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drug abuse

Samuel A Sakyi, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Isaac Darko Otchere, Albert M Liao, Thomas G Caltagirone, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Rose Crossin, Sheree Cairney, Andrew J Lawrence, Jhodie R Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Abuse of inhalants containing the volatile solvent toluene is a significant public health issue, especially for adolescent and Indigenous communities. Adolescent inhalant abuse can lead to chronic health issues and may initiate a trajectory towards further drug use. Identification of at-risk individuals is difficult and diagnostic tools are limited primarily to measurement of serum toluene. Our objective was to identify the effects of adolescent inhalant abuse on subsequent drug use and growth parameters, and to test the predictive power of growth parameters as a diagnostic measure for inhalant abuse...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Joan H Krause
Fueled by massive settlements and concerns about pharmaceutical company influence over medical practice, the fight over off-label promotion has become a rancorous one with little middle ground. For some, off-label restrictions are both bad law and bad medicine, violating the First Amendment while denying physicians access to crucial information. For others, the battle pits the very soul of the FDA against the excesses of a profit-driven marketplace. Far from ameliorating concerns over manufacturer influence, the New Model proposed by Bennett et al...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Courtney L Huff, Rachel L Morano, James P Herman, Bryan K Yamamoto, Gary A Gudelsky
3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation...
October 20, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Cara Angelotta, Carol J Weiss, John W Angelotta, Richard A Friedman
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in pregnant women with opioid use disorders, the standard of care, and state laws that permit child abuse charges for illicit drug use during pregnancy has not been described. METHODS: Using publicly available data on substance abuse treatment in the United States, we describe patterns in the use of MAT for pregnant women with opioid use disorders in states with prenatal child abuse laws compared with states without such laws...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
A Montoya-Filardi, M Mazón
Recreational drug abuse represents a serious public health problem. Neuroimaging traditionally played a secondary role in this scenario, where it was limited to detecting acute vascular events. However, thanks to advances in knowledge about disease and in morphological and functional imaging techniques, radiologists have now become very important in the diagnosis of acute and chronic neurological complications of recreational drug abuse. The main complications are neurovascular disease, infection, toxicometabolic disorders, and brain atrophy...
October 20, 2016: Radiología
Takahiro Doi, Akiko Asada, Akihiro Takeda, Takaomi Tagami, Munehiro Katagi, Hiroe Kamata, Yoshiyuki Sawabe
Synthetic cannabinoids, recently used as alternatives to Cannabis sativa, are among the most frequently abused drugs. Identified in 2014, the synthetic cannabinoids N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (5F-AB-PINACA) and methyl [1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl]-valinate (5F-AMB) are carboxamides composed of 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid and valine amide/methyl ester. Because of their composition, these molecules have pairs of enantiomers derived from the chiral center of their amino acid structures...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Adam M Leventhal, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Mollie S Pester, John E McGeary, Robert M Swift, Steve Sussman, Christopher W Kahler
RATIONALE: A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a predominately Caucasian sample of healthy young adults linked greater amphetamine-induced rewarding effects with the rs3784943 G allele of the cadherin 13 (CDH13; i.e., a cell adhesion molecule implicated in neuronal connectivity) gene. This association has not been subsequently examined, nor has it been studied in Asian populations, which may have greater frequencies of the risk allele. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association of rs3784943 with amphetamine response in a racially heterogeneous sample (37 % Asian) of healthy young adults...
October 22, 2016: Psychopharmacology
David E Moorman, Morgan H James, Elisabeth A Kilroy, Gary Aston-Jones
The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system regulates motivation for natural rewards and drugs of abuse such as alcohol. ORX receptor antagonists, most commonly OX1R antagonists including SB-334867 (SB), decrease alcohol drinking, self-administration and reinstatement in both genetically-bred alcohol-preferring and outbred strains of rats. Importantly, levels of alcohol seeking and drinking in outbred rats are variable, as they are in humans. We have shown that OX1R antagonism selectively decreases homecage alcohol drinking in high-, but not low-alcohol-preferring rats...
