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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331025/multidimensional-endotypes-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-their-association-with-treatment-outcomes
#1
Bo Liao, Jin-Xin Liu, Zhi-Yong Li, Zhen Zhen, Ping-Ping Cao, Yin Yao, Xiao-Bo Long, Heng Wang, Yan Wang, Robert Schleimer, Zheng Liu
BACKGROUND: The expression of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is multidimensional. Disease heterogeneity in patients with CRS remains poorly understood. This study aimed to identify endotypes of CRS using cluster analysis by integrating multidimensional characteristics and to explore their association with treatment outcomes. METHODS: A total of 28 clinical variables and 39 mucosal cellular and molecular variables were analyzed using principal component analysis. Cluster analysis was performed on 246 prospectively recruited Chinese CRS patients with at least one-year post-operative follow-up...
January 13, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322375/predictors-of-short-term-lama-ineffectiveness-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-copd
#2
Vladimir Fijačko, Marina Labor, Mirjana Fijačko, Sanda Škrinjarić-Cincar, Slavica Labor, Iva Dumbović Dubravčić, Tatjana Bačun, Aleksandar Včev, Sanja Popović-Grle, Davor Plavec
BACKGROUND: No specific (only subgroup) recommendations for the use of long-acting muscarinic antagonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exist. The aim of this exploratory hypothesis generating study was to assess whether different phenotypic/endotypic characteristics could be determinants of the short-term ineffectiveness of the initial tiotropium bromide monotherapy in treatment naïve moderate to severe COPD patients. METHODS: A total of 51 consecutively recruited COPD patients were followed for 3 months after the initial evaluation and prescribed initial treatment (tiotropium)...
January 10, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318959/novel-biological-therapies-in-severe-asthma-targeting-the-right-trait
#3
Gilda Varricchi, Giancarlo Marone, Giuseppe Spadaro, Michele Russo, Francescopaolo Granata, Arturo Genovese, Gianni Marone
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation that results in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Patients with severe asthma represent a substantial share of consumption of healthcare resources and hospitalization. Moreover, these patients are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, several phenotypes and endotypes of asthma have been identified. The identification of specific subtypes of asthma is fundamental for optimizing the clinical benefit of novel treatments...
January 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318023/microbiome-and-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Milena Sokolowska, Remo Frei, Nonhlanhla Lunjani, Cezmi A Akdis, Liam O'Mahony
The mucosal immune system is in constant communication with the vast diversity of microbes present on body surfaces. The discovery of novel molecular mechanisms, which mediate host-microbe communication, have highlighted the important roles played by microbes in influencing mucosal immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, ILCs, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, NKT cells and B cells can all be influenced by the microbiome. Many of the mechanisms being described are bacterial strain- or metabolite-specific...
2018: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279055/chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps-in-the-elderly-assessing-current-evidence
#5
Gino Marioni, Claudia Zanotti, Giuseppe Brescia
BACKGROUND: The recently reported prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) among people >60 years old was 4.7%, with CRS emerging as the sixth most common chronic condition in the elderly. There is still a dearth of studies that focused on older patients, however, regarding the characteristics of CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). OBJECTIVE: The emerging role of CRSwNP endotyping to enable a tailored medical approach (for elderly patients also) was investigated...
January 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279053/unraveling-the-conundrum-of-asthma-phenotypes-and-endotypes
#6
Joseph A Bellanti, Russell A Settipane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273025/exhaled-breath-condensate-metabolome-clusters-for-endotype-discovery-in-asthma
#7
Anirban Sinha, Koundinya Desiraju, Kunal Aggarwal, Rintu Kutum, Siddhartha Roy, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra, Balaram Ghosh, Tavpritesh Sethi, Anurag Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with similar presenting symptoms but with varying underlying pathologies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a relatively unexplored matrix which reflects the signatures of respiratory epithelium, but is difficult to normalize for dilution. METHODS: Here we explored whether internally normalized global NMR spectrum patterns, combined with machine learning, could be useful for diagnostics or endotype discovery...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229196/impact-of-allergy-on-phenotypic-and-endotypic-profiles-of-nasal-polyposis
#8
G Mortuaire, I Gengler, M Balden, M Capron, G Lefèvre
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of allergy on clinical presentations (phenotypes) and inflammatory patterns (endotypes) of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). METHODS: A single-center prospective study was conducted over an 18-month period. Fifty-seven patients with refractory CRSwNP were included. The diagnosis of allergy was based on concordant skin prick tests and symptoms. Phenotypes were determined on symptom severity score, polyp size classification and Lund-Mackay CT staging...
