulator of TGF-β signaling, has been reported to suppress TGF-β1-induced human cardiac fibroblasts' proliferation and ECM protein increase; however, the underlying molecular mechanism needs further investigation...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Chun Wang, Susan Hockerman, E Jon Jacobsen, Yael Alippe, Shaun R Selness, Heidi R Hope, Jeffrey L Hirsch, Stephen J Mnich, Matthew J Saabye, William F Hood, Sheri L Bonar, Yousef Abu-Amer, Ariela Haimovich, Hal M Hoffman, Joseph B Monahan, Gabriel Mbalaviele
p38α activation of multiple effectors may underlie the failure of global p38α inhibitors in clinical trials. A unique inhibitor (CDD-450) was developed that selectively blocked p38α activation of the proinflammatory kinase MK2 while sparing p38α activation of PRAK and ATF2. Next, the hypothesis that the p38α-MK2 complex mediates inflammasome priming cues was tested. CDD-450 had no effect on NLRP3 expression, but it decreased IL-1β expression by promoting IL-1β mRNA degradation. Thus, IL-1β is regulated not only transcriptionally by NF-κB and posttranslationally by the inflammasomes but also posttranscriptionally by p38α-MK2...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Sung Eun Kim, Jae Yong Lee, Kyu-Sik Shim, Sunghee Lee, Kyoengwoo Min, Ji-Hoon Bae, Hak-Jun Kim, Kyeongsoon Park, Hae-Ryong Song
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sulfasalazine-containing hyaluronic acid (SASP/HA) systems on in vitro anti-inflammation and the alleviation of cartilage degradation in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated synoviocytes and a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA). The SASP/HA resulted in long-term release of SASP from the SASP/HA for up to 60 days in a sustained manner. In vitro studies performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay revealed that the SASP/HA was able to effectively and dose-dependently inhibit the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated synoviocytes...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Limei Xu, Chongmiao Zhang, Pengcheng Xu, Xiaochang C Wang
Traditional culture methods may underestimate the tolerance of microorganisms to disinfectants because of the existence of viable but nonculturable or sublethally injured cells after disinfection. The selection of a strict method is crucial for the evaluation of disinfection performance. The actions of 2 typical disinfectants - ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine - on the fecal indicator Escherichia coli were investigated by the detection of culturability, membrane permeability, metabolic activity, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Christelle Sanchez, Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Cécile Lambert, Fanny Comblain, Edwin DePauw, Yves Henrotin
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation but also by other joint tissues modifications like subchondral bone sclerosis. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to compare secretome of osteoblast isolated from sclerotic (SC) or non sclerotic (NSC) area of OA subchondral bone. DESIGN: Secretome was analyzed using differential quantitative and relative label free analysis on nanoUPLC G2 HDMS system. mRNA of the more differentially secreted proteins were quantified by RT-PCR in cell culture from 5 other patients...
2018: PloS One
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