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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792880/molecular-alterations-during-larval-development-of-haemonchus-contortus-in-vitro-are-under-tight-post-transcriptional-control
#1
Guangxu Ma, Tao Wang, Pasi K Korhonen, Ching-Seng Ang, Nicholas A Williamson, Neil D Young, Andreas J Stroehlein, Ross S Hall, Anson V Koehler, Andreas Hofmann, Robin B Gasser
In this study, we explored the molecular alterations in the developmental switch from the L3 to the exsheathed L3 (×L3) and to the L4 stage of Haemonchus contortus in vitro using an integrated transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approach. Totals of 9,754 mRNAs, 88 microRNAs (miRNAs) and 1,591 proteins were identified, and 6,686 miRNA-mRNA pairs inferred in all larval stages studied. Approximately 16% of transcripts in the combined transcriptome (representing all three larval stages) were expressed as proteins, and there were positive correlations (r = 0...
May 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791863/role-of-gw182-proteins-in-the-cell
#2
REVIEW
Saife Niaz, Mahboob Ul Hussain
GW182 proteins interact directly with the argonaute proteins and constitute key components of miRNA repressor complexes (miRISC) in metazoans. As argonautes are insufficient for silencing they recruit the GW182 s that act as scaffold proteins inducing downstream translational repression, target mRNA deadenylation and exonucleolytic mRNA degradation. Besides their role as part of repressor complexes inside the cell, they function in wide variety of cellular processes as highlighted in this review. The present review summarises and discusses in detail our current knowledge of the GW182 s and their role inside the cell...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790918/temporal-and-tissue-specific-variability-of-smn-protein-levels-in-mouse-models-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#3
Ewout Jn Groen, Elena Perenthaler, Natalie L Courtney, Crispin Y Jordan, Hannah K Shorrock, Dinja van der Hoorn, Yu-Ting Huang, Lyndsay M Murray, Gabriella Viero, Thomas H Gillingwater
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by deleterious variants in SMN1 that lead to a marked decrease in survival motor neuron (SMN) protein expression. Humans have a second SMN gene (SMN2) that is almost identical to SMN1. However, due to alternative splicing the majority of SMN2 mRNA is translated into a truncated, unstable protein that is quickly degraded. Because the presence of SMN2 provides a unique opportunity for therapy development in SMA patients, the mechanisms that regulate SMN2 splicing and mRNA expression have been elucidated in great detail...
May 22, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790574/investigations-on-velvet-regulatory-mutants-confirm-the-role-of-host-tissue-acidification-and-secretion-of-proteins-in-the-pathogenesis-of-botrytis-cinerea
#4
Nathalie Müller, Michaela Leroch, Julia Schumacher, David Zimmer, Anne Könnel, Klaus Klug, Thomas Leisen, David Scheuring, Frederik Sommer, Timo Mühlhaus, Michael Schroda, Matthias Hahn
The Botrytis cinerea VELVET complex regulates light-dependent development and virulence. The goal of this study was to identify common virulence defects of several VELVET mutants and to reveal their molecular basis. Growth, differentiation, physiology, gene expression and infection of fungal strains were analyzed, and quantitative comparisons of in planta transcriptomes and secretomes were performed. VELVET mutants showed reduced release of citric acid, the major acid secreted by the wild-type, whereas no significant role for oxalic acid was observed...
May 23, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790184/fat10-overexpression-disturbs-wisp1-protein-and-mrna-expression-to-promote-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#5
Jinlong Yan, Jun Lei, Leifeng Chen, Huan Deng, Dingxiang Dong, Tao Jin, Xiuxia Liu, Rongfa Yuan, Yumin Qiu, Jin Ge, Xiaogang Peng, Jianghua Shao
Recently, studies on transcriptome-proteome relationships have revealed mRNA/protein expression discordance for certain genes and speculated that protein post-translational modification (PTM) may be involved. However, there is currently no evidence to support this hypothesis. Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP1) is the downstream target gene of β-catenin and plays an important role in tumorigenesis and progression, but the expression and role of WISP1 in different tumor types are controversial. Here, we first confirmed WISP1 protein expression was significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and could be an independent predictor of poor prognosis for patients with HCC...
May 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789676/the-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-insertion-deletion-in-polymorphic-element-codes-for-an-aluya5-rna-that-downregulates-gene-expression
#6
REVIEW
Fernando F P Mafra, Pedro P Gattai, Michel M Macedo, Marcelo A Mori, Ronaldo C Araujo
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the synthesis and degradation of important bioactive peptides. The ACE gene has a 287-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism that controls ACE expression through a mechanism that remains elusive. In this study, we found that the 287-bp polymorphic element of the ACE gene, a member of the AluYa5 sub-family of Alu elements, codes for an RNA molecule that controls the levels of ACE mRNA. Transient transfection of a plasmid containing a CMV promoter upstream of the ACE polymorphic element resulted in significant expression of an AluYa5 RNA and reduced ACE mRNA expression as well as ACE enzymatic activity in AD 293 cells...
