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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431329/stealth-recombinant-human-serum-albumin-nanoparticles-conjugating-5-fluorouracil-augmented-drug-delivery-and-cytotoxicity-in-human-colon-cancer-ht-29-cells
#1
Ankita Sharma, Amanpreet Kaur, Upendra Kumar Jain, Ramesh Chandra, Jitender Madan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug in colorectal cancer. However, intravenous administration of 5-FU at the dose of 7-12mg/kg exhibits curbs like short half-life (20min) and toxic side-effects on bone marrow cells. Therefore, in present investigation, 5-FU was conjugated to poly (ethylene glycol) anchored recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles (5-FU-rHSA-PEG-NPs) to improve the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mean particle size of 5-FU-rHSA-NPs was measured to be 44...
April 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427887/the-detection-of-antigenic-determinants-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#2
Dina M Tawfik, Tarek A Ahmad, Salah A Sheweita, Medhat Haroun, Laila H El-Sayed
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii continues to pose a threat to burdened patients in ICUs all around the world. Lately, infection control techniques are not sufficient to curb A. baumannii's progression and chemotherapeutics are losing their potency against it. Thus, immunization became a key player in providing an ideal solution to the dilemma. None of the vaccines under investigation have reached the market and the search for a tailored vaccine remains a challenge. The notion of unravelling the bacterial antigens to design a novel epitope-based vaccine proved its merits...
April 17, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426363/social-risk-and-protective-factors-in-adolescents-reduction-and-cessation-of-alcohol-use
#3
Tyrone C Cheng, Celia C Lo
BACKGROUND: Adolescents' alcohol use is related to many health problems, injuries, and violent acts, some with fatal consequences. A gap exists in the literature discussing risk/protective factors in change from non-heavy drinking to non-drinking, and also for change from heavy drinking to non-heavy drinking or non-drinking. OBJECTIVE: This secondary study examined some risk and protective factors involved when adolescent non-heavy drinkers and adolescent heavy drinkers curb or terminate their drinking...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426186/issue-at-the-heart-of-advancing-the-de-adoption-of-low-value-care-proceedings-from-an-expert-roundtable
#4
Janet Weiner, Rebecka Rosenquist
Identifying and paying for value has become a recurrent theme of health care reforms. Its corollary, reducing the prevalence of, and resources directed to, ineffective or marginally effective care, has received far less attention. In July 2016, the University of Pennsylvania’s Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (LDI) convened a diverse set of national leaders and stakeholders representing industry, think-tanks, provider and patient groups, and academic experts to tackle how health systems, payers, and providers can spur the ‘de-adoption’ of medical practices and technologies no longer considered valuable...
April 2017: LDI Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424413/the-snail-mir-128-axis-regulated-growth-invasion-metastasis-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-gastric-cancer
#5
Wei-Wei Yu, Hong Jiang, Cun-Tai Zhang, Yang Peng
miR-128 is expressed in various tumors, but its expression and function in gastric cancer have not been defined. Thus, the goal of this study was to characterize miR-128 in gastric cancer. We found first that miR-128 is down-regulated in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues, and this dysregulation is correlated with DNA methylation and the transcription factor SNAIL. Using prediction tools, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays, we found that Bmi-1 was the direct target of miR-128. Additionally, overexpression of miR-128 inhibited gastric cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation by targeting Bmi-1 in vitro and in vivo...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424229/tension-activated-channels-in-the-mechanism-of-osmotic-fitness-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Uğur Çetiner, Ian Rowe, Anthony Schams, Christina Mayhew, Deanna Rubin, Andriy Anishkin, Sergei Sukharev
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen with an exceptional ability to adapt to a range of environments. Part of its adaptive potential is the ability to survive drastic osmolarity changes. Upon a sudden dilution of external medium, such as during exposure to rain, bacteria evade mechanical rupture by engaging tension-activated channels that act as osmolyte release valves. In this study, we compare fast osmotic permeability responses in suspensions of wild-type PA and Escherichia coli (EC) strains in stopped-flow experiments and provide electrophysiological descriptions of osmotic-release channels in PA...
