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psychological treatment

Gregory Plotnikoff, Melissa Barber
INTRODUCTION: Single-disorder or single-organ-system clinical practice guidelines are often of limited usefulness in guiding effective management of patients with chronic multidimensional signs and symptoms. The presence of multiple long-standing medical problems in a given patient despite intensive medical effort suggests that addressing systemic core imbalances could complement more narrowly focused approaches. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old man experiencing longstanding depression, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic pain in the context of additional refractory illnesses was assessed and treated, guided by a system-oriented approach to underlying core imbalances termed functional medicine...
October 14, 2016: Permanente Journal
Y Kimura, J Maeda, M Yamada, K Takahata, K Yokokawa, Y Ikoma, C Seki, H Ito, M Higuchi, T Suhara
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders occur because they increase the extracellular dopamine concentration by inhibiting re-uptake of extracellular dopamine at dopamine transporters. However, the psychological effects at low dopamine transporter occupancy have not been well demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychological effects, dopamine transporter occupancy, and dopamine release induced by a single oral administration of a clinical dose of mazindol...
October 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jone Trovik, Åse Vikanes
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) affects 1 % of all pregnant women and in western societies it is the most common cause for hospital admission during first trimester. The economic burden of the disease has barely been studied. To estimate the Israeli national burden of HG, Konikoff and co-workers obtained data retrospectively on hospital costs as well as loss of workdays from 184 women hospitalized due to HG from December 2010 until December 2013. Their findings emphasise the need for better treatment to reduce the burden of this disease both for the individual as well as the society...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Isabelle E Bauer, Martin Hautzinger, Thomas D Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. METHOD: We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer and Hautzinger, 2012)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Elizabeth P Shulman, Victoria Young, Eli Tsukayama, Steven M Brunwasser, Angela L Duckworth
Deliberate practice leads to world-class excellence across domains. In the current investigation, we examined whether psychologically "wise" interventions targeting expectancies and values-stock antecedents of ordinary effortful behaviors-could motivate nonexperts to engage in deliberate practice and improve their achievement. As a preliminary, we developed and validated a novel task measure of deliberate practice and confirmed its association with (a) expectancy-value beliefs, and (b) achievement in the nonexpert setting (Study 1)...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Vahideh Lajevardi, Afsaneh Ghayoumi, Robabeh Abedini, Hamed Hosseini, Azadeh Goodarzi, Zahra Akbari, Kosar Hedayat
BACKGROUND: Melasma's high prevalence and profound psychological impact on patients necessitate efficacious, economical, and safe therapeutic interventions. Adjunctive therapies such as tranexamic acid (TA) can enhance the therapeutic effect of standard treatments like hydroquinone 4% cream (HQ). OBJECTIVE: To conduct an assessor- and analyst-blinded, parallel, superiority, randomized controlled trial to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of oral TA plus HQ vs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Nora K Horick, Adoma Manful, Jan Lowery, Susan Domchek, Patricia Moorman, Constance Griffin, Kala Visvanathan, Claudine Isaacs, Anita Y Kinney, Dianne M Finkelstein
PURPOSE: Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. METHODS: Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Qiuyu Wang, Chuan Cao, Rui Guo, Xiaoge Li, Lele Lu, Wenping Wang, Shirong Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in an aesthetic surgery setting in the region of Southwest China, and to ascertain the differences in terms of body images between patients in the aesthetic setting and general Chinese population. This study tracked patient satisfaction with their body image changes while undergoing aesthetic medical procedures to identify whether the condition of patients who were presenting with BDD symptoms or their psychological symptoms could be improved by enhancing their appearance...
October 19, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Geoffrey L Dickens, Catherine Frogley, Fiona Mason, Katina Anagnostakis, Marco M Picchioni
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medicine which can cause significant side-effects. It is often prescribed off-license in severe cases of borderline personality disorder contrary to national treatment guidelines. Little is known about the experiences of those who take clozapine for borderline personality disorder. We explored the lived-experience of women in secure inpatient care who were prescribed clozapine for borderline personality disorder. FINDINGS: Adult females (N = 20) participated in audio-taped semi-structured interviews...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Motohiro Matoba
The newly revised 2014 Set of Standards for"Designated Cancer Care Hospitals"mandated the screening of all cancer patients6 for their physical and psychological suffering systematically in both outpatient and inpatient settings as well as rapid response to the suffering detected. It is a step forward as a cancer control policy, but because the pain associated with cancer changes by time depending on factors such as disease progression and treatment, it must be evaluated repeatedly. Simply complying with the standard by measuring once, say on admission or at the initial visit, will not help patients...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
A M Shaw, K A Arditte Hall, E Rosenfield, K R Timpano
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with elevated suicidality. Little is known about why BDD patients are at increased risk. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) could clarify suicidality in BDD, and theorizes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, while an acquired capability for suicide is necessary to attempt suicide. No study has investigated how BDD symptoms relate to IPTS constructs or mediators of the relationship between BDD and suicidality...
