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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921140/cocaine-administration-dose-dependently-increases-sexual-desire-and-decreases-condom-use-likelihood-the-role-of-delay-and-probability-discounting-in-connecting-cocaine-with-hiv
#1
Matthew W Johnson, Evan S Herrmann, Mary M Sweeney, Robert S LeComte, Patrick S Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Although cocaine use has been linked to sexual HIV risk behavior for decades, the direct effects of cocaine on sexual desire and sexual decision-making are unexamined. Research suggests delay discounting (devaluation of future outcomes) and probability discounting (devaluation of uncertain outcomes) play roles in condom use decisions. This study examined the effect of cocaine administration on sexual desire, hypothetical condom use, and discounting tasks. METHODS: This double-blind, within-subjects study compared the effects of 0, 125, and 250 mg/70 kg oral cocaine HCl in 12 cocaine users...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919403/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonists-as-narcolepsy-therapeutics
#2
Sarah W Black, Michael D Schwartz, Tsui-Ming Chen, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy, a disorder of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, a loss of muscle tone triggered by emotional stimulation. Current narcolepsy pharmacotherapeutics include controlled substances with abuse potential or drugs with undesirable side effects. As partial agonists at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) promote wakefulness in mice and rats, we evaluated whether TAAR1 agonism had beneficial effects in two mouse models of narcolepsy...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918316/cognitive-impairment-and-tramadol-dependence
#3
Medhat M Bassiony, Usama M Youssef, Mervat S Hassan, Ghada M Salah El-Deen, Hayam El-Gohari, Mohamed Abdelghani, Ahmed Abdalla, Dalia H Ibrahim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is one of the consequences of substance abuse. Tramadol abuse is a public health problem in Egypt. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment among tramadol-abuse patients and control subjects. METHODS: This study included 100 patients with tramadol abuse and 100 control subjects (matched for age, sex, and education) who were recruited from Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918243/the-neuroimmune-transcriptome-and-alcohol-dependence-potential-for-targeted-therapies
#4
Anna Warden, Emma Erickson, Gizelle Robinson, R Adron Harris, R Dayne Mayfield
Transcriptome profiling enables discovery of gene networks that are altered in alcoholic brains. This technique has revealed involvement of the brain's neuroimmune system in regulating alcohol abuse and dependence, and has provided potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss Toll-like-receptor pathways, hypothesized to be key players in many stages of the alcohol addiction cycle. The growing appreciation of the neuroimmune system's involvement in alcoholism has also led to consideration of crucial roles for glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, in the brain's response to alcohol abuse...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917738/incidence-and-factors-associated-with-emergency-department-visits-for-recurrent-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-patients-in-california-2005-2011
#5
L May, E Y Klein, E M Martinez, N Mojica, L G Miller
More than 2 million visits for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are seen in US emergency departments (EDs) yearly. Up to 50% of patients with SSTIs, suffer from recurrences, but associated factors remain poorly understood. We performed a retrospective study of patients with primary diagnosis of SSTI between 2005 and 2011 using California ED discharge data from the State Emergency Department Databases and State Inpatient Databases. Using a multivariable logistic regression, we examined factors associated with a repeat SSTI ED visits up to 6 months after the initial SSTI...
December 5, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917269/ecstasy-mdma-and-its-effects-on-kidneys-and-their-treatment-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Feyza Bora, Fatih Yılmaz, Taner Bora
Ecstasy (MDMA; 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) is an illicit drug that has been increasingly abused by young people. Its effects include euphoria, enhanced sociability and heightened mental awareness. These come about via the increase of serotonin in both the central nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system. Despite the drug's prevalent abuse, serious or adverse effects are rare. Due to personal pharmacokinetics, effects from the same dosage vary according to the individual. Fatal instances may include acute hyponatremia, hyperthermia (>42 °C), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) resulting from hyperthermia affecting the kidneys, and non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916716/effects-of-a-non-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-antagonist-tiletamine-in-adult-zebrafish
#7
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Vadim A Shevyrin, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. However, the neurotropic profile of tiletamine remains poorly understood, necessitating novel models and in-vivo screens, including non-mammalian species...
December 1, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915497/current-and-future-development-of-extended-release-abuse-deterrent-opioid-formulations-in-the-united-states
#8
Lynn R Webster, John Markman, Edward J Cone, Gwendolyn Niebler
Prescription opioid misuse and abuse in the United States (US) is epidemic and is a major burden on healthcare resources and costs to society. The need to significantly reduce the risks of prescription opioid misuse and abuse must be balanced with the important needs of patients with chronic pain who may benefit from treatment with opioids. The use of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of prescription opioids is one approach that could reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse and misuse while maintaining access to opioids...
December 3, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914861/rapid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-and-risk-prevention-in-residents-of-battered-women-s-shelters
#9
Dawn M Johnson, Nicole L Johnson, Curt G Beckwith, Patrick A Palmieri, Caron Zlotnick
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and intimate partner violence (IPV) are interconnected public health problems. However, few HIV prevention interventions address the unique needs of IPV survivors in shelter and none of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence risk reduction interventions adequately explore the complex relationship between IPV and HIV risk. Although battered women's shelters provide a safe and supportive environment for women in crisis, most do not offer HIV risk reduction services or sexual safety planning...
