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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931975/identification-of-il-17f-frequent-exacerbator-endotype-in-asthma
#1
Fabio L M Ricciardolo, Valentina Sorbello, Anna Folino, Fabio Gallo, Gian Mario Massaglia, Gabriella Favatà, Salvatore Conticello, Davide Vallese, Federica Gani, Mario Malerba, Gert Folkerts, Giovanni Rolla, Mirella Profita, Thais Mauad, Antonino Di Stefano, Giorgio Ciprandi
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma might be associated with neutrophil recruitment and Th17 cytokines over-expression in bronchial biopsies. OBJECTIVE: To study IL-17-related cytokines in nasal/bronchial biopsies from controls and mild (MA)-to-severe (SA) asthmatics in relation to exacerbation rate. METHODS: Inflammatory cells and IL-17A(+), IL-17F(+), IL-21(+), IL-22(+) and IL-23(+) cells were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in cryostat sections of bronchial/nasal biopsies obtained from 33 SA (21 frequent exacerbators (FE)), 31 MA (3 FE) and 14 controls...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917403/a-review-of-classification-schemes-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyposis-endotypes
#2
REVIEW
Steven K Dennis, Kent Lam, Amber Luong
OBJECTIVE: The recent development of endotypes to categorize disease variants of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) reflects an evolving understanding of the various pathophysiologic and pathogenetic mechanisms that contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of CRS manifestations. This review highlights popular endotype-based criteria used to define different CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) subtypes and further discusses the emerging therapeutic advances for each classificatory approach. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review...
October 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879060/evidence-of-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#3
Michael Hoggard, Kristi Biswas, Melissa Zoing, Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Michael W Taylor, Richard G Douglas
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable research, the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains poorly understood. Potential microbial roles in the etiology or progression of CRS have long been hypothesized, yet few specific associations have been identified. In this study we investigate associations between patterns in resident bacterial communities and clinical variants of CRS. METHODS: Bacterial communities were assessed in 94 patients with extensive bilateral CRS undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and 29 controls undergoing ESS for indications other than CRS...
November 23, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871878/large-scale-gene-expression-profiling-reveals-distinct-type-2-inflammatory-patterns-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-subtypes
#4
Matthew A Tyler, Chris B Russell, Dirk E Smith, James B Rottman, Caroline J Padro Dietz, Xuguang Hu, Martin J Citardi, Samer Fakhri, Shervin Assassi, Amber Luong
In an attempt to better classify molecular profiles in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)subtypes and promote endotyping, we characterize the expression of relevant type 2 inflammatory markers in several clinical subtypes of CRS.
November 18, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867084/new-concepts-in-asthma-clinical-phenotypes-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Andreas R Koczulla, Claus F Vogelmeier, Holger Garn, Harald Renz
Asthma is among the most common chronic inflammatory diseases worldwide. Recent evidence indicates that the pathogenesis shows a high degree of heterogeneity. Patient subsets have been identified that exhibit different cellular and molecular patterns of dysregulation. A prominent example is eosinophilic Th2-driven asthma. These unique and molecular patterns are termed endotypes. Characterization of endotypes has broad implications for therapeutic interventions. Although ∼80% of asthmatic patients respond well to standard anti-inflammatory therapies, the remaining subset particularly consisting of severe patients requires a more specialized endotype-specific approach...
November 17, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864676/anti-ige-and-biologic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-asthma
#6
Patrick D Mitchell, Amani I El-Gammal, Paul M O'Byrne
Current asthma treatments are effective for the majority of patients with mild-to-moderate disease. However, in those with more severe refractory asthma, agents other than inhaled corticosteroids and beta-agonists are needed both to better manage this group of patients and to avoid the side effects of high-dose corticosteroids and the social and personal hardship endured. Several biological pathways have been targeted over the last 20 years, and this research has resulted in pharmacological approaches to attempt to better treat patients with severe refractory asthma...
November 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861433/understanding-phenotypes-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-applications-in-anesthesia-surgery-and-perioperative-medicine
#7
Yamini Subramani, Mandeep Singh, Jean Wong, Clete A Kushida, Atul Malhotra, Frances Chung
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep-disordered breathing with potential long-term major neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. The pathophysiology of OSA varies between individuals and is composed of different underlying mechanisms. Several components including the upper airway anatomy, effectiveness of the upper airway dilator muscles such as the genioglossus, arousal threshold of the individual, and inherent stability of the respiratory control system determine the pathogenesis of OSA...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850966/1330-sepsis-endotypes-and-their-physiologic-characterization-using-vital-signs
#8
Li Ang Zhang, Robert Parker, Ipsita Banerjee, Gilles Clermont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850643/1005-examining-ards-endotypes-using-serum-metabolomics
#9
Brent Winston, Sarah Donnelly, Mohammad Banoei, Stephanie Samra, Ahmed Mourad, Hans Vogel, Oliver Fiehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850237/598-a-biophysics-motivated-dynamic-model-of-coagulopathy-to-inform-endotypes-in-the-critically-ill
#10
Michelle Pressly, Robert Parker, Matthew Neal, Gilles Clermont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849652/polyps-asthma-and-allergy-what-s-new
#11
Dimitrios Terzakis, Christos Georgalas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and allergy share common inflammatory mechanisms, there is no evidence of cause-and-effect relationship. In this review, we present new studies investigating the complex immunology that links these diseases. Advances in new therapies as well as evidence regarding indication and timing of surgery, especially of more complex cases, are highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have endotyped patients in an effort to describe the exact inflammatory profile of each phenotype, whereas described cytokines seem to play a significant role in amplification of T2 inflammation, directly or via innate lymphoid cells...
