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Nutrition physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161271/a-mathematical-function-for-the-description-of-nutrient-response-curve
#1
Hamed Ahmadi
Several mathematical equations have been proposed to modeling nutrient-response curve for animal and human justified on the goodness of fit and/or on the biological mechanism. In this paper, a functional form of a generalized quantitative model based on Rayleigh distribution principle for description of nutrient-response phenomena is derived. The three parameters governing the curve a) has biological interpretation, b) may be used to calculate reliable estimates of nutrient response relationships, and c) provide the basis for deriving relationships between nutrient and physiological responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161196/emergence-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsions-for-use-in-parenteral-nutrition
#2
Manpreet S Mundi, Robert Martindale, Ryan T Hurt
Since early work by Wretlind and Schuberth led to the development of a stable and safe intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) using soybean oil (SO) and egg phospholipid emulsifier, IFEs have become a crucial source of essential fatty acids and nonprotein energy in parenteral nutrition. However, largely due to their high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and phytosterol content, SO IFEs have been associated with complications, including a proinflammatory profile and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as intestinal failure-associated liver disease...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158624/plant-growth-under-water-salt-stress-ros-production-antioxidants-and-significance-of-added-potassium-under-such-conditions
#3
Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Nisha Singh Tomar, Megha Tittal, Surendra Argal, R M Agarwal
Plants are confronted with a variety of environmenmtal stresses resulting in enhanced production of ROS. Plants require a threshold level of ROS for vital functions and any change in their concentration alters the entire physiology of plant. Delicate balance of ROS is maintained by an efficient functioning of intriguing indigenous defence system called antioxidant system comprising enzymatic and non enzymatic components. Down regulation of antioxidant system leads to ROS induced oxidative stress causing damage to important cellular structures and hence anomalies in metabolism...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158383/optimal-nutrient-exchange-and-immune-responses-operate-in-partner-specificity-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#4
Jennifer L Matthews, Camerron M Crowder, Clinton A Oakley, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Eli Meyer, Arthur R Grossman, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
The relationship between reef-building corals and phototrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is fundamental to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. It has been suggested that reef corals may adapt to climate change by changing their dominant symbiont type to a more thermally tolerant one, although the capacity for such a community shift is potentially hindered by the compatibility of different host-symbiont pairings. Here we combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to characterize the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that underlie this compatibility, with a particular focus on Symbiodinium trenchii, an opportunistic, thermally tolerant symbiont that flourishes in coral tissues after bleaching events...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157488/l%C3%A2-hypophyse-et-ses-traitements-comment-peuvent-ils-influer-sur-le-comportement-the-pituitary-and-its-treatments-how-can-they-influence-behaviour
#5
C Mouly, F Borson-Chazot, P Caron
Behaviour may be influenced by pituitary hormones or treatments. Dopamine agonist (DA) indicated in prolactinomas treatment can cause side effects, and especially impulse control disorders. In the context of prolactinomas treatment, impulse control disorders (ICD) have been reported like gambling, compulsive shopping, but mostly hypersexuality. These ICD can occur with low AD doses, and seem to be independent of type of molecule and psychiatric medical history. The main pathophysiologic hypothesis is a dysregulation of dopaminergic pathway involved in reward system...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156188/addressing-obesity-in-aging-patients
#6
REVIEW
John A Batsis, Alexandra B Zagaria
Obesity in older adults affects not only morbidity and mortality but, importantly, quality of life and the risk of institutionalization. Weight loss interventions can effectively lead to improved physical function. Diet-alone interventions can detrimentally affect muscle and bone physiology and, without interventions to affect these elements, can lead to adverse outcomes. Understanding social and nutritional issues facing older adults is of utmost importance to primary care providers. This article will also discuss the insufficient evidence related to pharmacotherapy as well as providing an overview of using physiologic rather than chronologic age for identifying suitable candidates for bariatric surgery...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156087/fundamental-nursing-care-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-on-the-effect-of-nursing-care-interventions-for-nutrition-elimination-mobility-and-hygiene
#7
David A Richards, Angelique Hilli, Claire Pentecost, Victoria A Goodwin, Julia Frost
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of nursing interventions for people's nutrition, elimination, mobility and hygiene needs. BACKGROUND: Patient experience of health care is sensitive to nursing quality. A refocus on fundamental nursing care is undermined by lack of evidence of effectiveness for interventions in core areas such as elimination, nutrition, mobility and hygiene. DESIGN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: METHODS: We searched for and included experimental studies on interventions by professionally qualified and unregistered nurses that addressed participants' nutrition, elimination, mobility and hygiene needs...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155255/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-cardiovascular-health-and-aging-a-focus-on-physical-activity-and-nutrition
#8
REVIEW
Robert G Wallace, Laura C Twomey, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Jonathan Turner, Niall Moyna, Philip M Cummins, Ronan P Murphy
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic age is independent of chronological age, constituting a highly reflective snapshot of an individual's overall health. Accelerated vascular aging is of major concern, effectively lowering disease threshold...