December 8, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221581/biomarkers-for-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#9
REVIEW
Steven W Yancey, Oliver N Keene, Frank C Albers, Hector Ortega, Stewart Bates, Eugene R Bleecker, Ian Pavord
The last decade has seen the approval of several new biologics for the treatment of severe asthma-targeting specific endotypes and phenotypes. This review will examine how evidence generated from the mepolizumab clinical development program showed that blood eosinophil counts, rather than sputum or tissue eosinophil counts, evolved as a pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker for the efficacy of treatment with mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Based on the available evidence and combined with clinical judgement, a baseline blood eosinophil threshold of 150 cells/μL or greater or a historical blood eosinophil threshold of 300 cells/μL or greater will allow selection of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who are most likely to achieve clinically significant reductions in the rate of exacerbations with mepolizumab treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189350/asthma-personalized-and-precision-medicine
#10
Giorgio W Canonica, Matteo Ferrando, Ilaria Baiardini, Francesca Puggioni, Francesca Racca, Giovanni Passalacqua, Enrico Heffler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we herein describe the progress in management of severe asthma, evolving from a 'blockbuster approach' to a more personalized approach targeted to the utilization of endotype-driven therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Severe asthma characterization in phenotypes and endotypes, by means of specific biomarkers, have led to the dichotomization of the concepts of 'personalized medicine' and 'precision medicine', which are often used as synonyms, but actually have conceptual differences in meaning...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185231/translating-asthma-dissecting-the-role-of-metabolomics-genomics-and-personalized-medicine
#11
Andrew Bush
The management of asthma has largely stagnated over the last 25 years, but we are at the dawning of a new age wherein -omics technology can help us manage the disease objectively and rationally. Even in this new scientific age, getting the basics of asthma management right remains essential. The new technologies which can be applied to multiple biological samples include genomics (study of the genome), transcriptomics (gene transcription), lipidomics, proteomics and metabolomics (lipids, proteins and metabolites, respectively) and breathomics, using exhaled breath as a source of biomarkers, which is of particular interest in view of its non-invasive nature in pediatrics...
November 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161080/microbial-insights-into-asthmatic-immunopathology-a-forward-looking-synthesis-and-commentary
#12
Rozlyn C T Boutin, Charisse Petersen, B Brett Finlay
Asthma is an aberrant inflammatory condition of the airways affecting approximately 1 in 10 children in affluent countries. An increasing body of evidence suggests that microbial exposures during a "critical window" of development in early life play a central role in determining future asthma susceptibility. However, like the disease itself, considerable heterogeneity exists among studies in which researchers have investigated the associations between particular microbial taxa and asthma immunology. As our understanding of asthmatic pathology evolves to enable clearer definition of asthma endotypes, it will be important to consider the impact of various environmental factors on each endotype...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161076/obesity-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Emiel F M Wouters
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a relationship between COPD and obesity is increasingly recognized. The nature and underlying mechanisms of the link between obesity and COPD are still largely unknown. Obesity, and abdominal adiposity in particular, is linked to metabolic syndrome. Hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abdominal adiposity seem to be the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome in COPD. Adipose tissues function as a source of a variety of signaling molecules in the pathobiology of respiratory diseases...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134633/first-in-human-study-with-the-inhaled-tlr9-oligonucleotide-agonist-azd1419-results-in-interferon-responses-in-the-lung-and-is-safe-and-well-tolerated
#14
Sam Jackson, Albert F Candia, Stephen Delaney, Simone Floettmann, Clifford Wong, John D Campbell, Sariah Kell, Jeremy Lum, Edith Hessel, Paula Traquina, Mark McHale, Ian Robinson, John Bell, Rainard Fuhr, David Keeling, Robert L Coffman
Current asthma treatments address symptoms rather than the underlying disease pathophysiology, a better understanding of which has led to the identification of the Th2 high endotype. The activation of Toll-like receptors to induce Type I interferons directly in the lungs represents a novel therapeutic approach to reset this underlying Th2 pathophysiology with the potential to provide long-term disease modification. We present the nonclinical data and phase 1 clinical profile of an inhaled TLR9 agonist, AZD1419, a C-type CpG designed to induce interferon in the lung...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122081/gender-specific-differences-in-serum-immunoglobulin-e-levels-and-prevalence-of-fungus-in-sinonasal-tissue-noted-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis-who-underwent-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#15