October 19, 2016: Brain Research
Richard J Hamilton, Vadim Keyfes, Sahil S Banka
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are recreational designer drugs intended to mimic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol while surreptitiously circumventing classification by the Drug Enforcement Administration. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old black male arrived in the Emergency Department transported by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for altered mental status after complaining of chest pain associated with smoking SCs. EMS found the patient with an empty foil pack labeled "Scooby Snax Limited Edition Blueberry Potpourri...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Bilal Demir, Tulay Yilmaz, Emine Guler, Z Pinar Gumus, Huseyin Akbulut, Ebru Aldemir, Hakan Coskunol, Demet Goen Colak, Ioan Cianga, Shuhei Yamada, Suna Timur, Takeshi Endo, Yusuf Yagci
Affinity-type sensors have emerged as outstanding platforms in the detection of diagnostic protein markers, nucleic acids and drugs. Thus, these novel platforms containing antibodies could be integrated into the monitoring systems for abused drugs. Herein, we established a novel detection platform for the analysis of a common illicit drug; methamphetamine (METH). Initially, a fluorescent-labeled polypeptide (EDOT-BTDA-Pala), derived from L-alanine N-carboxyanhydride (L-Ala-NCA) via ring-opening polymerization using 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-5,6-diamine (EDOT-NH2-BTDA) as initiator, was employed as a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covering host, in order to immobilize the METH-selective antibody...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin H Han, Scott Sherman, Pia M Mauro, Silvia S Martins, James Rotenberg, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ageing United States (US) population is providing an unprecedented population of older adults who use recreational drugs. We aimed to estimate the trends in the prevalence of past-year use of cannabis, describe the patterns and attitudes, and determine correlates of cannabis use by adults age 50 and older. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health survey from 2006 to 2013, a cross-sectional survey given to a nationally representative probability sample of populations living in US households...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
J Mushanyu, F Nyabadza, G Muchatibaya, A G R Stewart
The abuse of drugs is now an epidemic globally whose control has been mainly through rehabilitation. The demand for drug abuse rehabilitation has not been matched with the available capacity resulting in limited placement of addicts into rehabilitation. In this paper, we model limited rehabilitation through the Hill function incorporated into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Not every member of the community is equally likely to embark on drug use, risk structure is included to help differentiate those more likely (high risk) to abuse drugs and those less likely (low risk) to abuse drugs...
October 20, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Jack E Henningfield, Tracy T Smith, Bethea A Kleykamp, Reginald V Fant, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering behavioral pharmacologist whose intravenous drug self-administration studies advanced the understanding of conditioned stimuli and schedules of reinforcement as determinants of pattern and persistence of drug-seeking behavior, and in particular, the importance of nicotine in tobacco use. His passing in 2014 led to invitations to contribute articles to psychopharmacology dedicated to his work. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to summarize and put into historical perspective Goldberg's contributions to elucidate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and to summarize the implications of his research for medication development, tobacco regulation, and potential tobacco control policy options...
October 21, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Joshua W Hustedt, Andrew Chung, Daniel D Bohl, Neil Olmscheid, Scott Edwards
PURPOSE: The clinical decision to replant an amputated digit is driven primarily by surgical indication. However, the extent to which patient comorbidity should play into this decision is less well defined. This study was designed to determine the effect of patient comorbidities on the success, risk, and cost of digital replantation. METHODS: All amputation injuries and digital replantation procedures captured by the National Inpatient Sample during 2001 to 2012 were identified...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Macarena C García, Anton B Dodek, Tom Kowalski, John Fallon, Scott H Lee, Michael F Iademarco, John Auerbach, Michele K Bohm
Overdose deaths involving opioid pain medications are epidemic in the United States, in part because of high opioid prescribing rates and associated abuse of these drugs (1). In 2014, nearly 2 million U.S. residents either abused or were dependent on prescription opioids (2). In Massachusetts, unintentional opioid-related overdose deaths, including deaths involving heroin, increased 45% from 2012 to 2013.* In 2014, the rate of these deaths reached 20.0 per 100,000, nearly 2.5 times higher than the U.S. rate overall (3,4)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Michelle M Van Handel, Charles E Rose, Elaine J Hallisey, Jessica L Kolling, Jon E Zibbell, Brian Lewis, Michele K Bohm, Christopher M Jones, Barry E Flanagan, Azfar-E-Alam Siddiqi, Kashif Iqbal, Andrew L Dent, Jonathan H Mermin, Eugene McCray, John W Ward, John T Brooks
OBJECTIVE: A recent HIV outbreak in a rural network of persons who inject drugs (PWID) underscored the intersection of the expanding epidemics of opioid abuse, unsterile injection drug use (IDU), and associated increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We sought to identify US communities potentially vulnerable to rapid spread of HIV, if introduced, and new or continuing high rates of HCV infections among PWID. DESIGN: We conducted a multistep analysis to identify indicator variables highly associated with IDU...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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