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Hepatitis C combination therapy and the effects of alcohol

Zhi-Ming Ding, Yue Xiao, Xikun Wu, Haixia Zou, Shurong Yang, Yiyun Shen, Juehua Xu, Heather C Workman, Amy L Usborne, Haiqing Hua
Understanding of the temporal changes of hepatic lesions in the progression and regression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is vital to elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH, and critical to the development of a strategy for NASH pharmacotherapy. There are challenges in studying hepatic lesion progression and regression in NASH patients due to the slow development of NASH in humans, one being the requirement for multiple biopsies during the longitudinal follow-up. Here we studied lesion progression and regression in the diet-induced animal model of NASH by application or removal of the pathogenic diet for multiple time periods...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alexandre Louvet, Mark R Thursz, Dong Joon Kim, Julien Labreuche, Stephen Atkinson, Sandeep Singh Sidhu, John G O'Grady, Evangelos Akriviadis, Emmanouil Sinakos, Robert L Carithers, Marie-José Ramond, Willis C Maddrey, Timothy R Morgan, Alain Duhamel, Philippe Mathurin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 11 randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids, pentoxifylline, or their combination in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. We compared the effects of the treatments on survival for 28 days or 6 months, and response to treatment based on the Lille model. METHODS: We searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis...
May 5, 2018: Gastroenterology
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Scott Chamberland, Jamila H Champsi, Laura C Gittleman, Daniel G Korn, Jennifer B Lai, Jennifer O Lam, Mary Patricia Pauly, Charles P Quesenberry, Joanna Ready, Varun Saxena, Suk I Seo, David J Witt, Michael J Silverberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment with the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; some patients can be treated with an 8-week course. Guidelines recommend a 12-week treatment course for black patients, but studies have not compared the effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks in black patients who are otherwise eligible for an 8-week treatment regimen. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members with HCV genotype 1 infection who were eligible for 8 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (treatment-naïve, no cirrhosis, no HIV infection, level of HCV RNA <6 million IU/mL) and were treated for 8 or 12 weeks from October 2014 through December 2016...
June 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
María C Hernández-Rodas, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverría, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, Paola Illesca, Patricio Muñoz, Alicia Corbari, Nalda Romero, Daniel Gonzalez-Mañan, Luis A Videla
SCOPE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of liver disease, for which there is no validated drug therapy at present time. In this respect, the PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) modulate lipid metabolism in the liver, and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has hepatoprotective effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of combined DHA (C22:6 n-3) and EVOO administration to mice on oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances induced by high-fat diet (HFD) is evaluated...
December 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zahid Ahmad Butt, Nabin Shrestha, Stanley Wong, Margot Kuo, Dionne Gesink, Mark Gilbert, Jason Wong, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Hasina Samji, Jane A Buxton, James C Johnston, Victoria J Cook, David Roth, Theodora Consolacion, Michelle Murti, Travis S Hottes, Gina Ogilvie, Robert Balshaw, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of social conditions and infections may affect HIV/HCV disease risk and progression. We examined the changes in relationship of these social conditions and infections on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections over time in British Columbia during 1990-2013. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes ~1.5 million individuals tested for HIV or HCV, or reported as a case of HCV, HIV, HBV, or tuberculosis linked to administrative healthcare databases...
2017: PloS One
Chien-Wei Su, Ying-Ying Yang, Han-Chieh Lin
Portal hypertension (PHT) is a frequent and severe complication of cirrhosis. PHT may lead to the development of various complications with high mortality. Liver transplantation is the gold standard as a surgical curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Theoretically, etiological treatment focusing on the pathophysiology of the underlying disease should be the objective of the nonsurgical management of cirrhotic PHT. Chronic viral hepatitis is the major etiology of cirrhosis and PHT. In cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, antiviral therapies can suppress viral replication, ameliorate hepatic inflammation, regress fibrosis, and restore liver functional reserve...
