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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668058/i-introduction-understanding-medicines-and-medical-interventions
#1
Kristi L Lockhart, Frank C Keil
We live in an increasingly pharmacological and medical world, where children and adults frequently encounter alleged treatments for an enormous range of illnesses. How do we come to understand what heals and why? Here, 15 studies explore how 1,414 children (ages 5-11) and 882 adults construe the efficacies of different kinds of cures. Developmental patterns in folk physics, psychology, and biology lead to predictions about which expectations about cures will remain relatively constant across development and which will change...
June 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668053/commentary-what-heals-and-why-children-s-understanding-of-medical-treatments
#2
Karl S Rosengren, Matthew J Jiang, Charles W Kalish, David Menendez, Iseli G Hernandez
Lockhart and Keil have written an interesting monograph focusing on the development of reasoning about medicine, a relatively underexplored area of research with potentially broad implications with respect to the design of more-effective medical interventions. In a set of 15 studies with well over 2,200 participants, they examine how children and adults combine aspects of biological and psychological reasoning to create working models of medicine. Lockhart and Keil explore developmental changes in reasoning about illness and its treatment using medicines in terms of dualism (e...
June 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667860/educational-needs-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-pediatric-functional-constipation-a-us-survey-of-specialist-and-primary-care-clinicians
#3
Justin Barnes, Brandon Coleman, Sharon Hwang, Aleksandra Stolic, Athos Bousvaros, Samuel Nurko, Gregory D Salinas
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify opportunities among gastroenterologists and gastroenterology nurse practitioners (NPs)/physician assistants (PAs) for continuing medical education (CME) related to functional constipation. METHODS: An online, case-vignette survey was designed to identify and quantify practice patterns of pediatric gastroenterology clinicians. Case vignettes are a validated method for assessing clinician practice patterns. The survey consisted of three patient cases: a 3-year-old female with a 6-month history of constipation; a 6-year-old male with a 1-year history of constipation refractory to treatment and a sacral dimple with nearby tuft of hair; and a 16-year-old male with a 10-year history of constipation, and a sullen, depressed mood...
April 18, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667795/psychopharmacology
#4
Sahil Sekhon, George Kroumpouzos, John Koo
Most dermatologists evaluate and treat patients with psychological or psychiatric issues related to their skin disease. These patients often require psychopharmacologic therapies. Therefore, it is important for dermatologists to be familiar about psychopharmacologic treatments for diseases that fit into the overlap between psychiatry and dermatology. This review aims to provide a concise overview of psychopharmacology as it applies to dermatology. Psychotropic medications commonly used in psychodermatology, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics, are reviewed; safety profile and dosing recommendations are discussed...
April 18, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667722/acute-myelogenous-leukemia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#5
REVIEW
Ursula Creutzig, Matthew A Kutny, Ronald Barr, Richard F Schlenk, Raul C Ribeiro
The incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) increases progressively with age. Favorable genetic mutations are most prevalent in children, and unfavorable profiles increase proportionately in adolescents and young adults (AYA) and into later adulthood. Survival rates of AYA have improved over recent decades to 50-60%, but their accrual to clinical trials remains poor. In contrast to AYA with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the prognostic benefit for AYA with AML enrolled in pediatric compared with adult trials is minor and only seen when different protocols are used...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667326/total-glossolaryngectomy-cohort-study-n-25-survival-function-and-quality-of-life
#6
Yasmine Kamhieh, Hannah Fox, Sarah Healy, Emma Hallett, Stuart Quine, David Owens, Alun Tomkinson, Cellan Thomas, David Smith, Duncan Ingrams, Carl Passant, Laysan Pope, Connor Marnane, Sandeep Berry
Glossolaryngectomy is a major operation with significant biopsychosocial implications. Outcome data in the literature is limited. This study reports the overall survival rate (68% at 1 year) and functional outcomes. Despite the significant psychological impact of the lack of speech, all interviewed patients were glad they had had the operation. We argue based on these results that glossolaryngectomy remains an important option for certain motivated patients with limited treatment alternatives. This article is protected by copyright...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666932/-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-crps-an-update
#7
V Dimova, F Birklein
The acute phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is pathophysiologically characterized by an activation of the immune system and its associated inflammatory response. During the course of CRPS, central nervous symptoms like mechanical hyperalgesia, loss of sensation, and body perception disorders develop. Psychological factors such as pain-related anxiety and traumatic events might have a negative effect on the treatment outcome. While the visible inflammatory symptoms improve, the pain often persists...