Antoine Azar, Matthew A Rank, Matthew A Zarka, Yu-Hui Chang, Devyani Lal
BACKGROUND: We previously presented that women with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) who elected endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) have a higher symptom burden than men. Causes of these gender-based differences warranted further study. OBJECTIVES: To study gender differences in another cohort of adult patients with CRS who underwent ESS and to compare key histopathologic and serologic features Methods: Patients with CRS who underwent ESS (from 2011 to 2014) with structured histopathology reports on surgical samples were studied...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120932/an-update-on-preoperative-assessment-and-preparation-of-surgical-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Poorna Madhusudan, Jean Wong, Arun Prasad, Elena Sadeghian, Frances F Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the surgical population, however, a significant proportion of patients are undiagnosed. The Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine (SASM) has issued recent guidelines for preoperative assessment and preparation of patients with known or suspected OSA. The purpose of this review is to highlight key points in the new guidelines and explore the possibilities of different strategies in optimizing patients with OSA preoperatively...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119328/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-allergic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Jae Seok Jeong, So Ri Kim, Seong Ho Cho, Yong Chul Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will integrate recent knowledge on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and allergy, thereby highlighting the therapeutic potential of ER stress in the context of precision medicine for allergic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence suggests that allergic diseases are very heterogeneous having numerous endotypes. This leads to the new era of modern medicine, which assumes that a particular endotype-driven therapy, called precision medicine, would be more efficacious in a specific group of patients rather than in all patients...
November 8, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106996/chronic-rhinosinusitis-endotypes-biomarkers-and-treatment-response
#18
Jose Gurrola, Larry Borish
It is increasingly recognized that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) comprises a spectrum of different diseases with distinct clinical presentations and pathogenic mechanisms. Defining the distinct phenotypes and endotypes of CRS impacts prognosis and most importantly is necessary as the basis for making therapeutic decisions. The need for individualized defining of pathogenic mechanisms prior to initiating therapy extends to virtually all therapeutic considerations. This is clearly crucial with antibiotics where, barring an influence from their off-target anti-inflammatory pharmacological effects, an understanding of the role of individual biome predicts likelihood of therapeutic benefit...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077521/new-approaches-for-identifying-and-testing-potential-new-anti-asthma-agents
#19
Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli, Ilaria Brambilla, Alessia Marseglia, Maria Angela Tosca, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Giorgio Ciprandi
Asthma is a chronic disease with significant heterogeneity in clinical features, disease severity, pattern of underlying disease mechanisms, and responsiveness to specific treatments. While the majority of asthmatic patients are controlled by standard pharmacological strategies, a significant subgroup has limited therapeutic options representing a major unmet need. Ongoing asthma research aims to better characterize distinct clinical phenotypes, molecular endotypes, associated reliable biomarkers, and also to develop a series of new effective targeted treatment modalities...
October 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071712/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-psoriasis-moving-from-disease-description-to-treatment-prediction
#20
REVIEW
E A Langan, C E M Griffiths, W Solbach, J K Knobloch, D Zillikens, D Thaçi
With several million microbes per cm(2) of skin, the task of mapping the physiological cutaneous microbiome is enormous. Indeed, the reliance on bacterial culture to identify cutaneous bacterial communities has led to a systematic under-appreciation of cutaneous microbial diversity, potentially limiting our understanding of common inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis. However, based heavily on developments in molecular biology and bioinformatics, including next generation sequencing, the last decade has witnessed a marked increase in our understanding of the extent and composition of the cutaneous microbiome...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
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