November 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#9
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153519/invited-review-practical-feeding-management-recommendations-to-mitigate-the-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-cattle
#10
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153512/dose-and-type-dependent-effects-of-long-chain-fatty-acids-on-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-of-bovine-adipocytes
#11
Chen Yanting, Q Y Yang, G L Ma, M Du, J H Harrison, E Block
Differentiation and lipid metabolism of adipocytes have a great influence on milk performance, health, and feed efficiency of dairy cows. The effects of dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of dairy cows are often confounded by other nutritional and physiological factors in vivo. Therefore, this study used an in vitro approach to study the effect of dose and type of long-chain FA on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes. Stromal vascular cells were isolated from adipose tissue of dairy cows and induced into mature adipocytes in the presence of various long-chain FA including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153399/fungal-gene-cluster-diversity-and-evolution
#12
Jason C Slot
Metabolic gene clusters (MGCs) have provided some of the earliest glimpses at the biochemical machinery of yeast and filamentous fungi. MGCs encode diverse genetic mechanisms for nutrient acquisition and the synthesis/degradation of essential and adaptive metabolites. Beyond encoding the enzymes performing these discrete anabolic or catabolic processes, MGCs may encode a range of mechanisms that enable their persistence as genetic consortia; these include enzymatic mechanisms to protect their host fungi from their inherent toxicities, and integrated regulatory machinery...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153165/a-100-year-review-historical-development-of-female-reproductive-physiology-in-dairy-cattle
#13
William W Thatcher
The objective of this historical review in female reproductive physiology is to encapsulate major advancements since the founding of the American Dairy Science Association in 1906. The emphasis is on landmark publications in the Journal of Dairy Science since its first volume in 1917. A historical perspective and inferences are made in forecasting evolution of female reproduction and links between physiology of reproduction and the mammary gland. Subsequent sections are focused into main physiological categories and the temporal advancements within these physiological windows...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153161/a-100-year-review-a-century-of-dairy-heifer-research
#14
A J Heinrichs, G I Zanton, G J Lascano, C M Jones
The years 1917 to 2017 saw many advances in research related to the dairy heifer, and the Journal of Dairy Science currently publishes more than 20 articles per year focused on heifers. In general, nutrition and management changes made in rearing the dairy heifer have been tremendous in the past century. The earliest literature on the growing heifer identified costs of feeding and implications of growth on future productivity as major concepts requiring further study to improve the overall sustainability of the dairy herd...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#15
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153153/a-100-year-review-advances-in-goat-milk-research
#16
Stephanie Clark, María Bárbara Mora García
In the century of research chronicled between 1917 and 2017, dairy goats have gone from simply serving as surrogates to cows to serving as transgenic carriers of human enzymes. Goat milk has been an important part of human nutrition for millennia, in part because of the greater similarity of goat milk to human milk, softer curd formation, higher proportion of small milk fat globules, and different allergenic properties compared with cow milk; however, key nutritional deficiencies limit its suitability for infants...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153058/induction-of-the-lh-surge-in-premenarchal-girls-confirms-early-maturation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-axis
#17
Polina Rovner, Julia Keltz, Amanda Allshouse, Barbara Isaac, Cheryl Hickmon, Jennifer Lesh, Justin Chosich, Nanette Santoro
PURPOSE: To determine whether premenarchal girls exhibit positive estradiol feedback similar to regularly cycling adult women when given exogenous estradiol. METHODS: This was a prospective clinical cohort study at 2 institutions. Nine girls and 6 women received a 7-day course of transdermal estradiol designed to produce physiologic, mid-cycle circulating estradiol levels. Participants collected daily morning urine for luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol metabolites (E1c), and progesterone metabolites (Pdg), corrected for creatinine...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152603/investigation-into-the-fungal-diversity-within-different-regions-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-panaque-nigrolineatus-a-wood-eating-fish
#18
Caroline L Marden, Ryan McDonald, Harold J Schreier, Joy E M Watts
The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus have several physiological adaptions enabling the scraping and consumption of wood (xylivory), facilitating a detritivorous dietary strategy. Composed of lignocellulose, wood is a difficult substrate to degrade and as yet, it is unclear whether the fish obtains any direct nutritional benefits from wood ingestion and degradation. However, there are numerous systems that rely on microbial symbioses to provide energy and other nutritional benefits for host organisms via lignocellulose decomposition...
2017: AIMS Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152322/choosing-a-culture-medium-for-scnt-and-iscnt-reconstructed-embryos-from-domestic-to-wildlife-species
#19
REVIEW
A Cordova, W A King, G F Mastromonaco
Over the past decades, in vitro culture media have been developed to successfully support IVF embryo growth in a variety of species. Advanced reproductive technologies, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), challenge us with a new type of embryo, with special nutritional requirements and altered physiology under in vitro conditions. Numerous studies have successfully reconstructed cloned embryos of domestic animals for biomedical research and livestock production. However, studies evaluating suitable culture conditions for SCNT embryos in wildlife species are scarce (for both intra- and interspecies SCNT)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152305/critical-appraisal-of-the-role-of-serum-albumin-in-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Shih-Chieh Chien, Chun-Yen Chen, Chao-Feng Lin, Hung-I Yeh
Concentration of serum albumin (SA), a multifunctional circulatory protein, is influenced by several factors, including its synthesis rate, catabolism rate, extravascular distribution, and exogenous loss. Moreover, both nutritional status and systemic inflammation affect the synthesis of SA. Determining SA concentration aids in risk prediction in various clinical settings. It is of interest to understand the prognostic value of SA in the full spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the era of newly developed pharmacological and interventional treatments...
2017: Biomarker Research
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