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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768173/peek-peak-pique-repeating-motifs-of-subtle-variance-are-targets-for-potent-malaria-antibodies
#1
Stephen W Scally, Jean-Philippe Julien
Biomedical interventions to curb malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections are critically needed. Two studies in Nature Medicine,Kisalu et al. (2018) and Tan et al. (2018), report the isolation of potent human antibodies that target a new epitope on Pf sporozoites and mediate effective parasite inhibition in pre-clinical models.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764803/effectiveness-of-a-combined-web-based-and-ecological-momentary-intervention-for-incoming-first-year-university-students-protocol-for-a-3-arm-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Benjamin C Riordan, Saleh Moradi, Kate B Carey, Tamlin S Conner, Kyungho Jang, Kelly E Reid, Damian Scarf
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among university students is common, and those who drink often choose to drink heavily (ie, 4 or more drinks per session for women or 5 or more for men). Web-based interventions (WBIs), in which students complete assessments and receive personalized feedback about their alcohol use, and ecological momentary interventions (EMIs), which use mobile devices as a method of delivering intervention information, are 2 methods that have had some success in reducing alcohol use among university students...
May 15, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759075/metabolic-profiles-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-developing-assessment-tools-for-disease-severity
#3
Pu Ning, Yali Zheng, Qiongzhen Luo, Xiaohui Liu, Yu Kang, Yan Zhang, Rongbao Zhang, Yu Xu, Donghong Yang, Wen Xi, Keqiang Wang, Yusheng Chen, Shuchang An, Zhancheng Gao
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) had a metabolic profile and whether this profile can be used for disease severity assessment. METHODS: A total of 175 individuals including 119 CAP patients and 56 controls were enrolled and divided into two cohorts. Serum samples from a discovery cohort (n = 102, including 38 non-severe CAP, 30 severe CAP, and 34 age and sex-matched controls) were determined by untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics...
May 14, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759001/betwixt-and-between-well-and-sick-in-cervical-precancer-canadian-women-s-experiences-of-recurring-hpv-infections-and-hpv-vaccination
#4
Michelle Wyndham-West, Nancy Durand, Aimee Santoro
Background This research fuses the experiences of a precancer diagnosis with the decision-making surrounding a vaccine that can protect against human papillomavirus strains that women may not have been exposed to. The interviewee cohort is of note as half the women were in their 30s and 40s and 75% were over the age of 26. These groupings are often overlooked in media discourses and narrative research surrounding human papillomavirus and the human papillomavirus vaccine. Purpose Womens' diagnoses and treatment experiences, including colposcopies, biopsies, and Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedures, are chronicled to highlight a liminal, precancerous state-one in which they are not deemed healthy, but nor have they been diagnosed with cancer...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757920/alaska-nurse-practitioners-barriers-to-use-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#5
Heath Christianson, Elizabeth Driscoll, Aicha Hull
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have begun to demonstrate themselves as useful tools in enhancing safe and responsible prescription of controlled substances. The purpose of this project was to describe current practice, beliefs, and barriers of Alaska nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the Alaska PDMP. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 635 Alaskan NPs with a 33% return rate. The data depicted prescribing habits, barriers to use, barriers to registering, and opinions on how to make the PDMP more clinically useful...
January 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757608/the-fight-against-antimicrobial-resistance-is-confounded-by-a-global-increase-in-antibiotic-usage
#6
Mark A T Blaskovich
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to global health. Despite numerous initiatives designed to curb excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics, a recent report ( Klein et al. ( 2018 ) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. , 115 , E3463 ) finds that there was a substantial increase in global antibiotic consumption by humans from 2000 to 2015 and predicts a further 200% increase by 2030. Alarmingly, much of this growth is occurring in "last-resort" antibiotics. The study excludes the extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture...