May 23, 2018: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788394/rna-interference-of-the-muscle-actin-gene-in-bed-bugs-exploring-injection-versus-topical-application-for-dsrna-delivery
#7
Sanjay Basnet, Shripat T Kamble
Bed bugs are one the most troublesome household pests that feed primarily on human blood. RNA interference (RNAi) is currently being pursued as a potential tool for insect population management and has shown efficacy against some phytophagous insects. We evaluated the different techniques to deliver dsRNA specific to bed bug muscle actin (dsactin) into bed bugs. Initially, stability of dsRNA in human blood was studied to evaluate the feasibility of feeding method. Adult bed bugs were injected with dsRNA between last thoracic segment and first abdominal segment on the ventral side, with a dose of 0...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787958/altered-tryptophan-catabolite-concentrations-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-associated-changes-in-hippocampal-subfield-volumes
#8
Kelly Doolin, Kelly A Allers, Sina Pleiner, Andre Liesener, Chloe Farrell, Leonardo Tozzi, Erik O'Hanlon, Darren Roddy, Thomas Frodl, Andrew Harkin, Veronica O'Keane
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan depletion is a well-replicated biological finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The kynurenine pathway (KP) and its rate-limiting tryptophan degrading enzyme, indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. IDO expression is driven by inflammatory cytokines, providing a putative link between inflammation and neuropathology. This study examined circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma tryptophan, kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) and whole blood mRNA expression of IDO in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with healthy controls (HC)...
May 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787757/dlx2-overexpression-enhanced-accumulation-of-type-ii-collagen-and-aggrecan-by-inhibiting-mmp13-expression-in-mice-chondrocytes
#9
Jianfei Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Jun Shi, Jiewen Dai, Steve Guofang Shen
Genetic studies revealed a crucial role of Distal-homebox (Dlx) genes in skeletal development, and our previous study demonstrated overexpressing Dlx2 in neural crest cells led to abnormal cartilage structure, including ectopic cartilage in the maxillary region and nasal bone in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate how Dlx2 overexpression affects chondrogenesis in mouse chondroblast cell line TMC23 and the underlying mechanism. We first demonstrated that Dlx2 expression was upregulated during chondrogenesis in TMC23 cells...
May 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785401/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-mirnas-a-critical-review-through-a-functional-view
#10
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Moran-Moguel, Stefania Petarra-Del Rio, Evangelina E Mayorquin-Galvan, Maria G Zavala-Cerna
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with severe joint inflammation and destruction associated with an inflammatory environment. The etiology behind RA remains to be elucidated; most updated concepts include the participation of environmental, proteomic, epigenetic, and genetic factors. Epigenetic is considered the missing link to explain genetic diversification among RA patients. Within epigenetic factors participating in RA, miRNAs are defined as small noncoding molecules with a length of approximately 22 nucleotides, capable of gene expression modulation, either negatively through inhibition of translation and degradation of the mRNA or positively through increasing the translation rate...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782974/molecular-therapy-using-sirna-recent-trends-and-advances-of-multi-target-inhibition-of-cancer-growth
#11
REVIEW
Shweta Jain, Kamla Pathak, Ankur Vaidya
RNA interference (RNAi) therapy, harnessed to produce a new class of drugs for treatment, has drawn attention and seen steady progress over the years. Molecular therapy using biological macromolecules small interfering RNA (siRNA) for gene silencing has received significant attention to target cancer-related genes. Basically, siRNA molecules bind to messenger RNAs (mRNA) by complementary base pairing, to induce degradation of the mRNA and/or block protein synthesis. Numerous genes and gene related proteins have been reported till date to target in siRNA based cancer therapy...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782489/systematic-identification-of-factors-mediating-accelerated-mrna-degradation-in-response-to-changes-in-environmental-nitrogen
#12
Darach Miller, Nathan Brandt, David Gresham
Cellular responses to changing environments frequently involve rapid reprogramming of the transcriptome. Regulated changes in mRNA degradation rates can accelerate reprogramming by clearing or stabilizing extant transcripts. Here, we measured mRNA stability using 4-thiouracil labeling in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a nitrogen upshift and found that 78 mRNAs are subject to destabilization. These transcripts include Nitrogen Catabolite Repression (NCR) and carbon metabolism mRNAs, suggesting that mRNA destabilization is a mechanism for targeted reprogramming of the transcriptome...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782024/investigation-of-rna-synthesis-using-5-bromouridine-labelling-and-immunoprecipitation
#13
Rikke H Kofoed, Cristine Betzer, Søren Lykke-Andersen, Ewa Molska, Poul H Jensen
