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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742837/risk-factors-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-us-veterans-a-cohort-study
#1
Jan Müller, Sarmila Ganeshamoorthy, Jonathan Myers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between clinical and exercise test factors and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in US Veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Exercise capacity, demographics and clinical variables were assessed in 5826 veterans (mean age 59.4 ± 11.5 years) from the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in Palo Alto, CA. The study participants underwent routine clinical exercise testing between the years 1987 and 2011. The study end point was the development of PTSD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742818/first-identification-of-a-recombinant-form-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-austrian-patients-by-full-genome-next-generation-sequencing
#2
Evelyn Stelzl, Bernhard Haas, Bernd Bauer, Sherry Zhang, Ellen H Fiss, Grantland Hillman, Aaron T Hamilton, Rochak Mehta, Marintha L Heil, Ed G Marins, Brigitte I Santner, Harald H Kessler
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) intergenotypic recombinant forms have been reported for various HCV genotypes/subtypes in several countries worldwide. In a recent study, four patients living in Austria had been identified to be possibly infected with a recombinant HCV strain. To clarify results and determine the point of recombination, full-genome next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq v2 300 cycle kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) was performed in the present study. Samples of all of the patients contained the recombinant HCV strain 2k/1b...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742418/health-risk-behavior-among-justice-involved-male-and-female-youth-exploratory-multi-group-latent-class-analysis
#3
Richard Dembo, Jessica Faber, Jennifer Cristiano, Ralph J DiClemente, Julie M Krupa, Asha Terminello, Jennifer Wareham
BACKGROUND: Youth involved in the juvenile justice system experience a disproportionate prevalence of serious mental health issues, substance abuse, and are at an increased risk of engaging in risky sexual practices. Gender differences exist, with girls at a markedly greater risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study seeks to determine if there are subgroups of male and female youth who differ in their health risk behavior. If so, do any male or female subgroups at different levels of health risk differ in regard to their sociodemographic and psychological factors, and finally, what are intervention/service delivery implications of these differences...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740525/the-use-of-cholecalciferol-in-patients-with-hip-fracture
#4
Luisella Cianferotti, Simone Parri, Giorgio Gronchi, Roberto Civinini, Maria Luisa Brandi
INTRODUCTION: Major osteoporotic fractures are steadily increasing due to population aging. Programs of secondary prevention against refracture are essential to decrease morbidity and mortality and the cost for individuals and the society. Vitamin D supplementation and optimization of calcium intake are of a pivotal importance to start specific osteoporosis treatment and for its safety and efficacy. Cholecalciferol is the most widely employed drug for vitamin D supplementation. PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to assess the trends in the use of vitamin D supplements containing cholecalciferol in the population of hip fracture patients older than 65 years, resident in the region of Tuscany (Italy) in the years 2011-2015 and to describe vitamin D status in a subgroup of this individuals directly referred to a bone clinic for further evaluation after hip osteoporotic fracture...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738684/drivers-of-excess-costs-of-opioid-abuse-among-a-commercially-insured-population
#5
Lauren M Scarpati, Noam Y Kirson, Miriam L Zichlin, Zitong B Jia, Howard G Birnbaum, Jaren C Howard
OBJECTIVES: To replicate and extend a recently published analysis of the drivers of excess costs of opioid abuse. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis using de-identified claims data from the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounter database. METHODS: Medical and prescription drug claims from beneficiaries covered by large self-insured US companies were used to select patients with incident diagnoses of opioid abuse between 2012 and 2015...
May 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738394/the-contribution-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-to-the-progression-of-psychiatric-disorders
#6
Rachel A Kohman, Justin S Rhodes
New neurons are continuously formed in the adult hippocampus of the human, nonhuman primate, and rodent throughout life though rates of neurogenesis precipitously decline with age to near zero levels at the end of the natural life span. Since its discovery in the 1960s, a large number of studies have documented numerous environmental and genetic factors which regulate adult neurogenesis. Chief among the positive regulators of neurogenesis are exercise and antidepressant drugs. Chief among the negative regulators of neurogenesis besides age are stress and inflammation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737888/discovery-of-novel-proline-based-neuropeptide-ff-receptor-antagonists
#7
Thuy Nguyen, Ann M Decker, Tiffany L Langston, Kelly M Mathews, Justin N Siemian, Jun-Xu Li, Danni L Harris, Scott P Runyon, Yanan Zhang
The neuropeptide FF (NPFF) system has been implicated in a number of physiological processes including modulating the pharmacological activity of opioid analgesics and several other classes of drugs of abuse. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel proline scaffold with antagonistic activity at the NPFF receptors through a high throughput screening campaign using a functional calcium mobilization assay. Focused structure-activity relationship studies on the initial hit 1 have resulted in several analogs with calcium mobilization potencies in the submicromolar range and modest selectivity for the NPFF1 receptor...
