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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944116/barriers-to-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-pakistan
#1
Fariha Hasan, Sayed Mustafa Mahmood Shah, Misbah Munaf, Muhammad R Khan, Shayan Marsia, Syed Muhammad Haaris, Muhammad Hammad Shaikh, Ismail Abdur Rahim, Muhammad Salar Anwar, Kassam S Qureshi, Maham Iqbal, Sara Qazi, Burhanuddin A Kasi, Mahnoor Tahir, Syed Inam Ur Rehman, Kaneez Fatima
Background The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing in Pakistan; however, there are no national screening programs or guidelines in place to curb its development. This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining public awareness and attitudes regarding CRC and current screening practices. Furthermore, the study assessed perceived barriers which could impact future screening processes. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among urban dwellers of Karachi, Pakistan...
July 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943200/determinants-of-the-overuse-of-imaging-in-low-risk-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Allison H Oakes, Ritu Sharma, Madeline Jackson, Jodi B Segal
BACKGROUND: The overuse of radiologic services, where imaging tests are provided in circumstances where the propensity for harm exceeds the propensity for benefit, comprises a risk to patient safety and a burden on health care systems. Advanced imaging in the staging of low-risk prostate cancer is considered an overused procedure by many professional societies, yet the determinants that drive this phenomenon are not fully appreciated. METHODS: We systematically searched published literature within MEDLINE and Embase from January 1998 to March 2017...
September 21, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942662/-ophthalmological-symptoms-of-measles-and-their-treatment
#3
Mihály Végh, András Hári-Kovács, Hans-Walter Roth, Andrea Facskó
Measles, caused by the Morbilli virus, is a highly (about 95 %) contagious disease affecting primarily children, but without proper immunisation, adults can also be infected. The leading symptoms of the disease are high fever that presents after an incubation period of 9-10 days and the red rash that begins several days after the fever starts. Beyond specific generalized symptoms, measles may have ocular symptoms. The most commonly occurring conjunctivitis, the so-called "red eye symptom", is not characteristic only for measles infection, however, by taking the generalized symptoms it can suggest the diagnosis at the beginning of the disease...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942490/susceptibility-of-mice-to-bovine-herpesvirus-type-5-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
L P Mesquita, R C Costa, M M Fusuma, F R P Bruhn, E Mori, E M Pituco, C M C Mori, R Weiblen, P C Maiorka
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in cattle. Few studies have used the mouse as a model for BoHV-5 infection. Despite the fact that BoHV-5 can infect mice with immune deficiencies, little is known about viral replication, immune response, and the course of infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of wild-type mice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response in the CNS of BALB/c mice acutely infected with BoHV-5 at different days post-inoculation (dpi)...
September 23, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942473/renewable-energy-carbon-emissions-and-economic-growth-in-24-asian-countries-evidence-from-panel-cointegration-analysis
#5
Wen-Cheng Lu
This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942222/the-effect-of-astragaloside-iv-on-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-rats-involvement-of-inflammation
#6
Shumin Qin, Keer Huang, Zhigang Fang, Jinjin Yin, Ruwei Dai
The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The animals were divided into 7 groups and pretreated with vehicle, various doses of AS-IV (1,2 and 4mg/kg, i.p.) or omeprazole (40mg/kg), 75min later, the gastric mucosal injury was induced by oral administration of ethanol. One hour after ethanol ingestion, the rats were euthanized and gastric tissues were collected to biochemical analyze. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 10 (IL-10), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein, TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and nuclear NF-κB (nNF-κB) proteins were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blot analysis...
September 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941558/emergency-medicine-evaluation-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-history-examination-imaging-and-laboratory-assessment-and-risk-scores
#7
Brit Long, Drew Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common infection, accounting for approximately one million hospitalizations in the United States annually. This potentially life-threatening disease is commonly diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. OBJECTIVE: To investigate emergency medicine evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia including history, physical examination, imaging, and the use of risk scores in patient assessment. DISCUSSION: Pneumonia is the number one cause of death from infectious disease...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936413/discriminatory-validity-of-the-aspects-of-wheelchair-mobility-test-as-demonstrated-by-a-comparison-of-four-wheelchair-types-designed-for-use-in-low-resource-areas
#8
Karen L Rispin, Elisa Hamm, Joy Wee
BACKGROUND: Comparative effectiveness research on wheelchairs available in low-resource areas is needed to enable effective use of limited funds. Mobility on commonly encountered rolling environments is a key aspect of function. High variation in capacity among wheelchair users can mask changes in mobility because of wheelchair design. A repeated measures protocol in which the participants use one type of wheelchair and then another minimises the impact of individual variation. OBJECTIVES: The Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test (AWMT) was designed to be used in repeated measures studies in low-resource areas...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929822/genetic-and-ethnic-modulation-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-inhibitors
#9
Yen-Chou Chen, Cheng-Chih Chung, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yi-Jen Chen
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), are important as anticancer treatments through curbing tumor angiogenesis and growth. VEGF inhibitors have significant cardiovascular effects. By blocking VEGF receptors, ligands, or signal pathways, VEGF inhibitors disturb the balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction, undermine endothelial cell integrity, and activate cardiomyocyte apoptosis. VEGF inhibitors increase risks of hypertension, heart failure, thromboembolism, and arrhythmia...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929815/the-challenge-of-curbing-aminoglycoside-resistance-can-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-play-a-critical-role
#10
Vassiliki Pitiriga, Evangelia Dimitroulia, George Saroglou, Athanassios Tsakris
Aminoglycosides are useful antimicrobials, primarily for serious infections involving aerobic gram-negative pathogens. The inevitable increase in aminoglycoside resistance has led to calls for reducing levels of inappropriate aminoglycoside prescribing through the implementation of various antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs). These programs mainly include restriction policies and aminoglycoside cycling. Although aminoglycoside resistance rates appear essential for measuring effectiveness of these interventions, most studies have focused on economic outcomes or clinical efficacy and toxicities...