April 19, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422168/competitions-between-prosocial-exclusions-and-punishments-in-finite-populations
#7
Linjie Liu, Xiaojie Chen, Attila Szolnoki
Prosocial punishment has been proved to be a powerful mean to promote cooperation. Recent studies have found that social exclusion, which indeed can be regarded as a kind of punishment, can also support cooperation. However, if prosocial punishment and exclusion are both present, it is still unclear which strategy is more advantageous to curb free-riders. Here we first study the direct competition between different types of punishment and exclusion. We find that pool (peer) exclusion can always outperform pool (peer) punishment both in the optional and in the compulsory public goods game, no matter whether second-order sanctioning is considered or not...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416965/a-crisis-of-protection-and-safe-passage-violence-experienced-by-migrants-refugees-travelling-along-the-western-balkan-corridor-to-northern-europe
#8
Jovana Arsenijević, Erin Schillberg, Aurelie Ponthieu, Lucio Malvisi, Waeil A Elrahman Ahmed, Stefano Argenziano, Federica Zamatto, Simon Burroughs, Natalie Severy, Christophe Hebting, Brice de Vingne, Anthony D Harries, Rony Zachariah
BACKGROUND: Pushed by ongoing conflicts and pulled by the desire for a better life, over one million migrants/refugees transited Balkan countries and arrived in Europe during 2015 and early 2016. To curb this influx, European countries instituted restrictive migration policies often characterized by building of razor-wire border fences and border closures. Among migrants/refugees who received mental health care in Serbia while travelling through Balkan countries to Northern Europe, we assessed the prevalence and patterns of violent events experienced including physical trauma...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415607/thymoquinone-exerts-potent-growth-suppressive-activity-on-leukemia-through-dna-hypermethylation-reversal-in-leukemia-cells
#9
Jiuxia Pang, Na Shen, Fei Yan, Na Zhao, Liping Dou, Lai-Chu Wu, Christopher L Seiler, Li Yu, Ke Yang, Veronika Bachanova, Eric Weaver, Natalia Y Tretyakova, Shujun Liu
Thymoquinone (TQ), a bioactive constituent of the volatile oil of Monarda fistulosa and Nigella sativa, possesses cancer-specific growth inhibitory effects, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. We propose that TQ curbs cancer cell growth through dysfunction of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Molecular docking analysis revealed that TQ might interact with the catalytic pocket of DNMT1 and compete with co-factor SAM/SAH for DNMT1 inhibition. In vitro inhibitory assays showed that TQ decreases DNMT1 methylation activity in a dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of 30 nM...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414079/in-vivo-reprogramming-of-immune-cells-technologies-for-induction-of-antigen-specific-tolerance
#10
REVIEW
Ryan M Pearson, Liam M Casey, Kevin R Hughes, Stephen D Miller, Lonnie D Shea
Technologies that induce antigen-specific immune tolerance by mimicking naturally occurring mechanisms have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of many immune-mediated pathologies such as autoimmunity, allograft rejection, and allergy. The immune system intrinsically has central and peripheral tolerance pathways for eliminating or modulating antigen-specific responses, which are being exploited through emerging technologies. Antigen-specific tolerogenic responses have been achieved through the functional reprogramming of antigen-presenting cells or lymphocytes...
April 14, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410498/smartstart-results-of-a-large-point-of-entry-study-into-preloading-alcohol-and-associated-behaviours
#11
Grant J Devilly, Corey Allen, Kathleen Brown
BACKGROUND: There is a growing trend of preloading with alcohol before entering entertainment districts. It is claimed that this occurs to save money and that preloading may be a good indicator of harmful drinking and risk taking behaviours more generally. No study has collected data from a large sample as the participants entered entertainment districts and measured blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels and self-reported drinking and risk taking behaviours in a systematic way. METHODS: In this research, police and academics worked together to gauge the breadth and depth of preloading behaviours...
