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Nutrition physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718808/beta-palmitate-improves-bone-length-and-quality-during-catch-up-growth-in-young-rats
#1
Meytal Bar-Maisels, Yankel Gabet, Raanan Shamir, Sahar Hiram-Bab, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Moshe Phillip, Fabiana Bar-Yoseph, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA) and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718091/nutritional-and-micronutrient-care-of-bariatric-surgery-patients-current-evidence-update
#2
REVIEW
Michael A Via, Jeffrey I Mechanick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The continued success of bariatric surgery to treat obesity and obesity-associated metabolic conditions creates a need for a strong understanding of clinical nutrition both before and after these procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgically induced alteration of gastrointestinal physiology can affect the nutrition of individuals, especially among those who have undergone malabsorptive procedures. While uncommon, a subset of patients may develop protein-calorie malnutrition...
July 17, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717367/cells-of-human-breast-milk
#3
REVIEW
Malgorzata Witkowska-Zimny, Ewa Kaminska-El-Hassan
Human milk is a complex fluid that has developed to satisfy the nutritional requirements of infants. In addition to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other biologically active components, breast milk contains a diverse microbiome that is presumed to colonize the infant gastrointestinal tract and a heterogeneous population of cells with unclear physiological roles and health implications. Noteworthy cellular components of breast milk include progenitor/stem cells. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of breast milk cells, including leukocytes, epithelial cells, stem cells and potentially probiotic bacteria...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717255/sequential-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-differences-in-multi-year-dietary-history-of-three-sympatric-equid-species-in-sw-mongolia
#4
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
1. Competition among sympatric wild herbivores is reduced by different physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits resulting in different dietary niches. Wild equids are a rather uniform group of large herbivores which have dramatically declined in numbers and range. Correlative evidence suggests that pasture competition with livestock is one of the key factors for this decline, and the situation may be aggravated in areas where different equid species overlap. 2. The Dzungarian Gobi is currently the only place where two wild equid species coexist and share the range with the domesticated form of a third equid species...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714931/correlation-between-oxidative-stress-nutrition-and-cancer-initiation
#5
REVIEW
Subbroto Kumar Saha, Soo Bin Lee, Jihye Won, Hye Yeon Choi, Kyeongseok Kim, Gwang-Mo Yang, Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Ssang-Goo Cho
Inadequate or excessive nutrient consumption leads to oxidative stress, which may disrupt oxidative homeostasis, activate a cascade of molecular pathways, and alter the metabolic status of various tissues. Several foods and consumption patterns have been associated with various cancers and approximately 30-35% of the cancer cases are correlated with overnutrition or malnutrition. However, several contradictory studies are available regarding the association between diet and cancer risk, which remains to be elucidated...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713405/vegetable-grafting-as-a-tool-to-improve-drought-resistance-and-water-use-efficiency
#6
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar, Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Giuseppe Colla
Drought is one of the most prevalent limiting factors causing considerable losses in crop productivity, inflicting economic as well as nutritional insecurity. One of the greatest challenges faced by the scientific community in the next few years is to minimize the yield losses caused by drought. Drought resistance is a complex quantitative trait controlled by many genes. Thus, introgression of drought resistance traits into high yielding genotypes has been a challenge to plant breeders. Vegetable grafting using rootstocks has emerged as a rapid tool in tailoring plants to better adapt to suboptimal growing conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712005/an-overview-of-the-ongoing-insights-in-selenium-research-and-its-role-in-fish-nutrition-and-fish-health
#7
REVIEW
Kifayat Ullah Khan, Amina Zuberi, João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes, Imdad Ullah, Huda Sarwar
In the present review, the ongoing researches about selenium research in fish nutrition have been comprehensively discussed. Selenium research is getting popularity in fish nutrition as it is required for the normal growth and proper physiological and biochemical functions in fish. Its deficiency or surplus amounts create severe problems in fish. It is available as inorganic form, organic form, and nano form. In fish, most of the previous research is about the selenium requirements for fish by using only one selenium source mainly the inorganic one...
