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metabolic responses in trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#1
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793182/homocysteine-metabolism-in-children-and-adolescents-with-epidermolysis-bullosa
#3
Rachele De Giuseppe, Greta Venturelli, Sophie Guez, Simona Salera, Claudia De Vita, Dario Consonni, Cinzia Dellanoce, Fabrizia Bamonti, Gabriella Chiarelli, Francesca Manzoni, Rita Maiavacca, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) belongs to a family of rare heterogeneous, genetic disorders characterized by blistering of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The involvement of the oral mucosa and oesophagus stenosis is suggested to be responsible for severe nutritional deficiencies, but few studies have till now considered this aspect. This observational study aimed to evaluate homocysteine status in children and adolescents with EB by assessing total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and metabolically related vitamins (B6, B12, folate) concentrations...
October 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781082/contemporary-views-on-inflammatory-pain-mechanisms-trping-over-innate-and-microglial-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Zhonghui Guan, Judith Hellman, Mark Schumacher
Tissue injury, whether by trauma, surgical intervention, metabolic dysfunction, ischemia, or infection, evokes a complex cellular response (inflammation) that is associated with painful hyperalgesic states. Although in the acute stages it is necessary for protective reflexes and wound healing, inflammation may persist well beyond the need for tissue repair or survival. Prolonged inflammation may well represent the greatest challenge mammalian organisms face, as it can lead to chronic painful conditions, organ dysfunction, morbidity, and death...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716276/elevations-in-growth-hormone-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-levels-on-admission-are-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-trauma-patients
#5
Matthew P Rowan, Darrick J Beckman, Julie A Rizzo, Claire L Isbell, Christopher E White, Stephen M Cohn, Kevin K Chung
BACKGROUND: Burn and trauma patients present a clinical challenge due to metabolic derangements and hypermetabolism that result in a prolonged catabolic state with impaired healing and secondary complications, including ventilator dependence. Previous work has shown that circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) are predictive of mortality in critically ill adults, but few studies have examined the prognostic potential of GH levels in adult trauma patients. METHODS: To investigate the utility of GH and other endocrine responses in the prediction of outcomes, we conducted a prospective, observational study of adult burn and trauma patients...
October 4, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707498/the-metabolic-stress-response-to-burn-trauma-current-understanding-and-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Craig Porter, Ronald G Tompkins, Celeste C Finnerty, Labros S Sidossis, Oscar E Suman, David N Herndon
Major burns provoke a profound stress response, which is unrivalled in terms of its magnitude and duration. Evidence suggests that the pathophysiological stress response to severe burn trauma persists for several years after injury. Thus, there is a pressing need for novel strategies that mitigate this response and restore normal metabolic function in patients with burns. This is the first in a Series of three papers about the care of people with burns. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of the stress response to burn trauma, with a focus on hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and stress-induced diabetes...
October 1, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685807/the-role-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-in-blunt-chest-trauma-in-cigarette-smoke-exposed-mice
#7
Clair Hartmann, Sebastian Hafner, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Markus Huber-Lang, Birgit Jung, Benedikt Nußbaum, Oscar McCook, Michael Gröger, Florian Wagner, Sandra Weber, Bettina Stahl, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Csaba Szabó, Rui Wang, Peter Radermacher, Katja Wagner
Pre-traumatic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure aggravates post-traumatic acute lung injury (ALI). Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) protects against ALI and CS exposure-induced chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether genetic CSE knockout (CSE) would aggravate post-traumatic ALI after CS exposure. After 3-4 weeks of CS exposure, anesthetized wild type (WT) and CSE mice underwent blunt chest trauma, surgical instrumentation and 4 hours of lung-protective mechanical ventilation...
September 28, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665050/human-serum-metabolites-associate-with-severity-and-patient-outcomes-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Matej Orešič, Jussi P Posti, Maja H Kamstrup-Nielsen, Riikka S K Takala, Hester F Lingsma, Ismo Mattila, Sirkku Jäntti, Ari J Katila, Keri L H Carpenter, Henna Ala-Seppälä, Anna Kyllönen, Henna-Riikka Maanpää, Jussi Tallus, Jonathan P Coles, Iiro Heino, Janek Frantzén, Peter J Hutchinson, David K Menon, Olli Tenovuo, Tuulia Hyötyläinen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. TBI is an example of a medical condition where there are still major lacks in diagnostics and outcome prediction. Here we apply comprehensive metabolic profiling of serum samples from TBI patients and controls in two independent cohorts. The discovery study included 144 TBI patients, with the samples taken at the time of hospitalization. The patients were diagnosed as severe (sTBI; n=22), moderate (moTBI; n=14) or mild TBI (mTBI; n=108) according to Glasgow Coma Scale...