February 2018: Hepatology International
Tingting Ren, Juanjuan Zhu, Lili Zhu, Mingliang Cheng
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is liver inflammation and a major threat to public health. Several pharmaceutical agents have been used for NASH therapy but their high-rate side effects limit the use. Blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) have anti-inflammation and antibacterial properties, and may be potential candidates for NASH therapy. To understand the molecular mechanism, Sprague Dawley rats were used to create NASH models and received different treatments. Liver tissues were examined using HE (hematoxylin and eosin) and ORO (Oil Red O) stain, and serum biochemical indices were measured...
February 27, 2017: Nutrients
Maria Pilar Ballester-Ferré, Fernando Martínez, Natalia Garcia-Gimeno, Francisco Mora, Miguel A Serra
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. In the last 5 years, treatment for HCV infection has experienced a marked development. In 2014, the use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without concomitant weight-based ribavirin was approved with a very significant increase in the sustained virological response. However, new side effects have been associated. We report the first case of an HCV infected patient treated for 12 wk with the combination of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir plus ribavirin who developed a miliary tuberculosis (TB) infection while on therapy...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
Sunil Taneja, Sunil Tohra, Ajay Duseja, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Yogesh Kumar Chawla
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis and its sequel cirrhosis represent a major health care burden, and assessment of fibrosis by biopsy is gradually being replaced by noninvasive methods. In clinical practice, the determination of fibrosis stage is important, since patients with advanced fibrosis have faster progression to cirrhosis and antiviral therapy is indicated in these patients. AIMS: To assess the role of transient elastography (TE) and compare it with APRI and FIB4 for predicting liver fibrosis and assessing the effect of host and viral factors on fibrosis and treatment outcome in CHC patients...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Tim Zimmermann, Dietrich Hueppe, Stefan Mauss, Peter Buggisch, Heike Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Daniel Grimm, Peter R Galle, Ulrich Alshuth
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smoking has multiple effects on factors influencing hepatitis C and antiviral therapy, including lipid metabolism, fibrosis, platelet count and adherence aspects. The aim of this analysis was to determine the impact of smoking on hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy. METHODS: Data of two cohorts of an observational multicenter study including therapy-naïve patients infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with dual antiviral therapy (n=7,796) with pegylated interferon alpha 2a in combination with ribavirin, or triple antiviral therapy (n=1,122) containing telaprevir or boceprevir, were analysed...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Audrey L French, Anna Hotton, Mary Young, Marek Nowicki, Michael Augenbraun, Kathryn Anastos, Eric Seaberg, William Rosenberg, Marion G Peters
BACKGROUND: Isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) is a common serologic finding in HIV-infected persons, but the clinical significance is uncertain. We studied HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected women over time to determine whether the trajectory of liver disease progression is affected by isolated anti-HBc serologic status. METHODS: We performed serial enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) markers on HIV/HCV-coinfected women to assess liver disease progression trajectory over time comparing women with isolated anti-HBc to women with either negative HB serologies, anti-HBs alone, or anti-HBc and anti-HBs...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ignacio Novo-Veleiro, Lucía Alvela-Suárez, Antonio-Javier Chamorro, Rogelio González-Sarmiento, Francisco-Javier Laso, Miguel Marcos
Alcohol consumption and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a synergic hepatotoxic effect, and the coexistence of these factors increases the risk of advanced liver disease. The main mechanisms of this effect are increased viral replication and altered immune response, although genetic predisposition may also play an important role. Traditionally, HCV prevalence has been considered to be higher (up to 50%) in alcoholic patients than in the general population. However, the presence of advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or intravenous drug use (IDU) may have confounded the results of previous studies, and the real prevalence of HCV infection in alcoholic patients without ALD or prior IDU has been shown to be lower...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Tadashi Tsukamoto, Akishige Kanazawa, Sadatoshi Shimizu, Akihiro Murata, Masayuki Sakae, Shigeaki Kurihara, Tetsuzo Tashima, Sota Deguchi, Takashi Nakai, Yasuko Kawasaki, Kiyohide Kioka
Sorafenib has been a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) is still preferably performed in Japan because of its relatively good tumor-shrinking effect. We report a case of advanced multiple HCC with portal thrombus that responded to combination chemotherapy with sorafenib and repeat hepatic arterial infusion with a fine-powder formulation of cisplatin (IA-call®). A 57-year-old man presented for the treatment of HCC with alcoholic cirrhosis...