July 15, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707080/reproductive-outcomes-of-anestrous-goats-supplemented-with-spineless-opuntia-megacantha-salm-dyck-protein-enriched-cladodes-and-exposed-to-the-male-effect
#8
Cesar A Meza-Herrera, Omag Cano-Villegas, Arnoldo Flores-Hernandez, Francisco G Veliz-Deras, Guadalupe Calderon-Leyva, Juan M Guillen-Muñoz, Cristina García de la Peña, Cesar A Rosales-Nieto, Ulises Macias-Cruz, Leonel Avendaño-Reyes
The possible influence of the "male effect" upon reproductive outcomes of adult anestrous goats under marginal rangeland conditions and supplemented with protein-enriched Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck was evaluated. Reproductive variables included: estrus percentage (EST, %), estrus latency (ESL, hours), ovulation percentage (OP, %), ovulation rate (OR, units), average largest follicle at ovulation (LFO, mm), largest corpus luteum (LCL, mm), embryo number (EBN, units), and embryo implantation percentage (EIP, %)...
July 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707044/seasonal-bushmeat-hunger-in-the-congo-basin
#9
Edmond Dounias, Mitsuo Ichikawa
Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being...
July 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706733/the-effect-of-characteristics-of-proteins-fed-during-gestation-and-lactation-on-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-dams-and-male-offspring-of-wistar-rats
#10
A Jahan-Mihan, C A Labyak, A Y Arikawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine the role of characteristics of proteins in maternal and weaning diets on risk of metabolic syndrome in male offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were allocated to two groups (n = 12) and were fed the AIN-93G diets based on either intact protein-based diet (IPD) or mixed amino acid-based diet (AAD) from day 3 of gestation throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to either an IPD or AAD diet for 18 weeks...
June 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702424/epigenetics-linking-nutrition-to-molecular-mechanisms-in-aging
#11
REVIEW
Joo Hyun Park, Yeongran Yoo, Yoon Jung Park
Healthy aging has become a major goal of public health. Many studies have provided evidence and theories to explain molecular mechanisms of the aging process. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for life span and the progression of aging. Epigenetics is a fascinating field of molecular biology, which studies heritable modifications of DNA and histones that regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark that shows progressive changes during aging...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702015/inhibition-of-the-rumen-ciliate-entodinium-caudatum-by-antibiotics
#12
Tansol Park, Tea Meulia, Jeffrey L Firkins, Zhongtang Yu
Axenic cultures of free-living aerobic ciliates, such as Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium aurelia, have been established and routinely used in laboratory research, greatly facilitating, or enabling characterization of their metabolism, physiology, and ecology. Ruminal protozoa are anaerobic ciliates, and they play important roles in feed digestion and fermentation. Although, repeatedly attempted, no laboratory-maintainable axenic culture of ruminal ciliates has been established. When axenic ciliate cultures are developed, antibiotics are required to eliminate the accompanying bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701734/long-noncoding-rna-expression-profile-changes-associated-with-dietary-energy-in-the-sheep-testis-during-sexual-maturation
#13
Yanli Zhang, Hua Yang, Le Han, Fengzhe Li, Tingting Zhang, Jing Pang, Xu Feng, Caifang Ren, Shengyong Mao, Feng Wang
Spermatogenesis can be affected by nutrition, which operates through normal physiological processes by changing the testicular mass and hormone levels profoundly. However, little is known regarding how testis development is regulated by long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). In this study, we investigated the effects of high-grain (HG) feeding on testis development during sexual maturation mediated by lncRNA. The HG diet group showed an increase in growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and testosterone (T) levels, and in the number of sperm in the seminiferous tubules compared with the hay-fed group (p  < 0...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701319/low-carbohydrate-diet-induces-metabolic-depression-a-possible-mechanism-to-conserve-glycogen
#14
Hugh Stirling Winwood-Smith, Craig E Franklin, Craig R White
Long-term studies have found low carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than calorie restricted diets in the short-term, but equally or only marginally more effective in the long-term. Low carbohydrate diets have been linked to reduced glycogen stores and increased feelings of fatigue. We propose that reduced physical activity in response to lowered glycogen explains the diminishing weight loss advantage of low carbohydrate compared to low calorie diets over longer time scales. We explored this possibility by feeding adult Drosophila melanogaster either a standard or low carbohydrate diet for nine days and measured changes in metabolic rate, glycogen stores, activity, and body mass...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693485/three-members-of-medicago-truncatula-st-family-are-ubiquitous-during-development-and-modulated-by-nutritional-status-mtst1-and-dehydration-mtst2-and-mtst3
#15
Lucía Albornos, Ignacio Martín, Emilia Labrador, Berta Dopico
BACKGROUND: ShooT specific/Specific Tissue (ST) belong to a protein family of unknown function characterized by the DUF2775 domain and produced in specific taxonomic plant families, mainly Fabaceae and Asteraceae, with the Medicago truncatula ST family being the largest. The putative roles proposed for this family are cell elongation, biotic interactions, abiotic stress and N reserve. The aim of this work was to go deeper into the role of three M. truncatula ST proteins, namely ST1, ST2 and ST3...
