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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527892/outbreak-of-zika-virus-infection-in-singapore-an-epidemiological-entomological-virological-and-clinical-analysis
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Zika virus infection was detected in Singapore in August, 2016. We report the first comprehensive analysis of a national response to an outbreak of Zika virus infection in Asia. METHODS: In the first phase of the outbreak, patients with suspected Zika virus infection were isolated in two national referral hospitals until their serum tested negative for the virus. Enhanced vector control and community engagement measures were deployed in disease clusters, including stepped-up mosquito larvicide and adulticide use, community participation in source reduction (destruction of mosquito breeding sites), and work with the local media to promote awareness of the outbreak...
May 17, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526661/the-parasol-protocol-an-implementation-science-study-of-hiv-continuum-of-care-interventions-for-gay-men-and-transgender-women-in-burma-myanmar
#2
Andrea L Wirtz, Soe Naing, Emily Clouse, Kaung Htet Thu, Sandra Hsu Hnin Mon, Zin Min Tun, Stefan Baral, Aung Zayar Paing, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of MSM and TW in HIV prevention and care...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512240/sting-activation-reverses-lymphoma-mediated-resistance-to-antibody-immunotherapy
#3
Lekh N Dahal, Lang Dou, Khiyam Hussain, Rena Liu, Alexander Earley, Kerry L Cox, Salome Murinello, Ian Tracy, Francesco Forconi, Andrew J Steele, Patrick Duriez, Diego Gomez-Nicola, Jessica L Teeling, Martin J Glennie, Mark S Cragg, Stephen A Beers
Tumors routinely attract and co-opt macrophages to promote their growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Macrophages are also the key effector cell for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies. Here we report that the tumor microenvironment creates an immunosuppressive signature on tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) which favors expression of inhibitory rather than activating Fcγ receptors (FcγR), thereby limiting the efficacy of mAb immunotherapy. We assessed a panel of TLR and STING agonists (a) for their ability to reprogram macrophages to a state optimal for mAb immunotherapy...
May 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510523/new-solutions-for-curbing-runaway-drug-costs
#4
Zachary Hafner
Long at odds, the interests of payers and providers are becoming more compatible and aligned. Both stakeholders need to collaborate to manage costs. Encouraging use of generics and biosimilars is one way they can slow down the soaring drug spend.
March 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507981/a-quasi-experimental-study-of-a-movement-and-preliteracy-program-for-3-and-4-year-old-children
#5
Chloe Bedard, Emily Bremer, Wenonah Campbell, John Cairney
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 28% of children are not ready for kindergarten, 91% are inactive according to current guidelines, and 21% are overweight/obese. Early intervention to strengthen movement and preliteracy skills may help to curb the concerning rates of poor school readiness, inactivity, obesity, and subsequently positively impact health across the lifespan. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a motor and preliteracy skill program for a community sample of 3- to 4-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507928/the-role-of-direct-acting-antivirals-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#6
REVIEW
Christine Hong Ting Yang, Eric R Yoo, Aijaz Ahmed
In the United States, chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 0.1-2% of the pediatric population, who are consequently at risk for major complications, including cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The current standard of treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children is pegylated-interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN) in combination with ribavirin. PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy is approved for children ages 3 and older; however, it is often held from use until adulthood because of its extensive list of potential side effects and high likelihood of causing adverse symptoms...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504453/reduced-productivity-of-culex-pipiens-and-cx-restuans-diptera-culicidae-mosquitoes-in-parking-area-catch-basins-in-the-northeast-chicago-metropolitan-area
#7
Justin E Harbison, Bridget Hulsebosch, Jennifer Buczek, Amy Runde, Roger Nasci
From June to September, 2016, 100 catch basins in eight parking areas were monitored weekly for the presence of mosquito pupae in the operational area of the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (NSMAD) located just north of Chicago, IL, U.S.A. Weekly results from these basins were compared to weekly samples taken from residential street catch basins, the most common type of catch basin treated seasonally by the NSMAD with larvicides. Over the 17 study weeks, residential street basins had a mean rate of productivity (pupae per basin-visit) 12 times that of parking area catch basins...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502576/the-effect-of-mpower-scores-on-cigarette-smoking-prevalence-and-consumption
#8
Anh Ngo, Kai-Wen Cheng, Frank J Chaloupka, Ce Shang
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the MPOWER package to support policy implementation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This study examined the effect of MPOWER policies on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in a global context. METHODS: The MPOWER composite score was constructed by adding up the six MPOWER scores for each country and survey year 2007-2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014, with a possible range between 6 (1 in each of the six score) and 29 (4 in M score and 5 in POWER scores)...
