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Nutrition physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926876/-advances-in-the-research-of-characteristics-and-treatment-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#1
R Liu, Z Y Li
With the development of society and the improvement of medical level, the average life span of human has been increasing year by year. The proportion of elderly burn patients is also increasing yearly, which has become a social problem that can not be ignored. Because of physiological characteristics, such as decreased function of heart, lung, and kidney, degenerative changes of neural system, reduced gastrointestinal function and immunological function, and mostly accompanied by primary diseases of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, elderly burn patients suffer from high shock rate and mortality, and their wounds are not easy to heal...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922771/a-specific-role-of-iron-in-promoting-meristematic-cell-division-during-adventitious-root-formation
#2
Alexander Hilo, Fahimeh Shahinnia, Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten, Nicolaus von Wirén, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei
Adventitious root (AR) formation is characterized by a sequence of physiological and morphological processes and determined by external factors, including mineral nutrition, the impacts of which remain largely elusive. Morphological and anatomical evaluation of the effects of mineral elements on AR formation in leafy cuttings of Petunia hybrida revealed a striking stimulation by iron (Fe) and a promotive action of ammonium (NH4+). The optimal application period for these nutrients corresponded to early division of meristematic cells in the rooting zone and coincided with increased transcript levels of mitotic cyclins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912191/high-versus-low-energy-administration-in-the-early-phase-of-acute-pancreatitis-goulash-trial-protocol-of-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-clinical-trial
#3
Katalin Márta, Anikó N Szabó, Dániel Pécsi, Péter Varjú, Judit Bajor, Szilárd Gódi, Patrícia Sarlós, Alexandra Mikó, Kata Szemes, Mária Papp, Tamás Tornai, Áron Vincze, Zsolt Márton, Patrícia A Vincze, Erzsébet Lankó, Andrea Szentesi, Tímea Molnár, Roland Hágendorn, Nándor Faluhelyi, István Battyáni, Dezső Kelemen, Róbert Papp, Attila Miseta, Zsófia Verzár, Markus M Lerch, John P Neoptolemos, Miklós Sahin-Tóth, Ole H Petersen, Péter Hegyi
INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with no specific treatment. Mitochondrial injury followed by ATP depletion in both acinar and ductal cells is a recently discovered early event in its pathogenesis. Importantly, preclinical research has shown that intracellular ATP delivery restores the physiological function of the cells and protects from cell injury, suggesting that restoration of energy levels in the pancreas is therapeutically beneficial. Despite several high quality experimental observations in this area, no randomised trials have been conducted to date to address the requirements for energy intake in the early phase of AP...
September 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911768/natural-isotope-abundance-in-metabolites-techniques-and-kinetic-isotope-effect-measurement-in-plant-animal-and-human-tissues
#4
Illa Tea, Guillaume Tcherkez
The natural isotope abundance in bulk organic matter or tissues is not a sufficient base to investigate physiological properties, biosynthetic mechanisms, and nutrition sources of biological systems. In fact, isotope effects in metabolism lead to a heterogeneous distribution of (2)H, (18)O, (13)C, and (15)N isotopes in metabolites. Therefore, compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) is crucial to biological and medical applications of stable isotopes. Here, we review methods to implement CSIA for (15)N and (13)C from plant, animal, and human samples and discuss technical solutions that have been used for the conversion to CO2 and N2 for IRMS analysis, derivatization and isotope effect measurements...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910791/inflammation-and-protein-energy-wasting-in-the-uremic-milieu
#5
Magdalena Jankowska, Gabriela Cobo, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Inflammation is normally a protective and physiological response to harmful stimuli, but typically becomes an uncontrolled, maladaptive, and persistent process in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Through a deleterious cascade of poorly controlled reactions mediated by biologically active molecules (also called middle molecular weight uremia retention solutes), inflammation associates with a range of complications including cardiovascular disease and protein-energy wasting (PEW). Persistent inflammation, which is central to the conceptual etiological models of PEW and the malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome, induces and reignites processes leading to PEW in a number of ways including stimulation of both direct and indirect mechanisms of muscle proteolysis...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910581/aminoacyl-trna-quality-control-is-required-for-efficient-activation-of-the-tor-pathway-regulator-gln3p
#6
Kyle Mohler, Rebecca Mann, Amanda Kyle, Noah Reynolds, Michael Ibba
The aminoacylation status of the cellular tRNA pool regulates both general amino acid control (GAAC) and target of rapamycin (TOR) stress response pathways in yeast. Consequently, fidelity of translation at the level of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis plays a central role in determining accuracy and sensitivity of stress responses. To investigate effects of translational quality control (QC) on cell physiology under stress conditions, phenotypic microarray analyses were used to identify changes in QC deficient cells...