July 15, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604311/brain-metabolic-alterations-in-mice-subjected-to-postnatal-traumatic-stress-and-in-their-offspring
#9
Katharina Gapp, Alberto Corcoba, Gretchen van Steenwyk, Isabelle M Mansuy, João Mn Duarte
Adverse environmental and social conditions early in life have a strong impact on health. They are major risk factors for mental diseases in adulthood and, in some cases, their effects can be transmitted across generations. The consequences of detrimental stress conditions on brain metabolism across generations are not well known. Using high-field (14.1 T) magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated the neurochemical profile of adult male mice exposed to traumatic stress in early postnatal life and of their offspring, and of undisturbed control mice...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592625/pathophysiology-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-brain-injury-at-cold-and-hot-environments-novel-drug-targets-for-neuroprotection
#10
Hari Shanker Sharma, Dafin F Muresanu, José V Lafuente, Ala Nozari, Ranjana Patnaik, Stephen D Skaper, Aruna Sharma
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) function in health and disease. Thus, in almost all neurodegenerative, traumatic or metabolic insults the BBB breakdown occurs to large molecules e.g., serum proteins. Entry of serum proteins into the brain fluid microenvironment leads to edema formation and subsequently cellular injuries. Accordingly, restoration of the BBB function using drugs will lead to neurorepair. However, injury to the brain occurring following blast, bullet wounds, or knife injury appears to initiate different set of pathophysiological responses...
September 2, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592219/a-novel-method-for-measuring-hydraulic-conductivity-at-the-human-blood-nerve-barrier-in-vitro
#11
E Scott Helton, Steven Palladino, Eroboghene E Ubogu
Microvascular barrier permeability to water is an essential biophysical property required for the homeostatic maintenance of unique tissue microenvironments. This is of particular importance in peripheral nerves where strict control of ionic concentrations is needed for axonal signal transduction. Previous studies have associated inflammation, trauma, toxin exposure and metabolic disease with increases in water influx and hydrostatic pressure in peripheral nerves with resultant endoneurial edema that may impair axonal function...
August 31, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582779/argininemia-and-plasma-arginine-bioavailability-predictive-factors-of-mortality-in-the-severe-trauma-patients
#12
Beatriz P Costa, Paulo Martins, Carla Veríssimo, Marta Simões, Marisa Tomé, Manuela Grazina, Jorge Pimentel, Francisco Castro-Sousa
BACKGROUND: Arginine is an amino acid determinant in the metabolic, immune and reparative responses to severe trauma. The present study aims to determine argininemia and plasma arginine bioavailability (PAB) in critical trauma patients and to analyze its correlation with prognosis. METHODS: A prospective study of 23 critical trauma patients was undertaken. Aminoacidemias were determined, by ion exchange chromatography, at admission and in the first and third days and compared with those of 11 healthy individuals...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559703/role-of-the-purinergic-receptor-p2xr4-after-blunt-chest-trauma-in-cigarette-smoke-exposed-mice
#13
Sebastian Hafner, Katja Wagner, Sandra Weber, Michael Gröger, Martin Wepler, Oscar McCook, Angelika Scheuerle, Bettina Stahl, Markus Huber-Lang, Birgit Jung, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Peter Möller, Manfred Frick, Peter Radermacher, Florian Wagner
Both acute and chronic lung injury are associated with up-regulation of the pulmonary expression of the purinergic receptors P2XR4 and P2XR7. Genetic deletion or blockade of P2XR7 attenuated pulmonary hyper-inflammation, but simultaneous P2XR4 up-regulation compensated for P2XR7 deletion. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether genetic P2XR4 deletion would attenuate the pulmonary inflammatory response and thereby improve organ function after blunt chest trauma in mice with and without pre-traumatic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure...
August 24, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538949/nanowired-drug-delivery-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#14
Aruna Sharma, Preeti Menon, Dafin F Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, José V Lafuente, Hari Sharma
The BBB is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within the narrow limit. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the fluid microenvironment of the CNS healthy. However, following any noxious insult to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins the function of the BBB is altered to small as well as to large molecules e...