July 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693012/stress-measured-by-allostatic-load-in-neurologically-impaired-children-the-importance-of-nutritional-status
#16
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Annalisa de Silvestri, Riccardo Albertini, Mara De Amici, Mario Valenza, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Allostatic load (AL) is the cumulative physiological wear and tear that results from repeated efforts to adapt to stressors over time. The life stress response is modified by nutritional status. AIM: We estimated AL scores among neurologically impaired (NI) children; the association with malnutrition was also evaluated. METHODS: Forty-one patients with severe disabilities were included. Data based on 15 biomarkers were used to create the AL score...
July 10, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690550/targeting-inflammation-and-downstream-protein-metabolism-in-sarcopenia-a-brief-up-dated-description-of-concurrent-exercise-and-leucine-based-multimodal-intervention
#17
REVIEW
Zhi Xia, Jason Cholewa, Yan Zhao, Hua-Yu Shang, Yue-Qin Yang, Kassiana Araújo Pessôa, Quan-Sheng Su, Fernanda Lima-Soares, Nelo Eidy Zanchi
Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, and poses a serious threat to the physiological and psychological health of the elderly population with consequential economic and social burdens. Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the development of sarcopenia such that it alters cellular protein metabolism to favor proteolysis over synthesis, and thereby accelerates muscular atrophy. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutrition intervention strategies can attenuate or treat sarcopenia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689854/impact-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-and-exercise-training-programs-in-coronary-heart-disease
#18
REVIEW
Sergey Kachur, Vasutakarn Chongthammakun, Carl J Lavie, Alban De Schutter, Ross Arena, Richard V Milani, Barry A Franklin
Cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) is the process of developing and maintaining an optimal level of physical, social, and psychological well-being in order to promote recovery from cardiovascular (CV) illness. It is a multi-disciplinary approach encompassing supervised exercise training, patient counseling, education and nutritional guidance that may also enhance quality of life. Beneficial CV effects may include improving coronary heart disease risk factors; particularly exercise capacity, reversing cardiac remodeling, and favorably modifying metabolism and systemic oxygen transport...
July 6, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688083/the-swi-snf-chromatin-remodeling-factors-baf60a-b-and-c-in-nutrient-signaling-and-metabolic-control
#19
REVIEW
Ruo-Ran Wang, Ran Pan, Wenjing Zhang, Junfen Fu, Jiandie D Lin, Zhuo-Xian Meng
Metabolic syndrome has become a global epidemic that adversely affects human health. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders; however, the mechanisms that integrate these cues to regulate metabolic physiology and the development of metabolic disorders remain incompletely defined. Emerging evidence suggests that SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are critical for directing metabolic reprogramming and adaptation in response to nutritional and other physiological signals...
July 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685845/restructured-low-fat-cooked-ham-containing-liquid-whey-fortified-with-lactulose
#20
Cristiane A Oliveira, Armando A Massingue, Ana Paula R Moura, Paulo Rogério Fontes, Alcinéia Ls Ramos, Eduardo M Ramos
BACKGROUND: Current health concerns have driven consumers to request products with nutritional and physiological advantages, which can be achieved by using prebiotic ingredients. Lactulose is a prebiotic with excellent functional properties and can be easily incorporated into meat products through the addition of liquid whey. This study investigate the technological and sensorial quality of restructured cooked ham elaborated without liquid whey added (control) and with liquid whey containing different contents (0, 30, 60 and 100 g kg(-1) ) of lactulose...
July 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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