April 17, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666751/an-open-trial-of-individualized-face-to-face-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-psychological-distress-in-parents-of-children-after-end-of-treatment-for-childhood-cancer-including-a-cognitive-behavioral-conceptualization
#8
Lisa Ljungman, Martin Cernvall, Ata Ghaderi, Gustaf Ljungman, Louise von Essen, Brjánn Ljótsson
Objective: A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666578/individual-experiences-in-four-cancer-patients-following-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy
#9
Tara C Malone, Sarah E Mennenga, Jeffrey Guss, Samantha K Podrebarac, Lindsey T Owens, Anthony P Bossis, Alexander B Belser, Gabrielle Agin-Liebes, Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
A growing body of evidence shows that existential and spiritual well-being in cancer patients is associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and serves as a buffer against depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy in treating cancer-related anxiety and depression. A double-blind controlled trial was performed, where 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned to treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665889/using-implementation-intentions-to-prevent-relapse-after-psychological-treatment-for-depression-the-smart-intervention
#10
Mike Lucock, Serena Bartys, Jade Cupac, Jaime Delgadillo, Charlotte Denton, Sarah Gaines, Dean McMillan, Andrew Prestwich, Rick Stebbings
BACKGROUND: It is recognized that a significant proportion of people with depression are prone to relapse, even after successful treatment, and that self-management interventions should be developed and provided. There is evidence that implementation intentions (IMPS) can be successfully applied to health-related behaviours but their application to self-management of mental health problems has been limited. AIMS: This paper describes the design and initial evaluation of a Self-Management After Therapy (SMArT) intervention, which incorporated IMPS and followed psychological therapy for depression...
April 18, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665572/diagnostic-and-treatment-practices-for-psychogenic-nonepileptic-and-epileptic-seizures-in-namibia
#11
Anina du Toit, Chrisma Pretorius
PURPOSE: Information about existing healthcare resources for the management of seizures in developing countries is lacking. These countries are often poorly equipped to deal with the immense burden of costs, mortality, stigma, seizure-related disability, and comorbidities presented by seizure disorders. This study aimed to contribute to the goals of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) by investigating the resources available for patients with seizure in Namibia. METHODS: Two separate surveys on the diagnostic and treatment practices for epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) were administered to private healthcare practitioners (HCPs) in Namibia...
April 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665214/an-analysis-of-clinical-transition-stresses-experienced-by-dental-students-a-qualitative-methods-approach
#12
M Botelho, X Gao, S Y Bhuyan
INTRODUCTION: Stress in dental students is well established with potential psychological distress, emotional exhaustion and burnout-related symptoms. Little attention has been given to the problems encountered by dental students during the transition from theoretical or paraclinical training to the clinical environment. The aim of this study was to adopt a qualitative research methods approach to understand the perceived stressors during students' clinical transition and provide insights for curriculum planners to enhance learning...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664926/exploration-of-psychological-distress-experienced-by-survivors-of-adolescent-cancer-reporting-a-need-for-psychological-support
#13
Malin Ander, Jenny Thorsell Cederberg, Louise von Essen, Emma Hovén
OBJECTIVE: In this qualitative study, we aimed to provide an in-depth exploration of cancer-related psychological distress experienced by young survivors of cancer during adolescence reporting a need for psychological support. METHODS: Two individual interviews were held with ten young survivors of cancer diagnosed in adolescence. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis followed the guidelines for inductive qualitative manifest content analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664187/exercise-interventions-and-patient-beliefs-for-people-with-hip-knee-or-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-a-mixed-methods-review
#14
REVIEW
Michael Hurley, Kelly Dickson, Rachel Hallett, Robert Grant, Hanan Hauari, Nicola Walsh, Claire Stansfield, Sandy Oliver
BACKGROUND: Chronic peripheral joint pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) is extremely prevalent and a major cause of physical dysfunction and psychosocial distress. Exercise is recommended to reduce joint pain and improve physical function, but the effect of exercise on psychosocial function (health beliefs, depression, anxiety and quality of life) in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To improve our understanding of the complex inter-relationship between pain, psychosocial effects, physical function and exercise...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663874/n-acetyl-cysteine-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-a-general-review
#15
Flavia di Michele, Alberto Siracusano, Talamo Alessandra, Cinzia Niolu
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. This demonstrates the need for more targeted therapeutics. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover there are studies suggesting that neuroimmune abnormalities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that would modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663636/sleep-and-mood-during-hospitalization-for-high-dose-chemotherapy-and-hematopoietic-rescue-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#16
Danielle M Graef, Valerie McLaughlin Crabtree, Deo Kumar Srivastava, Chenghong Li, Michele Pritchard, Pamela S Hinds, Belinda Mandrell
OBJECTIVE: Disrupted sleep is common in pediatric cancer, which is associated with psychological distress and may impact neural recovery. Information regarding sleep during pediatric brain tumor treatment is limited. This study aimed to describe objective sleep-wake patterns and examine the sleep-mood relation in youth hospitalized for intensive chemotherapy and stem cell rescue. METHODS: Participants included 37 patients (M age =9.6 ± 4.2 years) enrolled on a medulloblastoma protocol (SJMB03) and their parents...