May 14, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756491/innovative-healthy-lifestyles-school-based-public-private-partnerships-designed-to-curb-the-childhood-obesity-epidemic-globally-lessons-learned-from-the-mondel%C3%A4-z-international-foundation
#7
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been recognized as central for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic. However, very few real-world examples have been published documenting the workings of effective PPPs. The objective of this article is to identify the factors that enabled the successful implementation of school-based PPPs focusing mainly on nutrition and physical activity in 7 countries located in Asia (China and India), Africa (South Africa), Europe (Germany, United Kingdom), and Latin America (Brazil and Mexico)...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752250/mactive-smoke-a-prospective-observational-study-using-mobile-health-tools-to-assess-the-association-of-physical-activity-with-smoking-urges
#8
Luke G Silverman-Lloyd, Sina Kianoush, Michael J Blaha, Alyse B Sabina, Garth N Graham, Seth S Martin
BACKGROUND: Evidence that physical activity can curb smoking urges is limited in scope to acute effects and largely reliant on retrospective self-reported measures. Mobile health technologies offer novel mechanisms for capturing real-time data of behaviors in the natural environment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore this in a real-world longitudinal setting by leveraging mobile health tools to assess the association between objectively measured physical activity and concurrent smoking urges in a 12-week prospective observational study...
May 11, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751437/feeding-dicyandiamide-dcd-to-cattle-an-effective-method-to-reduce-n-2-o-emissions-from-urine-patches-in-a-heavy-textured-soil-under-temperate-climatic-conditions
#9
E P Minet, S F Ledgard, J Grant, J B Murphy, D J Krol, G J Lanigan, J Luo, K G Richards
Nitrate (NO3 - ) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from urine patches in grazed pastures are key sources of water and air pollution, respectively. Broadcast spraying of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) has been shown to reduce these losses, but it is expensive. As an alternative, it had been demonstrated that feeding DCD to cattle (after manual mixing with supplementary feeds) was a practical, effective and cheaper method to deliver high DCD rates within urine patches. This two-year study carried out on simulated urine patches in three application seasons (spring, summer, autumn) explored the efficacy of DCD feeding to cattle to reduce N losses from grazed pasture soil in a heavy-textured soil under temperate climatic conditions...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746956/liposomal-delivery-of-a-pin1-inhibitor-complexed-with-cyclodextrins-as-new-therapy-for-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#10
Concetta Russo Spena, Lucia De Stefano, Stefano Palazzolo, Barbara Salis, Carlotta Granchi, Filippo Minutolo, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Roberto Fratamico, Sara Crotti, Sara D'Aronco, Marco Agostini, Giuseppe Corona, Isabella Caligiuri, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Flavio Rizzolio
Pin1, a prolyl isomerase that sustains tumor progression, is overexpressed in different types of malignancies. Functional inactivation of Pin1 restrains tumor growth and leaves normal cells unaffected making it an ideal pharmaceutical target. Although many studies on Pin1 have focused on malignancies that are influenced by sex hormones, studies in ovarian cancer have lagged behind. Here, we show that Pin1 is an important therapeutic target in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. Knock down of Pin1 in ovarian cancer cell lines induces apoptosis and restrains tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744800/trait-and-state-patterns-of-basolateral-amygdala-connectivity-at-rest-are-related-to-endogenous-testosterone-and-aggression-in-healthy-young-women
#11
Macià Buades-Rotger, Christin Engelke, Ulrike M Krämer
The steroid hormone testosterone (T) has been suggested to influence reactive aggression upon its action on the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a key brain region for threat detection. However, it is unclear whether T modulates resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the BLA, and whether this predicts subsequent aggressive behavior. Aggressive interactions themselves, which often induce changes in T concentrations, could further alter BLA rsFC, but this too remains untested. Here we investigated the effect of endogenous T on rsFC of the BLA at baseline as well as after an aggressive encounter, and whether this was related to behavioral aggression in healthy young women (n = 39)...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743868/insulin-resistance-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-state-of-the-art-review
#12
REVIEW
Christian Benedict, Claudia A Grillo
Research in animals and humans has shown that type 2 diabetes and its prodromal state, insulin resistance, promote major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Worrisomely, dysregulated amyloid beta (Aβ) metabolism has also been shown to promote central nervous system insulin resistance; although the role of tau metabolism remains controversial. Collectively, as proposed in this review, these findings suggest the existence of a mechanistic interplay between AD pathogenesis and disrupted insulin signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743614/healthy-hosts-rule-within-ecological-forces-shaping-the-gut-microbiota
#13
REVIEW
Mariana X Byndloss, Sandy R Pernitzsch, Andreas J Bäumler
A balanced gut microbiota is important for human health, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are incompletely understood. Recent insights suggest the host plays a key role in shaping its gut microbiota to be beneficial. While host control in the small intestine curbs bacterial numbers to avoid competition for simple sugars and amino acids, the host limits oxygen availability in the large intestine to obtain microbial fermentation products from fiber. Epithelial cells are major players in imposing ecological control mechanisms, which involves the release of antimicrobial peptides by small-intestinal Paneth cells and maintenance of luminal anaerobiosis by epithelial hypoxia in the colon...
