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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942222/the-effect-of-astragaloside-iv-on-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-rats-involvement-of-inflammation
#1
Shumin Qin, Keer Huang, Zhigang Fang, Jinjin Yin, Ruwei Dai
The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The animals were divided into 7 groups and pretreated with vehicle, various doses of AS-IV (1,2 and 4mg/kg, i.p.) or omeprazole (40mg/kg), 75min later, the gastric mucosal injury was induced by oral administration of ethanol. One hour after ethanol ingestion, the rats were euthanized and gastric tissues were collected to biochemical analyze. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 10 (IL-10), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein, TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and nuclear NF-κB (nNF-κB) proteins were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blot analysis...
September 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942046/chronic-ethanol-exposure-increases-inhibition-of-optically-targeted-phasic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-and-medial-shell-ex-vivo
#2
James R Melchior, Sara R Jones
Dopamine signaling encodes reward learning and motivated behavior through modulation of synaptic signaling in the nucleus accumbens, and aberrations in these processes are thought to underlie obsessive behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. The nucleus accumbens is divided into core and shell sub-regions with overlapping but also divergent contributions to behavior. Here we optogenetically targeted dopamine projections to the accumbens allowing us to isolate stimulation of dopamine terminals ex vivo. We applied 5 pulse (phasic) light stimulations to probe intrinsic differences in dopamine release parameters across regions...
September 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941602/clinical-and-experimental-aspects-of-notch-receptor-signaling-hajdu-cheney-syndrome-and-related-disorders
#3
Ernesto Canalis
BACKGROUND: There are four Notch transmembrane receptors that determine the fate and function of cells. Notch is activated following its interactions with ligands of the Jagged and Delta-like families that lead to the cleavage and release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD); this translocates to the nucleus to induce the transcription of Notch target genes. Genetic disorders of loss- and gain-of-NOTCH function present with severe clinical manifestations. BASIC PROCEDURES: In this article, current knowledge of Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS) and related disorders is reviewed...
August 24, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940569/weekly-oral-bisphosphonates-over-two-years-prevent-bone-loss-in-cardiac-transplant-patients
#4
Uwe Lange, Katharina Classen, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Manfred Richter
BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation (HTX) is an established therapy for end-stage heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether application of oral bisphosphonates is effective in preventing osseous complications after HTX. METHODS: Thirty-three cardiac transplant recipients were treated with alendronate 70 mg/week or risedronate 35 mg/week in combination with 1000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D. Markers of bone metabolism and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were determined directly after HTX and 2 years later...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940410/mechanisms-of-bone-destruction-in-multiple-myeloma
#5
REVIEW
E Terpos, D Christoulas, M Gavriatopoulou, M A Dimopoulos
Osteolytic bone disease is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma, resulting in skeletal complications that are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It is the result of an increased activity of osteoclasts, which is not followed by reactive bone formation by osteoblasts. Recent studies have revealed novel molecules and pathways that are implicated in osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Among them, the most important include the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway, the macrophage inflammatory proteins and the activin-A that play a crucial role in osteoclast stimulation in myeloma, while the wingless-type (Wnt) signalling inhibitors (sclerostin and dickkopf-1) along with the growth factor independence-1 are considered the most important factors for the osteoblast dysfunction of myeloma patients...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939474/heroin-induced-suppression-of-saccharin-intake-in-oprm1-a118g-mice
#6
Christopher S Freet, Danielle N Alexander, Caesar G Imperio, Victor Ruiz-Velasco, Patricia S Grigson
The single nucleotide polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor, OPRM1 A118G, has been associated with greater drug and alcohol use, increased sensitivity to pain, and reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of opiates. In the present studies, we employed a 'humanized' mouse model containing the wild-type (118AA) or variant (118GG) allele to examine behavior in a model of heroin-induced devaluation of an otherwise palatable saccharin cue when repeated saccharin-heroin pairings occurred every 24h (Experiment 1) or every 48h (Experiment 2)...
September 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939042/inorganic-phosphate-induced-impairment-of-osteoclast-cell-cell-fusion-by-the-inhibition-of-ap-1-mediated-dc-stamp-expression
#7
Masaki Arioka, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Narihito Tatsumoto, Toshiyuki Sasaguri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, leading to several disorders of bone metabolism. Although high concentrations of extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) inhibit osteoclastogenesis, the molecular mechanism of this effect has not been fully understood. In the present study, therefore, we examined the effect of Pi on the differentiation of the osteoclast precursor RAW-D cells. Treatment with the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand induced the differentiation of RAW-D cells (osteoclastogenesis)...