April 17, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663477/the-impact-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-and-its-treatment-on-health-utility
#17
Lin Lee Wong, Holly F Fisher, Deborah D Stocken, Stephen Rice, Amardeep Khanna, Michael A Heneghan, Ye Htun Oo, George Mells, Stuart Kendrick, Jessica Katharine Dyson, David E J Jones
Patient reporting suggests that the physical and psychological effects of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can be substantial. However, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with AIH remains incompletely characterized and health utility remains to be explored. Treatment for AIH often includes the use of corticosteroids, agents that can be associated with significant side effects. Here we explore the impact of AIH and its treatments on patient-reported HRQOL and health utility in a large cohort of prevalent cases from the United Kingdom Autoimmune Hepatitis (UK-AIH) national study...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663317/atrophic-scar-formation-in-acne-patients-involves-long-acting-immune-responses-with-plasma-cells-and-alteration-of-sebaceous-glands
#18
I Carlavan, B Bertino, M Rivier, P Martel, V Bourdes, M Motte, S Déret, P Reiniche, C Menigot, A Khammari, B Dreno, P Fogel, J J Voegel
BACKGROUND: Possible outcomes of acne lesions are atrophic scars which may cause serious psychological distress. Current treatments of post-acne scarring often require invasive procedures. Pathophysiological studies on acne scarring investigated only the first week of papule life. OBJECTIVES: Study the pathophysiology of atrophic scar formation to identify molecular and cellular pathways that can lead to new therapies for the prevention of acne scarring. METHODS: Large-scale gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed on uninvolved skin and papules in both, scar-prone (SP) and non-scar-prone (NSP) acne patients, at different time points...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662961/biopsychosocial-view-to-pseudocyesis-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Marzieh Azizi, Forouzan Elyasi
Background: Pseudocyesis is a psychopathological clinical syndrome in which a non-pregnant woman firmly believes herself to be pregnant and manifests many symptoms and signs of pregnancy. Although the exact etiology of pseudocyesis has not been determined. Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the biopsychosocial view to pseudocyesis. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search in electronic databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted between 1943-2016 to retrieve pseudocyesis related articles...
September 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661814/psychometric-findings-and-normative-values-for-the-cleft-q-based-on-2434-children-and-young-adult-patients-with-cleft-lip-and-or-palate-from-12-countries
#20
Anne F Klassen, Karen Wy Wong Riff, Natasha M Longmire, Asteria Albert, Gregory C Allen, Mustafa Asim Aydin, Stephen B Baker, Stefan J Cano, Andrew J Chan, Douglas J Courtemanche, Marieke M Dreise, Jesse A Goldstein, Timothy E E Goodacre, Karen E Harman, Montserrat Munill, Aisling O Mahony, Mirta Palomares Aguilera, Petra Peterson, Andrea L Pusic, Rona Slator, Mia Stiernman, Elena Tsangaris, Sunil S Tholpady, Federico Vargas, Christopher R Forrest
BACKGROUND: Patients with cleft lip and/or palate can undergo numerous procedures to improve appearance, speech, dentition and hearing. We developed a cleft-specific patient-reported outcome instrument to facilitate rigorous international measurement and benchmarking. METHODS: Data were collected from patients aged 8-29 years with cleft lip and/or palate at 30 hospitals in 12 countries between October 2014 and November 2016. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used to refine the scales and to examine reliability and validity...
April 16, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
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