April 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410252/molecular-modifiers-of-kidney-stones
#12
Bryan G Alamani, Jeffrey D Rimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the role of molecular modifiers as inhibitors of kidney stone formation, drawing largely from in-vitro evidence while also citing relevant in-vivo studies. An emphasis is placed on physical observations of crystal growth inhibition, including mechanisms of action that focus predominantly on the literature of calcium oxalate and L-cystine. RECENT FINDINGS: The last decade has witnessed several breakthroughs in the identification of molecules with promise to curb kidney stone formation, as well as discoveries of the mechanisms by which these molecules (or combinations thereof) function as inhibitors of pathological crystal growth...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407209/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-an-emerging-marker-predicting-prognosis-in-elderly-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#13
Emanuela Cataudella, Chiara M Giraffa, Salvatore Di Marca, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Salvatore Alaimo, Marcella Pisano, Valentina Terranova, Thea Corriere, Maria L Ronsisvalle, Rosario Di Quattro, Benedetta Stancanelli, Mauro Giordano, Carlo Vancheri, Lorenzo Malatino
OBJECTIVES: To explore the performance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an index of systemic inflammation that predicts prognosis of several diseases, in a cohort of elderly adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). DESIGN: Prospective clinical study from January 2014 to July 2016. SETTING: Unit of Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Elderly adults admitted for CAP (N = 195)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405519/the-interleukin-il-1r1-pathway-is-a-critical-negative-regulator-of-pymt-mediated-mammary-tumorigenesis-and-pulmonary-metastasis
#14
Maryse Dagenais, Jeremy Dupaul-Chicoine, Todd Douglas, Claudia Champagne, Alexandre Morizot, Maya Saleh
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second leading cause of female cancer-related deaths worldwide. Inflammation is an established hallmark of tumorigenesis and an important determinant of tumor outcome and response to therapy. With advances in cancer immunotherapy, there is an urgent need to dissect the contribution of specific immune effectors in cancer development. Here, we genetically investigated the role of the Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor 1 (IL-1R1) pathway in breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis using the MMTV-PyMT mouse model...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405027/virus-genomes-reveal-factors-that-spread-and-sustained-the-ebola-epidemic
#15
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Trevor Bedford, Andrew J Tatem, Guy Baele, Nuno R Faria, Daniel J Park, Jason T Ladner, Armando Arias, Danny Asogun, Filip Bielejec, Sarah L Caddy, Matthew Cotten, Jonathan D'Ambrozio, Simon Dellicour, Antonino Di Caro, Joseph W Diclaro, Sophie Duraffour, Michael J Elmore, Lawrence S Fakoli, Ousmane Faye, Merle L Gilbert, Sahr M Gevao, Stephen Gire, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Augustine Goba, Donald S Grant, Bart L Haagmans, Julian A Hiscox, Umaru Jah, Jeffrey R Kugelman, Di Liu, Jia Lu, Christine M Malboeuf, Suzanne Mate, David A Matthews, Christian B Matranga, Luke W Meredith, James Qu, Joshua Quick, Suzan D Pas, My V T Phan, Georgios Pollakis, Chantal B Reusken, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Stephen F Schaffner, John S Schieffelin, Rachel S Sealfon, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Saskia L Smits, Kilian Stoecker, Lucy Thorne, Ekaete Alice Tobin, Mohamed A Vandi, Simon J Watson, Kendra West, Shannon Whitmer, Michael R Wiley, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Roman Wölfel, Nathan L Yozwiak, Kristian G Andersen, Sylvia O Blyden, Fatorma Bolay, Miles W Carroll, Bernice Dahn, Boubacar Diallo, Pierre Formenty, Christophe Fraser, George F Gao, Robert F Garry, Ian Goodfellow, Stephan Günther, Christian T Happi, Edward C Holmes, Brima Kargbo, Sakoba Keïta, Paul Kellam, Marion P G Koopmans, Jens H Kuhn, Nicholas J Loman, N'Faly Magassouba, Dhamari Naidoo, Stuart T Nichol, Tolbert Nyenswah, Gustavo Palacios, Oliver G Pybus, Pardis C Sabeti, Amadou Sall, Ute Ströher, Isatta Wurie, Marc A Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Andrew Rambaut