July 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737225/psychostimulant-effect-of-dopaminergic-treatment-and-addictions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Benoit Delpont, Eugénie Lhommée, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Jean-Louis Quesada, Pierre Pélissier, Andrea Kistner, Sébastien Carnicella, Christian Lüscher, Emmanuel Broussolle, Pierre Pollak, Stéphane Thobois, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Dopamine replacement therapy in PD has been associated with both behavioral addictions and dopamine addiction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential association between l-dopa induced neuropsychiatric fluctuations and addictions in PD. METHODS: A cohort of 102 patients with PD suffering from motor complications of l-dopa treatment was prospectively analyzed. We evaluated dopamine addiction, behavioral addictions, and neuropsychiatric fluctuations using the Ardouin scale of behavior in PD...
July 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736458/a-latent-class-analysis-of-family-characteristics-linked-to-youth-offending-outcomes
#9
Grace S Chng, Chi Meng Chu, Gerald Zeng, Dongdong Li, Ming Hwa Ting
OBJECTIVES: There were two aims to this study: firstly, to identify family subtypes of Singaporean youth offenders based on eight family variables. Secondly, the associations of these family subtypes with youth offending outcomes were tested. METHODS: With a sample of 3,744 youth, a latent class analysis was first conducted based on eight family variables. Multivariate analyses and a Cox regression were subsequently performed to analyze the associations of the family classes with age at first arrest, age at first charge, and recidivism...
November 2016: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736108/chronic-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-selectively-alters-the-expression-of-g%C3%AE-subunit-isoforms-and-rgs-subtypes-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#10
D Jluessen, H Sun, M M McGinnis, B A McCool, R Chen
Chronic alcohol exposure induces pronounced changes in GPCR-mediated G-protein signaling. Recent microarray and RNA-seq analyses suggest associations between alcohol abuse and the expression of genes involved in G-protein signaling. The activity of G-proteins (e.g. Gαi/o and Gαq) is negatively modulated by regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins which are implicated in drugs of abuse including alcohol. The present study used 7 days of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure followed by 24 hour withdrawal (CIE) to investigate changes in mRNA and protein levels of G-protein subunit isoforms and RGS protein subtypes in rat prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive deficit attributed to excessive alcohol drinking...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734777/inhibitor-mechanisms-in-the-s1-binding-site-of-the-dopamine-transporter-defined-by-multi-site-molecular-tethering-of-photoactive-cocaine-analogs
#11
Danielle Krout, Akula Bala Pramod, Rejwi Acharya Dahal, Michael J Tomlinson, Babita Sharma, James D Foster, Mu-Fa Zou, Comfort Boatang, Amy Hauck Newman, John R Lever, Roxanne A Vaughan, L Keith Henry
Dopamine transporter (DAT) blockers like cocaine and many other abused and therapeutic drugs bind and stabilize an inactive form of the transporter inhibiting reuptake of extracellular dopamine (DA). The resulting increases in DA lead to the ability of these drugs to induce psychomotor alterations and addiction, but paradoxical findings in animal models indicate that not all DAT antagonists induce cocaine-like behavioral outcomes. How this occurs is not known, but one possibility is that uptake inhibitors may bind at multiple locations or in different poses to stabilize distinct conformational transporter states associated with differential neurochemical endpoints...