November 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820746/role-of-biologics-targeting-type-2-airway-inflammation-in-asthma-what-have-we-learned-so-far
#12
Amit D Parulekar, Zuzana Diamant, Nicola A Hanania
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome that can be classified into distinct phenotypes and endotypes. In the type 2 (T2)-high endotype, multiple cytokines are produced that lead to eosinophilic inflammation. These cytokines and their receptors are targets for biologic therapies in patients with severe asthma who do not respond well to standard therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, an increasing number of biologic therapies have been developed targeting T2 inflammation...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820745/role-of-sputum-biomarkers-in-the-management-of-asthma
#13
Sven F Seys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Airway inflammation is considered to be a cardinal feature of asthma. However, the type of airway inflammation is heterogeneous and airway inflammation may even be absent. Biomarkers may help to identify the inflammatory phenotype or endotype, especially now the time has come that targeted therapies enter daily practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Sputum biomarkers have increased our insights into the different inflammatory asthma phenotypes, their response to treatment and their association with progression of disease...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818326/an-update-on-lymphocyte-subtypes-in-asthma-and-airway-disease
#14
REVIEW
Daniel M Moldaver, Mark Larché, Christopher D Rudulier
Inflammation is a hallmark of many airway diseases. Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of airway disease will facilitate the transition in our understanding from phenotypes to endotypes, thereby improving our ability to target treatments based on pathophysiology. For example, allergic asthma has long been considered to be driven by an allergen-specific Th2 response. However, clinical and mechanistic studies have begun to shed light on the role of other cell subsets in the pathogenesis and regulation of lung inflammation...
November 3, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817798/advances-in-rhinitis-and-rhinosinusitis-in-2015
#15
REVIEW
Claus Bachert, Elien Gevaert
The last year has seen great progress in the understanding of upper airway disease and in its management. For allergic rhinitis, authors focused on the prediction of and effect on the natural course of disease. New evidence was published for the disease-modifying effect of allergen immunotherapy in terms of avoidance of new sensitizations and prevention of asthma in either randomized or real-life studies. Specifically, for patients with house dust mite allergies, which are often underestimated and difficult to diagnose, the efficacy of SQ house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy tablets has been demonstrated in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma...
November 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817211/asthma-phenotypes-in-childhood
#16
Matea Deliu, Danielle Belgrave, Matthew Sperrin, Iain Buchan, Adnan Custovic
Asthma is no longer thought of as a single disease, but rather a collection of varying symptoms expressing different disease patterns. One of the ongoing challenges is understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that may be responsible for the varying responses to treatment. Areas Covered: This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the asthma phenotype concept in childhood and describes key findings from both conventional and data-driven methods. Expert Commentary: With the vast amounts of data generated from cohorts, there is hope that we can elucidate distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, or endotypes...
November 18, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803792/mepolizumab-for-severe-refractory-eosinophilic-asthma-evidence-to-date-and-clinical-potential
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Menzella, Mirco Lusuardi, Carla Galeone, Sofia Taddei, Nicola Facciolongo, Luigi Zucchi
Severe asthma is characterized by major impairment of quality of life, poor symptom control and frequent exacerbations. Inflammatory, clinical and causative factors identify different phenotypes and endotypes of asthma. In the last few years, new treatment options have allowed for targeted treatments according to the different phenotypes of the disease. To accurately select a specific treatment for each asthmatic variant, the identification of appropriate biomarkers is required. Eosinophilic asthma is a distinct phenotype characterized by thickening of the basement membrane and corticosteroid responsiveness...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801710/glucocortiosteroid-subsensitivity-and-asthma-severity
#18
Manali Mukherjee, Sarah Svenningsen, Parameswaran Nair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) remain the cornerstone of therapy for treating the inflammatory component of asthma. Clinical response to GCS is heterogeneous, varying both within asthma 'endotypes', as well as the same individual. Different factors and micro-environment can alter the canonical GCS-induced signalling pathways leading to reduced efficacy, collectively termed as GCS subsensitivity, which includes the entire spectrum of steroid insensitivity and steroid resistance...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798418/t2-low-asthma-current-approach-to-diagnosis-and-therapy
#19
Konstantinos Samitas, Eleftherios Zervas, Mina Gaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease not only on a clinical but also on a mechanistic level. For a long time, the molecular mechanisms of asthma were considered to be driven by type 2 helper T cells (Th2) and eosinophilic airway inflammation; however, extensive research has revealed that T2-low subtypes that differ from the dominant T2 paradigm are also common. RECENT FINDINGS: Research into asthma pathways has led to the recognition that some asthma phenotypes show absence of T2 inflammation or alternate between T2 and non-T2 responses...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796126/-precision-and-personalized-medicine
#20
Sándor Sipka
The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
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