September 14, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906019/response-letter-to-optimising-physiology-for-adolescents-with-dysautonomia
#7
K Armstrong, A M De Souza, P Sneddon, J E Potts, V E Claydon, S Sanatani
We would like to thank Dr Thaxter Nesbeth (1) for her interest and insightful comments on our paper entitled, "Exercise and the multidisciplinary holistic approach to adolescent dysautonomia"(2). We agree that recurrent orthostatic intolerance is often best managed through lifestyle modification rather than pharmacologic intervention (at least as an initial step), and as such in the present study we evaluated the impact of our exercise programme incorporated in addition to our standard clinical multidisciplinary management approach...
September 14, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905440/child-fosterage-and-sex-biased-nutritional-outcomes-among-namibian-pastoralists
#8
Sean P Prall, Brooke A Scelza
OBJECTIVES: Across cultures, fosterage has been shown to impact child health. Contextual factors, such as the reason for fosterage and the relationship between foster parent and child, are known to magnify variance in nutritional outcomes for foster children. Another important, but less studied, factor is the role of gender. Sex-biases in physiology and cultural norms are both known to affect child nutrition, and we posit these effects might be magnified in the presence of fosterage. In this study, we investigate how sex interacts with fosterage to affect nutritional outcomes among Namibian pastoralists...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902925/tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-kv1-5-is-upregulated-in-intrauterine-growth-retardation-rats-with-exaggerated-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
L C Fu, Y Lv, Y Zhong, Q He, X Liu, L Z Du
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5) in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old) following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats...
September 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902726/incremental-dialysis-review-of-recent-literature
#10
Thomas A Golper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are clinical, physiological, financial, and practical reasons to perform incremental hemodialysis in selected patients, incident to end-stage renal disease. Recent papers inform us further, especially in the large database studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Small studies suggested, then a larger study corroborated, that incremental hemodialysis was associated with preservation of residual kidney function whenever compared with conventional hemodialysis...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901995/therapeutic-food-claims-a-global-perspective
#11
Bruce P Burnett, Gerard Mullin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medical foods in the United States, and foods for special medical purposes in other countries, are food formulations used to manage specific chronic diseases or conditions under medical or physician supervision. The process of reviewing and approving food claims for health benefits varies widely from country to country. RECENT FINDINGS: CODEX Alimentarius, a 187-country and one-member (European Union) organization, has standardized not only nutrition labeling and food safety worldwide but has also recently taken on a prominent role in analyzing therapeutic and health claims for food in member countries by providing a framework to study these issues...
September 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899914/military-training-elicits-marked-increases-in-plasma-metabolomic-signatures-of-energy-metabolism-lipolysis-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-ketogenesis
#12
J Philip Karl, Lee M Margolis, Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, John W Castellani, Elisabeth H Madslien, Hilde-Kristin Teien, Svein Martini, Scott J Montain, Stefan M Pasiakos
Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899845/upwelling-derived-oceanographic-conditions-impact-growth-performance-and-growth-related-gene-expression-in-intertidal-fish
#13
Eduardo N Fuentes, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Katterinne Mendez, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina, Jose Pulgar
Growth is one of the main biological processes in aquatic organisms that is affected by environmental fluctuations such as upwelling (characterized by food-rich waters). In fish, growth is directly related with skeletal muscle increase; which represents the largest tissue of body mass. However, the effects of upwelling on growth, at the physiological and molecular level, are unknown. This study used Girella laevifrons (one of the most abundant intertidal fish in Eastern South Pacific) as a biological model, considering animals from upwelling (U) and non-upwelling (NU) areas...