October 16, 2016: Body Image
Joanna Pietrzak, Paulina Kwarta, Michał Karbownik, Łukasz Mokros, Paula Zdanowicz, Dawid Miśkowiec, Andrzej Witusik, Adam Antczak, Tadeusz Pietras
: The progression of the inflammatory process in the course of rheumatoid arthiritis (RA) may cause a permanent destruction of joints, which in case of bigger ones (i.e. hip or knee) may be particularly a psychological burden for a patient. AIM: The aim of the study was to verify whether implantation of hip or knee endoprosthesis affect anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study enrolled a group of 128 rheumatoid arthritis patients, including 64 patients before and 64 patients after the joint replacement procedure...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
V E Radzinskii, I V Kuznetsova, Y B Uspenskaya, N B Repina, Y K Gusak, O M Zubova, D I Burchakov, A A Osmakova
Peri- and postmenopausal women commonly suffer from climacteric symptoms. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of dietary supplement Amberen to relieve vasomotor and psychosomatic symptoms during the course of a 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. General clinical assessment, evaluation using the Greene climacteric test and Spielberger-Hanin test, determination of plasma levels of gonadotropins, estradiol, leptin and apolipoproteins were used to evaluate 42-60-year-old women with vasomotor and psychosomatic menopausal symptoms...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Shannon Dorsey, Katie A McLaughlin, Suzanne E U Kerns, Julie P Harrison, Hilary K Lambert, Ernestine C Briggs, Julia Revillion Cox, Lisa Amaya-Jackson
Child and adolescent trauma exposure is prevalent, with trauma exposure-related symptoms, including posttraumatic stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms often causing substantial impairment. This article updates the evidence base on psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent trauma exposure completed for this journal by Silverman et al. (2008). For this review, we focus on 37 studies conducted during the seven years since the last review. Treatments are grouped by overall treatment family (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy), treatment modality (e...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
David P Jarmolowicz, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Sofis, Laura E Hatz, E Terry Mueller
Individuals often allow prior investments of time, money or effort to influence their current behavior. A tendency to allow previous investments to impact further investment, referred to as the sunk-cost fallacy, may be related to adverse psychological health. Unfortunately, little is known about the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and psychological symptoms or help seeking. The current study used a relatively novel approach (i.e.,'s Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing [AMT] service) to examine various aspects of psychological health in internet users (n = 1053) that did and did not commit the sunk-cost fallacy...
2016: SpringerPlus
Erin B Chapman, Jena Hansen-Honeycutt, Alan Nasypany, Russell T Baker, Jim May
BACKGROUND: Appropriate assessment and interventions for breathing patterns prior to assessment of the patient's musculoskeletal complaint may be beneficial. Breathing pattern disorders (BPDs) are remediable and influenced by biochemical, biomechanical, psychological, and/or unknown factors. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to demonstrate the integratration of a BPD assessment into a standard clinical musculoskeletal orthopedic examination. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT: The observation of a patient's breathing pattern begins when they enter the clinic, is followed by palpation and orthopedic tests, which allows for proper classification of BPDs...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Julian N Trollor, Carmela Salomon, Catherine Franklin
Mental illness is common in people with intellectual disability. They may also have physical health problems which can affect their mental state. Difficulties in communication can contribute to mental health problems being overlooked. These may present with changes in behaviour. Psychological management is usually preferable to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Behavioural approaches are the most appropriate way to manage challenging behaviour. If a drug is considered, prescribers should complete a thorough diagnostic assessment, exclude physical and environmental contributions to symptoms, and consider medical comorbidities before prescribing...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Stephen Macfarlane, Daniel O'Connor
Most patients with dementia have some behavioural and psychological symptoms. While aggression and agitation are easily recognised, symptoms such as apathy may be overlooked. Behavioural and psychological symptoms should be managed without drugs whenever possible. Although there is little evidence to support their use, antipsychotic drugs are often prescribed to people with dementia. Before prescribing it is important to exclude other causes of altered behaviour, such as pain or infection. Some symptoms may be artefacts of memory loss rather than psychosis...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Anshu K Jain, Mary L Fennell, Anees B Chagpar, Hannah K Connolly, Ingrid M Nembhard
Effective communication is a requirement in the teamwork necessary for improved coordination to deliver patient-centered, value-based cancer care. Communication is particularly important when care providers are geographically distributed or work across organizations. We review organizational and teams research on communication to highlight psychological safety as a key determinant of high-quality communication within teams. We first present the concept of psychological safety, findings about its communication effects for teamwork, and factors that affect it...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Angeline Traynor, Eimear Morrissey, Jonathan Egan, Brian E McGuire
BACKGROUND: Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a mode of treatment delivery. However, mixed findings have been reported for the effectiveness and acceptability of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Reviews
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