May 11, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501084/barrett-esophagus-and-intramucosal-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Shanmugarajah Rajendra, Prateek Sharma
Barrett esophagus (BE) is a precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Developments in imaging and molecular markers, and endoscopic eradication therapy, are available to curb the increase of EAC. Endoscopic surveillance is recommended, despite lack of data. The cancer risk gets progressively downgraded, raising questions about the understanding of risk factors and molecular biology involved. Recent data point to at least 2 carcinogenic pathways operating in EAC. The use of p53 overexpression and high-risk human papillomavirus may represent the best chance to detect progressors...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499386/gender-equality-and-human-rights-approaches-to-female-genital-mutilation-a-review-of-international-human-rights-norms-and-standards
#10
REVIEW
Rajat Khosla, Joya Banerjee, Doris Chou, Lale Say, Susana T Fried
Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF...
May 12, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498365/inhibition-of-twist1-mediated-invasion-by-chk2-promotes-premature-senescence-in-p53-defective-cancer-cells
#11
Debasis Nayak, Anmol Kumar, Souneek Chakraborty, Reyaz Ur Rasool, Hina Amin, Archana Katoch, Veena Gopinath, Vidushi Mahajan, Mahesh K Zilla, Bilal Rah, Sumit G Gandhi, Asif Ali, Lekha Dinesh Kumar, Anindya Goswami
Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is implicated as a key mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic dissemination in p53-deficient cancer cells. On the other hand, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a major cell cycle regulatory protein provides a barrier to tumorigenesis due to DNA damage response by preserving genomic stability of the cells. Here we demonstrate that Chk2 induction proficiently abrogates invasion, cell scattering and invadopodia formation ability of p53-mutated invasive cells by suppressing Twist1, indicating Chk2 confers vital role in metastasis prevention...
May 12, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494749/alcohol-addiction-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-its-ligands-how-they-all-come-together
#12
Jaya Kumar, Zalina Ismail, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Najwa Baharuddin, Hermizi Hapidin, Yvonne-Tee Get Bee, Ernie Yap, Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed
In the past decade, many studies have highlighted the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) modulators in attenuating alcohol-related biological effects such as alcohol consumption, alcohol-seeking and relapse-like behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that pharmacological agents acting at mGlu5 could be promising tools in curbing inebriation. mGlu5s are present abundantly in brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, motivation and drug administration. On a cellular level, they are primarily located at the postsynaptic part of the neuron where the receptor is functionally linked to various downstream proteins that are involved in cell signaling and gene transcription that mediate the alcohol-induced neuroplasticity...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493481/hospital-and-health-insurance-markets-concentration-and-inpatient-hospital-transaction-prices-in-the-u-s-health-care-market
#13
Seidu Dauda
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of hospital and insurer markets concentration on transaction prices for inpatient hospital services. DATA SOURCES: Measures of hospital and insurer markets concentration derived from American Hospital Association and HealthLeaders-InterStudy data are linked to 2005-2008 inpatient administrative data from Truven Health MarketScan Databases. STUDY DESIGN: Uses a reduced-form price equation, controlling for cost and demand shifters and accounting for possible endogeneity of market concentration using instrumental variables (IV) technique...