November 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Vicente Sperb Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira Antonello, Sandra Herrmann, Cristiane Valle Tovo
OBJECTIVES: HIV-related renal diseases are the leading causes of chronic kidney diseases worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pathological proteinuria and its risk factors among HIV patients. METHODS: A review of the medical records of 666 HIV-infected individuals aged 18 years or older in an urban HIV/AIDS clinic based in Porto Alegre in southern Brazil. Overt proteinuria was defined as a protein-to-creatinine ratio greater than 150 mg/g according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes...
October 2015: Clinics
Marie Feillant, Caroline Jézéquel, Hortensia Lison, Aurélien Delluc, Florence Tanné, Antonia Le Gruyer, Zeineb Ben Ali, Isabelle Renard, Marianne Latournerie, Yves Deugnier, Armand Garioud, Jean-François Cadranel, Dominique Guyader, Michel Robaszkiewicz, Jean-Baptiste Nousbaum
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In many countries, current treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C involves a combination of peginterferon and ribavirin, associated with a protease inhibitor for hepatitis C virus genotype 1. More recent and efficient less toxic antiviral treatments are now available for some patients. Thus, the decision to treat or to wait is challenging. The aims of this study were to: (a) estimate the proportion of treated patients, (b) evaluate the reasons for this decision, and (c) examine the patients' points-of-view in treatment decision...
February 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Phyllis C Tien
Visceral and hepatic adiposities have been associated with both cardiovascular and liver disease and are of concern in HIV-infected persons in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). The development of therapeutic targets to reduce visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons has been slow, because of early reports that attributed the excess adiposity to specific antiretroviral drugs. Visceral adiposity was initially thought to occur as part of a protease inhibitor-induced "HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome...
December 2015: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
I Ruiz, C Féray
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major complication of chronic liver diseases and particularly of cirrhosis whatever its etiology. Once encountered mainly in the endemic countries of hepatitis B and C, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (6/100,000) is parallel to the global development of diabetes, overweight and alcohol consumption. Little progress has been made for this cancer, whose mortality is 100 % at 10 years. Liver transplantation is the only truly curative treatment (survival more than 50 % at 10 years) since it allows the eradication of hepatocellular carcinoma and its essential cause, cirrhotic liver...
October 2015: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Juan Carlos Quer, Moisés Diago, Javier Crespo, Javier García-Samaniego, Rosa Morillas, Raúl Andrade, Miguel Ángel Simón
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is usually asymptomatic. The severity of the hepatic lesion in these patients at diagnosis varies and, from the histopathologic point of view, most have mild disease. A series of factors have been described that correlate with the progression of fibrosis in patients with mild fibrosis: age at diagnosis, the duration of the infection, male sex, HIV coinfection, transaminase levels during follow-up, alcohol consumption, metabolic factors such as diabetes and overweight, necroinflammatory activity in the initial biopsy, and the degree of steatosis...
July 2014: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
N Deborah Friedman, Joanne H Green, Hanna M Weber, Shiny Stephen, Stephen E Lane, Alvin Y Ting, Jonathan P Watson
BACKGROUND: Published clinical trials of the treatment of HCV are largely multicentre prospective pharmaceutical trials. Patients in clinical trials tend to have more favorable outcomes than patients in the 'real-world', due to strict patient selection and differences in treatment conditions and available resources. OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of Hepatitis C infected patients treated at the Barwon Health Liver Clinic with combination Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV) therapy and to determine factors associated with a treatment response...
September 2014: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
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