May 9, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743527/unravelling-the-secret-of-seed-based-gels-in-water-the-nanoscale-3d-network-formation
#14
Malick Samateh, Neethu Pottackal, Setareh Manafirasi, Adiyala Vidyasagar, Charles Maldarelli, George John
Chia (Salvia hispanica) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) seeds have the intrinsic ability to form a hydrogel concomitant with moisture-retention, slow releasing capability and proposed health benefits such as curbing diabetes and obesity by delaying digestion process. However, the underlying mode of gelation at nanoscopic level is not clearly explained or explored. The present study elucidates and corroborates the hypothesis that the gelling behavior of such seeds is due to their nanoscale 3D-network formation...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741412/parental-socioeconomic-instability-and-child-obesity
#15
Antwan Jones
Using data from the 1986 to 2010 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) and the NLSY Child and Young Adult Supplement, this research explores how changes in parental socioeconomic status relate to child obesity over time. Results from linear mixed-effects models indicate that maternal educational gains and maternal employment transitions significantly increased their child's body mass index (BMI). This finding suggests that mothers who work may have less time to devote to monitoring their child's food intake and physical activity, which places their children at higher risks of becoming overweight or obese over time...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740031/higher-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hispanic-patients-with-hepatitis-c-cirrhosis-and-metabolic-risk-factors
#16
Alina Wong, An Le, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Yu-Ju Lin, Pauline Nguyen, Sam Trinh, Hansen Dang, Mindie H Nguyen
The effect of metabolic syndrome on chronic liver diseases other than non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has not been fully elucidated. Our goal was to evaluate if metabolic syndrome increased the risk of liver-related complications, specifically hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and decompensation, in cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 3503 consecutive cirrhotic CHC patients seen at Stanford University from 1997-2015. HCC developed in 238 patients (8-year incidence 21%) and hepatic decompensation in 448 patients (8-year incidence 61%)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738295/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-tolerance-a-combined-threat-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-infections
#17
Philip G Bowler
Since the introduction of antibiotics into human medicine in the 1940's, antibiotic resistance has emerged at an alarming rate and is now a major threat to public health. This problem is amplified by pathogenic bacteria existing most commonly in biofilm form, creating additional bacterial tolerance to antimicrobial agents. Biofilm is now considered to be a primary cause of chronic infection, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria are prevalent in biofilm form. In particular, chronic non-healing wounds commonly harbour complex polymicrobial, pathogenic biofilm that is tolerant to systemic and topical antimicrobial therapy...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737218/the-current-situation-and-challenges-of-screening-for-and-treating-hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Charles Béguelin, Fatou Fall, Moussa Seydi, Gilles Wandeler
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Although the tools to curb the epidemic are known, only a minority of HBV-infected persons are currently diagnosed and treated. Areas covered: We discuss HBV epidemiological trends in SSA, describe important determinants of its natural history, and summarize current knowledge on the continuum of HBV care. Using the results of a systematic review of the literature, we describe the proportion of patients with liver fibrosis at presentation for care...
May 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735617/the-opioid-epidemic-in-nc-progress-challenges-and-opportunities
#19
Susan M Kansagra, Mandy K Cohen
Like many states, North Carolina faces an opioid crisis that has rapidly intensified in recent years. Addressing this epidemic requires interventions such as judicious prescribing of opioids, community based prevention efforts, broader naloxone distribution, law enforcement efforts to curb drug trafficking, and harm reduction efforts like safe syringe programs. Expanding access to treatment and recovery services, as well as affordable health insurance for individuals with substance use disorder or at risk for developing a disorder, is also critical...
May 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734721/commuting-mode-choice-in-a-high-density-city-do-land-use-density-and-diversity-matter-in-hong-kong
#20
Yi Lu, Guibo Sun, Chinmoy Sarkar, Zhonghua Gou, Yang Xiao
Hong Kong is a densely populated and transit-oriented Chinese city, which provides an ideal urban environment with which to study the various successful facets of land use policy as a model for potential replication to curb increasing car use in other Chinese cities. We examine the commuting mode choice of 203,900 households living in 4768 street blocks in Hong Kong from 2011 census. A street block is the smallest planning unit, made up of one or more housing estates with a homogenous built environment and socioeconomic status...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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