Read by QxMD icon Read

Kappa Receptor

Magdalena Pertynska-Marczewska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator, the pituitary gonadotropes, the ovaries, and the uterus play a crucial role in female fertility. A decline in reproductive performance represents a complex interplay of actions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Recently, in the field of female reproductive aging attention is drawn to the carbonyl stress theory. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute directly to protein damage, induce a chain of oxidative stress (OS) reactions, and increase inflammatory reactions...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
D Reiss, R A Ceredig, T Secher, J Boué, F Barreau, G Dietrich, C Gavériaux-Ruff
BACKGROUND: Opiates act through opioid receptors to diminish pain. Here, we investigated whether mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) receptor endogenous activity assessed in the whole mouse body or in particular at peripheral receptors on primary nociceptive neurons, control colonic pain. METHODS: We compared global MOR and DOR receptor knockout (KO) mice, mice with a conditional deletion of MOR and DOR in Nav1.8-positive nociceptive primary afferent neurons (cKO), and control floxed mice of both genders for visceral sensitivity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Tuula M Eriksson, Richard M Day, Stefano Fedele, Vehid M Salih
Ameloblastoma is a rare, odontogenic neoplasm with benign histopathology, but extensive, local infiltrative capacity through the bone tissue it originates in. While the mechanisms of ameloblastoma invasion through the bone and bone absorption are largely unknown, recent investigations have indicated a role of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand regulatory mechanisms. Here, we present results obtained using a novel in vitro organotypic tumour model, which we have developed using tissue engineering techniques...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Sung-Hee Hwang, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Kyung Jong Won, Hwan Myung Lee, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Ginseng extracts are known to have angiogenic effects. However, to date, only limited information is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the angiogenic effects and the main components of ginseng that exert these effects. Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are used as an in vitro model for screening therapeutic agents that promote angiogenesis and wound healing. We recently isolated gintonin, a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, from ginseng...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Laziyan Mahemuti, Qixuan Chen, Melanie C Coughlan, Min Zhang, Maria Florian, Ryan J Mailloux, Xu-Liang Cao, Kylie A Scoggan, William G Willmore, Xiaolei Jin
Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to exert biological effects through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may increase the risk of childhood asthma. To investigate the underlying mechanisms in the actions of BPA, human fetal lung fibroblasts (hFLFs) were exposed to varying doses of BPA in culture for 24hr. Effects of BPA on localization and uptake of BPA, cell viability, release of immune and developmental modulators, cellular localization and expression of ERα, ERβ and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30), and effects of ERs antagonists on BPA-induced changes in endothelin-1 (ET-1) release were examined...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yan Wang, Min Yu, Yue Ma, Ruo Ping Wang, Wei Liu, Wei Xia, Ai Li Guan, Cong Hui Xing, Fei Lu, Xiao Ping Ji
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα) is a therapy target in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, anti-inflammatory effects of PPARα in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain unknown. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenofibrate, a ligand of PPARα, in ICH rat model. We found that engagement of fenofibrate increased nissl body and astrocytes, and reduced the neuronal damage, which was observed in paraffin section of ICH rat brain. Fenofibrate also promoted the proliferation of astrocytes that were isolated from adult rat brain...
October 14, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Santhanalakshmi Sundaramurthy, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Devadoss J Samuvel, Toni S Shippenberg, Lankupalle D Jayanthi, Sammanda Ramamoorthy
Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists produce dysphoria and psychotomimesis. While KOR agonists produce pro-depressant-like effects, KOR antagonists produce anti-depressant-like effects in rodent models. The cellular mechanisms and downstream effector(s) by which KOR ligands produce these effects are not clear. KOR agonists modulate serotonin (5-HT) transmission in the brain regions implicated in mood and motivation regulation. Presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) activity is critical in the modulation of synaptic 5-HT and, subsequently, in mood disorders...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Yoshitaka Hosokawa, Ikuko Hosokawa, Satoru Shindo, Yoshihiro Ohta, Kazumi Ozaki, Takashi Matsuo
Alkannin, which is found in Alkanna tinctoria, a member of the borage family, is used as a food coloring. Alkannin has recently been reported to have certain biological functions, such as anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects. It is known that CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 5-positive leukocytes contribute to alveolar bone resorption in periodontal lesions. The aim of this study was to examine whether alkannin inhibits the production of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 3 and CCL5, which are CCR5 ligands, in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC)...
October 15, 2016: Cell Biology International
Muyesser Sayki Arslan, Esra Tutal, Mustafa Sahin, Melia Karakose, Bekir Ucan, Gulfer Ozturk, Erman Cakal, Zeynep Biyikli Gencturk, Mustafa Ozbek, Tuncay Delibasi
Osteoprotegerin has been shown to be increased in cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes represents a high risk condition for diabetes and diabetic complications. Therefore, we aimed to find the relationship between prediabetes and osteoprotegerin with nuclear factor-B ligand, carotid intima media thickness, and metabolic markers. A total of 54 participants with prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (n = 21), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 8), impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 25), and 60 healthy individuals as a control were admitted to the study...