May 11, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492203/assessment-of-tobacco-control-efforts-in-three-sub-saharan-african-countries
#14
Akindele O Adebiyi, Akinbode Oluwafemi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco industry's undermining of tobacco control goes on unabated in sub-Saharan African countries, especially in Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains provisions aimed at curbing these activities. However, the level to which FCTC is implemented and the strength of each country's tobacco control law will determine its usefulness in this regard. We determined the implementation status and strength of tobacco control laws in Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda...
January 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489068/tnf%C3%AE-drives-mitochondrial-stress-in-pomc-neurons-in-obesity
#15
Chun-Xia Yi, Marc Walter, Yuanqing Gao, Soledad Pitra, Beata Legutko, Stefanie Kälin, Clarita Layritz, Cristina García-Cáceres, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Stephen C Woods, Alexander Ghanem, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Javier E Stern, Martin Jastroch, Matthias H Tschöp
Consuming a calorically dense diet stimulates microglial reactivity in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) in association with decreased number of appetite-curbing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons; whether the reduction in POMC neuronal function is secondary to the microglial activation is unclear. Here we show that in hypercaloric diet-induced obese mice, persistently activated microglia in the MBH hypersecrete TNFα that in turn stimulate mitochondrial ATP production in POMC neurons, promoting mitochondrial fusion in their neurites, and increasing POMC neuronal firing rates and excitability...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488702/mechanisms-of-diseases-excessive-polyq-tracts-curb-autophagy
#16
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487608/role-of-%C3%AE-133p53-isoform-in-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-pdtc-mediated-growth-inhibition-of-mkn45-gastric-cancer-cells
#17
Hong-Mei Zhang, Xiao-Guang Sang, Yan-Ze Wang, Can Cui, Li Zhang, Wan-Sheng Ji
AIM: To investigate the role of Δ133p53 isoform in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-mediated growth inhibition of MKN45 gastric cancer cells. METHODS: The growth rate of MKN45 cells after treatment with different concentrations of only PDTC or PTDC in combination with cisplatin was detected by the CCK-8 assay. mRNA expression levels of Δ133p53, p53β, and the NF-κB p65 subunit and p65 protein levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence, respectively...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482834/the-redistributive-effects-of-copayment-in-outpatient-prescriptions-evidence-from-lombardy
#18
Paolo Berta, Rosella Levaggi, Gianmaria Martini, Stefano Verzillo
BACKGROUND: In Italy, copayment has changed its nature and it can no longer be simply considered a system to curb inappropriate expenditure. It has become an important form of revenue for public health care provision, but it might also become a source of distortions in income and health benefits redistribution. METHODS: We use a rich administrative dataset gathering information on patients demand (whose records have been matched to income declared for tax purposes) to study the effects of an additional copayment (the so called "superticket" introduced by the Italian government in 2012) in Lombardy, the biggest Italian Region whose socio-economic dimension is comparable to that of many European countries (e...
May 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482178/a-simulator-based-analysis-of-engineering-treatments-for-right-hook-bicycle-crashes-at-signalized-intersections
#19
Jennifer Warner, David S Hurwitz, Christopher M Monsere, Kayla Fleskes
A right-hook crash is a crash between a right-turning motor vehicle and an adjacent through-moving bicycle. At signalized intersections, these crashes can occur during any portion of the green interval when conflicting bicycles and vehicles are moving concurrently. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of four types of engineering countermeasures - regulatory signage, intersection pavement marking, smaller curb radius, and protected intersection design - at modifying driver behaviors that are known contributing factors in these crashes...
May 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481231/zeolite-containing-mixture-supplementation-ameliorated-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-mice-by-suppressing-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-pathway-and-improving-apoptosis-in-colon-mucosa
#20
Weida Lyu, Huijuan Jia, Chuanzong Deng, Kenji Saito, Seigo Yamada, Hisanori Kato
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is induced by multiple environmental factors, and there is still no known treatment capable of curing the disease completely. We propose a zeolite-containing mixture (Hydryeast(®), HY)-a multi-component nutraceutical of which the main ingredients are Azumaceramics (mixture of zeolite and oyster shell burned under high temperature), citric acid, red rice yeast (monascus) and calcium stearate-as a nutraceutical intervention in IBD to ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
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