November 30, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914224/a-systematic-review-of-epileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-subdural-haematomas
#10
REVIEW
Sae-Yeon Won, Juergen Konczalla, Daniel Dubinski, Adriano Cattani, Colleen Cuca, Volker Seifert, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS) are a serious complication in patients with subdural haematoma (SDH). However, to date, several studies have shown discordances about SDH-associated seizures in terms of incidence, risk factors and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, risk factors of PTS and the role of prophylactic antiepileptic treatment in patients with SDH. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review examining PTS in patients with SDH was performed using PubMed gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE between September 1961 and February 2016...
November 25, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914160/infectious-postpartum-sacroiliitis-the-importance-and-difficulty-of-early-diagnosis
#11
Emídio Vale-Fernandes, Fedra Rodrigues, Carla Monteiro, Luís Carvalho
The sacroiliitis accounts for about 1.5% - 10% of all cases of septic arthritis and it is strongly associated with gynaecological infections, pelvic trauma or drug abuse (3.4% - 12.8% of cases occur during the postpartum period). Early diagnosis is difficult because the symptoms are nonspecific in pregnancy and in the postpartum period, making the delay of treatment a serious risk of irreversible damage to the joint and development of post-infectious complications. The authors describe the case of a 37-year-old puerperal woman presented to hospital, weeks after urgent caesarean section, with endometritis, post-anesthetic epidural hematoma and secondary infectious postpartum sacroiliitis...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912908/childhood-sexual-abuse-and-substance-abuse-a-gender-paradox
#12
Lil Tonmyr, Margot Shields
We examine associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and substance abuse, the role of mental health indicators as mediators in these associations and whether or not associations differ by gender. Data are from 14,063 respondents aged 18-76 years from the 2004-2005 Canadian Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CSA and substance abuse variables, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Odds were adjusted by indicators of mental health to assess if these variables mediated associations between CSA and substance abuse...
November 29, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912035/failure-to-rescue-after-infectious-complications-in-a-statewide-trauma-system
#13
Elinore J Kaufman, Emily Earl-Royal, Philip S Barie, Daniel N Holena
BACKGROUND: The failure to rescue (FTR) rate, the rate of death after a complication, measures a center's ability to identify and manage complications by "rescuing" vulnerable patients. Infectious complications are common after trauma, but risk factors for death after infection are not established. We hypothesized that risk factors would differ for FTR after infectious complications, development of infections, and for development of and death after non-infectious complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed trauma registry data for adult patients admitted to all 30 level I and II Pennsylvania trauma centers, 2011-2014...
December 2, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911751/the-lateral-habenula-circuitry-reward-processing-and-cognitive-control
#14
Phillip M Baker, Thomas Jhou, Bo Li, Masayuki Matsumoto, Sheri J Y Mizumori, Marcus Stephenson-Jones, Aleksandra Vicentic
There has been a growing interest in understanding the role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in reward processing, affect regulation, and goal-directed behaviors. The LHb gets major inputs from the habenula-projecting globus pallidus and the mPFC, sending its efferents to the dopaminergic VTA and SNc, serotonergic dorsal raphe nuclei, and the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus. Recent studies have made advances in our understanding of the LHb circuit organization, yet the precise mechanisms of its involvement in complex behaviors are largely unknown...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#15
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911474/is-chelation-therapy-efficient-for-the-treatment-of-intravenous-metallic-mercury-intoxication
#16
Daniela Pelclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Ondrej Bezdicek, Manuela Vaneckova, Pavel Urban, Petr Ridzon, Pavel Diblik, Tomas Navratil, Pavlina Klusackova, Kamil Vlcek, Olga Benesova, Pavel Trestik, Jiri Homolka, Sergey Zakharov
The efficacy of treatment for intravenous elemental mercury intoxication has not been fully studied with regard to clinical outcomes, and treatment recommendations vary. We treated a 41-year-old man with a history of drug abuse and depression who attempted suicide using 1 mL (13.53 g) metallic Hg i.v. He was admitted to the hospital two months later for dyspnoea and thoracic pain and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Hg deposits were seen in the lungs and extra-pulmonary organs. His blood level (372 μg/L) exceeded the population level of 5 μg/L by more than 70-fold...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#17
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909991/the-role-of-orexins-hypocretins-in-alcohol-use-and-abuse
#18
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#19
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908844/quittr-the-design-of-a-video-game-to-support-smoking-cessation
#20
Ivan Bindoff, Kristy de Salas, Gregory Peterson, Tristan Ling, Ian Lewis, Lindsay Wells, Peter Gee, Stuart G Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Smoking is recognized as the largest, single, preventable cause of death and disease in the developed world. While the majority of smokers report wanting to quit, and many try each year, smokers find it difficult to maintain long-term abstinence. Behavioral support, such as education, advice, goal-setting, and encouragement, is known to be beneficial in improving the likelihood of succeeding in a quit attempt, but it remains difficult to effectively deliver this behavioral support and keep the patient engaged with the process for a sufficient duration...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
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