October 15, 2016: Endocrine
Yi Zhou, Wenjuan Yu, Huan Zhong, Jianlin Li, Hongxia Li, Feng He, Jie Zhou, Yongkai Tang, Juhua Yu, Fan Yu
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish and economically important species in China and other East Asian countries. Recent studies suggest that insulin can alter the expression of immune genes and, thus, can be regarded as an immunomodulatory hormone. To understand the mechanism of the immune response to insulin, we performed a comparative RNA-seq transcriptome analysis using livers from common carp injected with insulin (5 μg/g bodyweight) or saline as a control. After filtering the low-quality reads and removing the adaptors, the clean raw reads were assembled into 60,421 unigenes with mean length of 746...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhengxin Cai, Song Ye Li, Richard Pracitto, Antonio Navarro, Anupama Shirali, Jim Ropchan, Yiyun Henry Huang
Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are potential drug candidates for diseases such as treatment-refractory depression, anxiety, and addictive disorders. PET imaging radiotracers for KOR can be used in occupancy study to facilitate drug development, and to investigate the roles of KOR in health and diseases. We have previously developed two 11C-labeled antagonist radiotracers with high affinity and selectivity toward KOR. What is limiting their wide applications is the short half-life of 11C. Herein, we report the synthesis of a first 18F-labeled KOR antagonist radiotracer and the initial PET imaging study in a non-human primate...
October 14, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Marcelina Jasmine Silva, Andrea Rubinstein
Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Ming Gu, Ping Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Yifei Li, Shengjie Fan, Yue-Ming Ma, Qingchun Tong, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang
Background and purpose: Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other types of toxic liver damage. Despite increasing studies on the action of silymarin and its major active constituent, silybin in their therapeutic properties against insulin resistance, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism underlying silymarin action remains unclear. Experimental approach: C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months to induce obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia, and fatty liver...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Patience Meo Burt, Liping Xiao, Caroline Dealy, Melanie C Fisher, Marja M Hurley
Humans with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and Hyp mice, the murine homologue of the disease, develop severe osteoarthropathy and the precise factors that contribute to this joint degeneration remain largely unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a key regulatory growth factor in osteoarthritis. Although there are multiple FGF2 isoforms the potential involvement of specific FGF2 isoforms in joint degradation has not been investigated. Mice that overexpress the high molecular weight FGF2 isoforms in bone (HMWTg mice) phenocopy Hyp mice and XLH subjects and Hyp mice overexpress the HMWFGF2 isoforms in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
Qiu-Fang Gao, Xiu-Hong Zhang, Feng-Lai Yuan, Ming-Dong Zhao, Xia Li
Bone loss is a critical pathology responsible for the functional disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is well known that receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) plays a crucial role in bone loss in RA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) mediates bone erosion in RA by regulation of RANKL expression in an experimental model of RA, consisting of mice with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Cultured AA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) obtained from these mice were induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) combined with or without rh-endostatin...
October 12, 2016: Cell Biology International
Catherine L Townsend, Julie M J Laffy, Yu-Chang Bryan Wu, Joselli Silva O'Hare, Victoria Martin, David Kipling, Franca Fraternali, Deborah K Dunn-Walters
Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Jin Zhang, Linfeng Zheng, Xiangning Yuan, Chunyan Liu, Qiongjing Yuan, Feifei Xie, Sisi Qiu, Zhangzhe Peng, Yiting Tang, Jie Meng, Jiao Qin, Gaoyun Hu, Lijian Tao
Mefunidone is a new pyridone agent that attenuates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, the signaling pathways involved in the effect of mefunidone on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis have not been well explained. Inflammatory response initiates and promotes renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase beta (IKKβ) is a master regulator of inflammation. This study is determined to clarify the influence of mefunidone on renal inflammation and the phosphorylation of IKKβ...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Eiko Yokota, Yuko Koyanagi, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Oi, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
The insular cortex (IC) plays a principal role in the regulation of pain processing. Although opioidergic agonists depress cortical excitatory synaptic transmission, little is known about opioidergic roles in inhibitory synaptic transmission. In the IC, the opioid receptors differentially regulate the excitatory propagation: agonists of the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) exhibit suppressive, facilitative, and little effects, respectively. Thus, we aimed to examine the effects of opioid receptor agonists on unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) in the IC...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Zhen-Nan Ye, Zong Zhuang, Ling-Yun Wu, Jing-Peng Liu, Qiang Chen, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Zi-Huan Zhang, Wei Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Chun-Hua Hang
Convincing evidence supports that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-meditated inflammation contributes to the adverse prognosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and pathologic neutrophil accumulation after SAH in the brain parenchyma enhances the inflammatory process. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a highly potent lipid chemoattractant of neutrophils, and its biological effects are mediated primarily through the high-affinity LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1). It is verified that NF-κB-dependent BLT1 mediates LTB4 signaling and LTB4 stimulates NF-κB-dependent inflammation via BLT1...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research
Sharlene Velichko, Xu Zhou, Lingxiang Zhu, Johnathon David Anderson, Reen Wu, Yin Chen
In the context of the human airway, interleukin-17A (IL-17A) signaling is associated with severe inflammation, as well as protection against pathogenic infection, particularly at mucosal surfaces such as the airway. The intracellular molecule Act1 has been demonstrated to be an essential mediator of IL-17A signaling. In the cytoplasm, it serves as an adaptor protein, binding to both the intracellular domain of the IL-17 receptor as well as members of the canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. It also has enzymatic activity, and serves as an E3 ubiquitin ligase...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"