July 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733355/erk-mapk-signaling-is-required-for-pathway-specific-striatal-motor-functions
#12
Scott R Hutton, James M Otis, Erin M Kim, Yashna Lamsal, Garret D Stuber, William D Snider
The ERK/MAPK intracellular signaling pathway is hypothesized to be a key regulator of striatal activity via modulation of synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. However, prior investigations into striatal ERK/MAPK functions have yielded conflicting results. Further, these studies have not delineated the cell type-specific roles of ERK/MAPK signaling due to the reliance on globally-administered pharmacological ERK/MAPK inhibitors and the use of genetic models that only partially reduce total ERK/MAPK activity...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732307/a-multisite-audit-to-assess-how-women-with-complex-social-factors-access-and-engage-with-maternity-services
#13
Hannah Rayment-Jones, Eleanor Butler, Chelsie Miller, Christine Nay, Jennifer O'Dowd
OBJECTIVE: to audit women with socially complex lives' documented access to and engagement with antenatal care provided by three inner city, UK maternity services in relation to birth and neonatal outcomes, and referral processes. BACKGROUND: women living socially complex lives, including young mothers, recently arrived immigrants, non-English speaking, and those experiencing domestic violence, poor mental health, drug and alcohol abuse, and poverty experience high rates of morbidity, mortality and poor birth outcomes...
June 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732258/areca-catechu-palm-tree-nut-chewing-and-seizures-an-observational-study
#14
Farrah J Mateen, Marco Carone, Lhab Tshering, Chencho Dorji, Ugyen Dema, Sara J Grundy, Dili Ram Pokhrel, Damber K Nirola
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report the impact of chronic abuse of Areca catechu nut wrapped in leaf (also known as doma, quid, paan), the fourth most commonly abused psychoactive substance worldwide, on the frequency of seizures among people with epilepsy. METHODS: People with clinically diagnosed epilepsy (>14years old) residing in the Kingdom of Bhutan were surveyed for self-reported Areca catechu use, demographic variables, epilepsy characteristics, and seizure frequency...
July 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#15
Georges Mion
: Ketamine's history begins in the 1950s in Detroit, Michigan, at Parke-Davis Laboratories. On 26 March 1956, Harold V. Maddox synthesised phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl did not cause depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, but elicited severe excitation with a very prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street drug under the name of 'angel dust' and was placed on schedule II of Federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) in 1978...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731367/methamphetamine-causes-photoreceptor-cell-damage-through-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inducing-inflammatory-response
#16
Aihui Zhang, Laiwei Wu, Zilin Chen, Guoqiang Huang, Xiaohe Lu
Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors and closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. As a powerful psychostimulant and addictive drug, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina. This study investigated the effect of Meth at nontoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by Meth on 661 W cells after coculturing with RAW264.7 macrophage...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729524/cardiac-arrest-following-drug-abuse-with-intravenous-tapentadol-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Misbahuddin Khaja, George Lominadze, Konstantin Millerman
BACKGROUND Tapentadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, with a dual mode of action, as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Tapentadol is used for the management of musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman attended hospital for evaluation of an intractable headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative. She was found unresponsive in the bathroom on the day following hospital admission, and despite resuscitative measures, the patient died following cardiac arrest...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729115/arousal-and-drug-abuse
#18
REVIEW
Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno, Edgar Garcia-Rill
The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies...
July 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729075/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-during-abstinence-in-morphine-dependent-parents-on-anxiety-depressive-like-behaviors-and-voluntary-morphine-consumption-in-rat-offspring
#19
Alireza Pooriamehr, Parviz Sabahi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
Chronic morphine exposure during puberty increased morphine-induced rewarding effects and sensitization in the next generation. Given the well-known beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on the severity of physical and psychological dependence on morphine, we examined effects of enriched environment during morphine abstinence in morphine dependent parental rats before mating on the anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, and voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring. Paternal and/or maternal rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, 12h intervals) of morphine for 14days followed by rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during 30days of morphine abstinence before mating...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728525/gender-differences-in-causes-of-death-among-persons-with-hiv-aids-in-san-francisco-california-1996-2013
#20
Nancy A Hessol, Sandra K Schwarcz, Ling Chin Hsu, Martha Shumway, Edward L Machtinger
The objective was to examine gender differences in causes of death using the San Francisco HIV/AIDS and death registries. Data from San Francisco residents diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who died from 1996 to 2013 were analyzed. Age, race/ethnicity, year, and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratios and Poisson 95% confidence intervals were calculated for underlying causes of death. Among the 6268 deaths, deaths attributed to drug use, mental disorders due to substance use, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal disease, and septicemia were more likely among women than among men...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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