The 2013-2016 West African epidemic caused by the Ebola virus was of unprecedented magnitude, duration and impact. Here we reconstruct the dispersal, proliferation and decline of Ebola virus throughout the region by analysing 1,610 Ebola virus genomes, which represent over 5% of the known cases. We test the association of geography, climate and demography with viral movement among administrative regions, inferring a classic 'gravity' model, with intense dispersal between larger and closer populations. Despite attenuation of international dispersal after border closures, cross-border transmission had already sown the seeds for an international epidemic, rendering these measures ineffective at curbing the epidemic...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402533/caregiver-perspectives-about-using-antipsychotics-and-other-medications-for-symptoms-of-dementia
#16
John William Kerns, Jonathan D Winter, Katherine M Winter, Christine C Kerns, Rebecca S Etz
Background and Objectives: To avoid "chemical restraints," policies and guidelines have been implemented to curb the use of medications for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Antipsychotics have been particularly targeted because of their rare severe side effects. Consequently, caregiver directed non-pharmacologic therapies have increased while medication use for BPSD has diminished. Despite such initiatives, however, antipsychotics continue to be prescribed "off-label" for roughly 20% of nursing home patients...
April 11, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401119/long-term-sedative-use-among-community-dwelling-adults-a-population-based-analysis
#17
Deirdre Weymann, Emilie J Gladstone, Kate Smolina, Steven G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Chronic use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like sedatives (z-drugs) presents substantial risks to people of all ages. We sought to assess trends in long-term sedative use among community-dwelling adults in British Columbia. METHODS: Using population-based linked administrative databases, we examined longitudinal trends in age-standardized rates of sedative use among different age groups of community-dwelling adults (age ≥ 18 yr), from 2004 to 2013...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399959/curbing-tobacco-s-reach-to-improve-people-s-health-and-futures
#18
Vinayak Prasad, Dongbo Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399014/physiotherapists-behaviour-attitudes-awareness-knowledge-and-barriers-in-relation-to-evidence-based-practice-implementation-in-saudi-arabia-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Mansour A Alshehri, Ahmed Alalawi, Hammad Alhasan, Emma Stokes
AIM: The implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is extremely important and plays a vital role in healthcare practice. There have been few studies concerning the level of healthcare provided to patients in Saudi Arabia, using EBP as an indicator. This study is aimed at investigating physiotherapists' behaviour, attitudes, awareness and knowledge about EBP, along with barriers that curb the implementation of EBP. METHODS: A sample of convenience was used and an online survey consisting of 14 closed-ended questions was given to both clinical and academic physiotherapists in Saudi Arabia from May to October 2016...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398002/alpha-ketoglutarate-curbs-differentiation-and-induces-cell-death-in-mesenchymal-stromal-precursors-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#20
Karmveer Singh, Linda Krug, Abhijit Basu, Patrick Meyer, Nicolai Treiber, Seppe Vander Beken, Meinhard Wlaschek, Stefan Kochanek, Wilhelm Bloch, Hartmut Geiger, Pallab Maity, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from dysfunctional mitochondria contribute to diverse aging-related degenerative disorders. But so far little is known about the impact of distinct ROS on metabolism and fate of stromal precursor cells. We here demonstrate that an increase in superoxide anion radicals due to superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) deficiency in stromal precursor cells suppress osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation through fundamental changes in the global metabolite landscape...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cells
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