September 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938560/inflammatory-factor-tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-the-growth-of-breast-cancer-via-the-positive-feedback-loop-of-tnfr1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-or-p38-p-stat3-hbxip-tnfr1
#8
Xiaoli Cai, Can Cao, Jiong Li, Fuquan Chen, Shuqin Zhang, Bowen Liu, Weiying Zhang, Xiaodong Zhang, Lihong Ye
In the connection between inflammation and cancer development, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) contributes to the tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that TNF-α enhances the growth of breast cancer through up-regulation of oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP). Our data showed that the levels of TNF-α were positively related to those of HBXIP in clinical breast cancer tissues. Moreover, TNF-α could up-regulate HBXIP in breast cancer cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935757/resveratrol-inhibits-growth-of-experimental-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-associated-with-upregulation-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2
#9
Corey S Moran, Erik Biros, Smriti M Krishna, Yutang Wang, Chris Tikellis, Joseph V Moxon, Mark E Cooper, Paul E Norman, Louise M Burrell, Merlin C Thomas, Jonathan Golledge
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests an important role for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in limiting abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study examined the effect of ACE2 deficiency on AAA development and the efficacy of resveratrol to upregulate ACE2 in experimental AAA. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Ace2 deletion in apolipoprotein-deficient mice (ApoE(-/)(-)Ace2(-/y) ) resulted in increased aortic diameter and spontaneous aneurysm of the suprarenal aorta associated with increased expression of inflammation and proteolytic enzyme markers...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935156/activation-of-il-17-receptor-leads-to-increased-oxidative-inflammation-in-peripheral-monocytes-of-autistic-children
#10
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Sabry M Attia, Saleh A Bakheet, Naif O Al-Harbi, Laila Y Al-Ayadhi
Millions of children are affected by different neurodevelopmental disorders, out of which autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses a major hurdle to normal life style due to associated behavioral abnormalities. Several studies have shown an increased expression/release of Th17 related cytokine, IL-17A in ASD. IL-17A may enhance neuroinflammation via its IL-17A receptor, i.e. IL-17RA expressed in immune cells (such as monocytes) of autistic children. Increased oxidative stress has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including ASD...
September 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932959/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-enzyme-system-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
M Hussey, G Holleran, S Smith, Mark Sherlock, D McNamara
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids are known to modulate a number of immunological responses including counteracting inflammation. Within tissues expressing the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors including the colon, glucocorticoid metabolism is regulated by the isoenzymes of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). 11β-HSD1 acts as an oxidoreductase converting inactive cortisone into active cortisol, while 11β-HSD2 acts as a dehydrogenase converting active cortisol to inactive cortisone...
September 20, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929308/influence-of-obesity-on-experimental-periodontitis-in-rats-histopathological-histometric-and-immunohistochemical-study
#12
Elizangela Partata Zuza, Valdir Gouveia Garcia, Letícia Helena Theodoro, Edilson Ervolino, Luiz Fernando Veloso Favero, Mariéllen Longo, Fernando Salimon Ribeiro, Alex Tadeu Martins, Luís Carlos Spolidorio, José Antônio Sampaio Zuanon, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa de Toledo, Juliana Rico Pires
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the influence of obesity on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the HL group (n = 24) was fed high-fat animal food to induce obesity, and the NL group (n = 24) was fed normolipidic animal food. Obesity was induced within a period of 120 days, and the induction of experimental periodontitis (EP) was subsequently performed for 30 days...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928126/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapies-for-multiple-myeloma
#13
Lekha Mikkilineni, James N Kochenderfer
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a nearly always incurable malignancy of plasma cells, so new approaches to treatment are needed. T-cell therapies are a promising approach for treating MM, with a mechanism of action different than those of standard MM treatments. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are fusion proteins incorporating antigen-recognition domains and T-cell signaling domains. T-cells genetically engineered to express CARs can specifically recognize antigens. Success of CAR T-cells against leukemia and lymphoma has encouraged development of CAR T-cell therapies for MM...