August 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529569/hypertonic-saline-primes-activation-of-the-p53-p21-signaling-axis-in-human-small-airway-epithelial-cells-that-prevents-inflammation-induced-by-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#15
Fabia Gamboni, Cameron Anderson, Sanchayita Mitra, Julie A Reisz, Travis Nemkov, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Kenneth L Jones, Kirk C Hansen, Angelo D'Alessandro, Anirban Banerjee
Uncontrolled inflammatory responses underlie the etiology of acute lung injury and acute distress respiratory syndrome, the most common late complications in trauma, the leading cause of death under the age of 59. Treatment with HTS decreases lung injury in clinical trials, rat models of trauma and hemorrhagic shock and inflammation in lung cell lines, although the mechanisms underlying these responses are still incompletely understood. Transcriptomics (RNaseq), proteomics, and U-(13)C-glucose tracing metabolomics experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms of cellular responses to HTS treatment in primary small airway epithelial cells in the presence or absence of inflammatory injury mediated by a cocktail of cytokines (10 ng/mL of IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451047/point-of-care-measurement-of-lactate
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Miranda Di Mauro, Gretchen Lee Schoeffler
Lactate is generated as a consequence of anaerobic glycolysis by all tissues of the body. Increased l-lactate, the isoform produced by most mammals, reflects increased anaerobic metabolism secondary to tissue hypoperfusion or tissue hypoxia in most clinical situations, and is called type A lactic acidosis. The utility of lactate measurement and serial lactate monitoring in veterinary patients has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Blood lactate concentration is significantly elevated in many disease processes including septic peritonitis, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, Babesiosis, trauma, gastric dilation and volvulus, and intracranial disease...
March 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443317/measurement-of-mitochondrial-respiration-and-motility-in-acute-care-sepsis-trauma-and-poisoning
#17
David H Jang, John C Greenwood, Meghan B Spyres, David M Eckmann
Metabolic biomarkers have potentially wider use in disease diagnosis and prognosis as well as in monitoring disease response to treatment. While biomarkers such as interleukins, microRNA, and lactate have been proposed for disease surveillance, there are still conflicting results regarding their clinical utility. Treatment of commonly encountered disease of acute care such as sepsis, trauma, and poisoning often relies on clinical diagnosis and therapy guided by use of surrogate markers of illness severity. The measurement of mitochondrial function, including respiration and motility, may offer superior alternatives to such markers...
January 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386152/surgical-injury-induces-local-and-distant-adipose-tissue-browning
#18
Alban Longchamp, Ming Tao, Alexander Bartelt, Kui Ding, Lydia Lynch, Christopher Hine, Jean-Marc Corpataux, Bruce S Kristal, James R Mitchell, C Keith Ozaki
The adipose organ, which comprises brown, white and beige adipocytes, possesses remarkable plasticity in response to feeding and cold exposure. The development of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process called browning, represents a promising route to treat metabolic disorders. While surgical procedures constantly traumatize adipose tissue, its impact on adipocyte phenotype remains to be established. Herein, we studied the effect of trauma on adipocyte phenotype one day after sham, incision control, or surgical injury to the left inguinal adipose compartment...
April 2016: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377319/neuropeptide-y-npy-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-a-translational-update
#19
Sarah N Schmeltzer, James P Herman, Renu Sah
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-evoked syndrome, with variable prevalence within the human population due to individual differences in coping and resiliency. In this review, we discuss evidence supporting the relevance of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress regulatory transmitter in PTSD. We consolidate findings from preclinical, clinical, and translational studies of NPY that are of relevance to PTSD with an attempt to provide a current update of this area of research. NPY is abundantly expressed in forebrain limbic and brainstem areas that regulate stress and emotional behaviors...
July 1, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335693/burn-trauma-disrupts-circadian-rhythms-in-rat-liver
#20
Rohit Rao, Qian Yang, Mehmet A Orman, Francois Berthiaume, Marianthi G Ierapetritou, Ioannis P Androulakis
Circadian rhythms play an important role in maintaining homeostasis and solid organ function. The purpose of this study is to assess the implications of burn injury in rats on the underlying circadian patterns of gene expression in liver. Circadian-regulated genes and burn-induced genes were identified by applying consensus clustering methodology to temporally differentially expressed probe sets obtained from burn and sham-burn data sets. Of the liver specific genes which we hypothesize that exhibit circadian rhythmicity, 88% are not differentially expressed following the burn injury...
2016: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
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