When steady state RNA levels are compared between two conditions, it is not possible to distinguish whether changes are caused by alterations in production or degradation of RNA. This protocol describes a method for measurement of RNA production, using 5-Bromouridine labelling of RNA followed by immunoprecipitation, which enables investigation of RNA synthesized within a short timeframe (e.g., 1 h). The advantage of 5-Bromouridine-labelling and immunoprecipitation over the use of toxic transcriptional inhibitors, such as α-amanitin and actinomycin D, is that there are no or very low effects on cell viability during short-term use...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779621/inhibition-of-notch-signaling-pathway-temporally-postpones-the-cartilage-degradation-progress-of-temporomandibular-joint-arthritis-in-mice
#14
Xueting Luo, Yangmei Jiang, Ruiye Bi, Nan Jiang, Songsong Zhu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to explore the role of Notch signaling pathway in the initiation and progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA). METHODS: 48 mice were divided into DAPT-TMJOA, Control-TMJOA and Control-Sham groups. Animals received discectomy/Sham surgery in their right TMJ, following the DAPT/saline intra-articular injections every week. Mice were sacrificed at 1/4/8 weeks post-surgery. Safranin-O and H&E staining were performed on the TMJ sections for the modified Mankin's score...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777737/type-i-collagen-induces-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-into-myofibroblasts-through-yap-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation
#15
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Masayuki Yamato, Kazunori Mizuno, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takaaki Ogura, Yuji Atsuzawa, Takashi Ikejima
In organ fibrosis, mechanical stress and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) promote differentiation into myofibroblast from mesenchymal cells, leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling or active synthesis, deposition or degradation of ECM components. A major component of ECM, type I collagen (col I) triple helical molecules assemble into fibrils or are denatured to gelatin without triple-helicity in remodeling. However, whether changes of ECM components in remodeling have influence on mesenchymal cell differentiation remains elusive...
May 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774773/mir-711-induced-down-regulation-of-angiopoietin-1-mediates-neuronal-cell-death
#16
Boris Sabirzhanov, Alan Faden, Taryn Aubrecht, Rebecca Henry, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan A Stoica
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a well-known endothelial growth factor but its effects on neurons have yet to be elucidated. We show that Ang-1 is rapidly down-regulated in the injured brain after controlled cortical impact (CCI), a mouse experimental TBI model and in etoposide-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Ang-1 treatment inhibits etoposide-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa, Puma, Bim, and Bax; reduces markers of caspase-dependent (cytochrome c release/caspase activation) and caspase-independent (apoptosis-inducing factor release) pathways; and limits neuronal cell death...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774080/microrna-193b-3p-regulates-chondrogenesis-and-chondrocyte-metabolism-by-targeting-hdac3
#17
Fangang Meng, Zhiwen Li, Zhiqi Zhang, Zibo Yang, Yan Kang, Xiaoyi Zhao, Dianbo Long, Shu Hu, Minghui Gu, Suiwen He, Peihui Wu, Zongkun Chang, Aishan He, Weiming Liao
Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) plays a pivotal role in the repression of cartilage-specific gene expression in human chondrocytes. The aim of this study was to determine whether microRNA-193b-3p (miR-193b-3p) regulates the expression of HDAC3 during chondrogenesis and chondrocyte metabolism. Methods: miR-193b-3p expression was assessed in a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) model of chondrogenesis, in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-treated primary human chondrocytes (PHCs), and in non-degraded and degraded cartilage...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774077/long-noncoding-rna-mir503hg-a-prognostic-indicator-inhibits-tumor-metastasis-by-regulating-the-hnrnpa2b1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Hui Wang, Linhui Liang, Qiongzhu Dong, Lin Huan, Jia He, Botai Li, Chen Yang, Haojie Jin, Lin Wei, Chengtao Yu, Fangyu Zhao, Jinjun Li, Ming Yao, Wenxin Qin, Lunxiu Qin, Xianghuo He
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of their specific association with hepatocarcinogenesis have not been fully explored. Methods: miR503HG was identified by microarray and validated by real-time PCR. Survival analysis was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and assessed using the log-rank test. In vitro and in vivo assays were preformed to explore the biological effects of miR503HG in HCC cells. The interaction of miR503HG with HNRNPA2B1 was identified by RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773580/resistin-inhibits-neuronal-autophagy-through-toll-like-receptor-4
#19
Jie Miao, Yacir Benomar, Sarah Al-Rifai, Ghislaine Poizat, Laure Riffault, Delphine Crepin, Mohammed Taouis
Autophagy is as a non-selective degradation pathway induced in energy-deprived cells and in non-starved cells by participating in cellular inflammatory responses mainly through the elimination of injured and aged mitochondria that constitute an important source of reactive oxygen species. We have previously reported that resistin/TLR4 signaling pathway induces inflammation and insulin resistance in neuronal cell. However, the impact of resistin-induced inflammation on neuronal autophagy is unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that resistin-induced neuroinflammation could be attributed, at least partially, to the impairment of autophagy pathways in neuronal cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769535/systematic-pan-cancer-analysis-of-somatic-allele-frequency
#20
Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath
Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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