September 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895922/the-effect-of-nutrition-therapy-and-exercise-on-cancer-related-fatigue-and-quality-of-life-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Brenton J Baguley, Kate A Bolam, Olivia R L Wright, Tina L Skinner
BACKGROUND: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature...
September 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895389/study-of-nutritional-value-of-dried-tea-leaves-and-infusions-of-black-green-and-white-teas-from-chinese-plantations
#15
Maria Czernicka, Grzegorz Zaguła, Marcin Bajcar, Bogdan Saletnik, Czesław Puchalski
Background: The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894942/first-steps-towards-development-of-an-instrument-for-the-reproducible-quantification-of-oropharyngeal-swallow-physiology-in-bottle-fed-children
#16
Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Katlyn Elizabeth McGrattan, Kathryn A Carson, Jeanne M Pinto, Jennifer M Wright, Bonnie Martin-Harris
The incidence of feeding/swallowing impairments (deglutition disorders) in young children is rising and poses serious acute and long-term health consequences. Accurate detection and prompt intervention can lessen the impact of dysphagia-induced sequelae. Videofluoroscopic Swallow Studies (VFSSs) are used to make critical decisions for medically fragile children despite procedural variability and the lack of agreed upon measures for interpreting and reporting results. This investigation represents the first steps in the development of a novel tool for the quantification of oropharyngeal swallow physiology from full-length VFSS examinations in bottle-fed children...
September 11, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892156/a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-polydextrose-as-a-fiber-in-a-wet-and-dry-matrix-on-glycemic-control
#17
Sajida Rahman, Anqi Zhao, Di Xiao, Eunyoung Park, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt M Burton-Freeman
Functional fibers can help Americans increase their fiber intake by incorporating extracted or synthesized fibers into food products. The United States Food and Drug Administration has recently proposed that "added" fibers must demonstrate a physiological health benefit, such as glucose control, to be included on the Nutrition Facts label as a dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of polydextrose (PDX), a water-soluble glucose polymer resistant to mammalian digestion, on postprandial glucose concentrations when added to relatively high moisture (beverage) versus low moisture (bar) food products...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890391/learned-pleasure-from-eating-an-opportunity-to-promote-healthy-eating-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Lucile Marty, Stéphanie Chambaron, Sophie Nicklaus, Sandrine Monnery-Patris
Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i...
September 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886378/eukaryotic-sexual-reproduction-evoked-with-a-little-help-from-my-friends
#19
James Umen, Ursula Goodenough, Joseph Heitman
Bacteria and eukaryotes interact in many ways-from the microbiome that educates the mammalian immune system and enhances nutrition to relationships that are commensal, symbiotic, or parasitic. Now in an unexpected twist, King and colleagues have expanded the repertoire of prokaryotic influence over eukaryotic physiology to include mating.
September 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886263/functional-peptides-derived-from-rice-bran-proteins
#20
Y Q Liu, P Strappe, W T Shang, Z K Zhou
Rice bran has been predominantly used in the feed industry, and only recently it has attracted greater attention in terms of human nutrition with increasing knowledge of its bioactivity. A growing interest is the analysis of physiologically active peptides derived from rice bran proteins. In this paper, the bioactivities of rice bran proteins hydrolysates and peptides are reviewed based on recent studies. These enzymatic hydrolysates and peptides exert various biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer and inhibitory activity for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which may ultimately prevent certain chronic diseases...
September 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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