September 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927687/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-spleen-of-the-darkbarbel-catfish-pelteobagrus-vachellii-in-response-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#14
Chuanjie Qin, Quan Gong, Zhengyong Wen, Dengyue Yuan, Ting Shao, Jun Wang, Huatao Li
Intensive aquaculture has increased the susceptibility of fish to Aeromonas hydrophila, and this has led to severe economic damage. There has been little study of the host defense mechanism against A. hydrophila infection in scaleless fish. Therefore, in the present study, the transcriptome profiles of the spleen of Pelteobagrus vachellii were examined after infection with A. hydrophila. In total, 37,730 unigenes from 322 KEGG pathways were identified. Following A. hydrophila infection, 27,803 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 13,934 upregulated and 13,869 downregulated genes...
September 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924718/comprehensive-annotation-and-evolutionary-insights-into-the-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-antigen-receptor-loci
#15
Jolyon Martin, Hannes Ponstingl, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Joy Archer, David Sargan, Allan Bradley
Dogs are an excellent model for human disease. For example, the treatment of canine lymphoma has been predictive of the human response to that treatment. However, an incomplete picture of canine (Canis lupus familiaris) immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR)-or antigen receptor (AR)-gene loci has restricted their utility. This work advances the annotation of the canine AR loci and looks into breed-specific features of the loci. Bioinformatic analysis of unbiased RNA sequence data was used to complete the annotation of the canine AR genes...
September 19, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923829/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-gk-rats
#16
Nattayaporn Apaijai, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Jitjiroj Ittichaichareon, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Nateetip Krishnamra, Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and estrogen deprivation have been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac remodeling.  However, the role of estrogen deprivation on adverse cardiac remodeling in non-obese T2DM rats has not been clearly elucidated.  We hypothesized that estrogen-deprivation aggravates adverse cardiac remodeling in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.  Wild-type (WT) and GK rats at the age of 9 months old were divided into 2 subgroups to have either a sham operation (WTS, GKS) or a bilateral ovariectomy (WTO, GKO) (n=6/subgroup)...
September 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919708/alginate-oligosaccharide-indirectly-affects-toll-like-receptor-signaling-via-the-inhibition-of-microrna-29b-in-aneurysm-patients-after-endovascular-aortic-repair
#17
Yong Yang, Zhenhuan Ma, Guokai Yang, Jia Wan, Guojian Li, Lingjuan Du, Ping Lu
Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is often followed by aneurysm recurrence. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) has potential antitumor properties as a natural product while the related mechanisms remain unclear. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is associated with inflammatory activity of aneurysm and may be affected by miR-29b. Thus, inhibitory function of AOS on aneurysms was explored by measuring the important molecules in TLR4 signaling. After EVAR, a total of 248 aortic aneurysm patients were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: AOS group (AG, oral administration 10-mg AOS daily) and control group (CG, placebo daily)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919488/mast-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-are-useful-for-allergen-tests
#18
Akira Igarashi, Yasuhiro Ebihara, Tomoaki Kumagai, Hiroyuki Hirai, Kinya Nagata, Kohichiro Tsuji
BACKGROUND: Several methods have been developed to detect allergen-specific IgE in sera. The passive IgE sensitization assay using human IgE receptor-expressing rat cell line RBL-2H3 is a powerful tool to detect biologically active allergen-specific IgE in serum samples. However, one disadvantage is that RBL-2H3 cells are vulnerable to high concentrations of human sera. Only a few human cultured cell lines are easily applicable to the passive IgE sensitization assay. However, the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate human mast cells (MCs) has not yet been reported...
September 14, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915215/mechanisms-involved-in-secondary-cardiac-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-trauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#19
Nick M Wilson, Johanna Wall, Veena Naganathar, Karim Brohi, Henry D De'Ath
Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) that is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma hemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-like receptors, the exact protagonists of which remain unclear...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912644/tlr5-activation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-is-a-neuroprotective-mechanism-of-postconditioning-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#20
Jaewon Jeong, Soojin Kim, Da-Sol Lim, Seo-Hea Kim, Heeju Doh, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Postconditioning has been shown to protect the mouse brain from ischemic injury. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms of postconditioning remain elusive. We have found that toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) plays an integral role in postconditioning-induced neuroprotection through Akt/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in cerebral ischemia. Compared to animals that received 30 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) group, animals that also underwent postconditioning showed a significant reduction of up to 60...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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