September 25, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929456/the-relationship-between-co2-emission-energy-consumption-and-economic-growth-in-malaysia-a-three-way-linkage-approach
#11
Chindo Sulaiman, A S Abdul-Rahim
This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO2 emission...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928750/the-role-of-maternal-hiv-envelope-specific-antibodies-and-mother-to-child-transmission-risk
#12
REVIEW
Ayooluwa O Douglas, David R Martinez, Sallie R Permar
Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) prophylaxis during pregnancy, >150,000 infants become infected through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV worldwide. It is likely that additional intervention strategies, such as a maternal HIV vaccine, will be required to eliminate pediatric HIV infections. A deeper understanding of the fine specificity and function of maternal HIV envelope (Env)-specific responses that provide partial protection against MTCT will be critical to inform the design of immunologic strategies to curb the pediatric HIV epidemic...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928319/effect-of-a-brief-smoking-cessation-intervention-on-adult-tobacco-smokers-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-from-north-india
#13
Sonu Goel, Jeyashree Kathiresan, Preeti Singh, Rana J Singh
BACKGROUND: An association between smoking and poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes has been globally established. Various smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) have been proven worldwide to curb smoking behavior. There is a need for evidence to assess if SCI increases the chance of successful treatment outcome among TB patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a brief SCI; The Ask, Brief, Cessation support (ABC) package, on treatment outcomes and smoking cessation in smear-positive adult pulmonary TB patients...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928318/tobacco-use-among-thai-students-results-from-the-2015-global-youth-tobacco-survey
#14
Pantip Chotbenjamaporn, Vilailak Haruhansapong, Pensom Jumriangrit, Siriwan Pitayarangsarit, Naveen Agarwal, Renu Garg
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use often starts in adolescence and is a leading cause of premature mortality. Two previous rounds of the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) found that a significant proportion of Thai youth currently smoke. OBJECTIVES: We conducted the third round of GYTS in Thailand in 2015 to monitor trends in tobacco use. METHODS: We selected 31 public and private secondary schools using random sampling based on probability proportional to school enrolment...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928314/smokeless-tobacco-and-public-health-in-bangladesh
#15
REVIEW
Rumana Huque, M Mostafa Zaman, Syed Mahfuzul Huq, Dhirendra N Sinha
Despite the high prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among adults in Bangladesh, SLT was not included in the Tobacco Control Law till 2013. Information on SLT use among Bangladeshi people is inadequate for policymaking and implementing effective control measures. With the aim to identify the prevalence and trends of different SLT products, health and economic impacts, manufacture, and sale of and policies related to SLT in Bangladesh, we carried out a literature review, which involved literature search, data extraction, and synthesis...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926937/food-shopping-and-acquisition-behaviors-in-relation-to-bmi-among-residents-of-low-income-communities-in-south-carolina
#16
Angela D Liese, Xiaonan Ma, Brent Hutto, Patricia A Sharpe, Bethany A Bell, Sara Wilcox
Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as "food deserts." It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#17
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926015/an-economic-assessment-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-japan
#18
Y Hayama, Y Osada, D Oushiki, T Tsutsui
A large-scale foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Japan in 2010 caused severe economic losses for livestock and related industries. In this paper, the authors develop a clear and usable framework to estimate the economic impact of this FMD outbreak. An economic analysis is then conducted by combining this framework with an epidemiological model. The framework estimates the direct and indirect costs to livestock and related industries by applying an input-output model, as well as by addressing expenditure on disease control...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925963/on-the-role-of-processing-parameters-in-producing-recycled-aluminum-aa6061-based-metal-matrix-composite-mmc-alr-prepared-using-hot-press-forging-hpf-process
#19
Azlan Ahmad, Mohd Amri Lajis, Nur Kamilah Yusuf
Solid-state recycling, which involves the direct recycling of scrap metal into bulk material using severe plastic deformation, has emerged as a potential alternative to the conventional remelting and recycling techniques. Hot press forging has been identified as a sustainable direct recycling technique that has fewer steps and maintains excellent material performance. An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the hardness and density of a recycled aluminum-based metal matrix composite by varying operating temperature and holding time...
September 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924461/do-the-benefits-of-transplant-tourism-amongst-nigerian-patients-outweigh-the-risks-a-single-center-experience
#20
C O Amira, B T Bello
BACKGROUND: Transplant tourism (TT) is the term used to describe travel outside one's country of abode for the sole purpose of obtaining organ transplantation services. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of kidney transplant tourists who were followed up in our institution. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent kidney transplantation outside the country and were followed up in our institution from 2007 to 2015...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
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