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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792201/cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-exacerbate-house-dust-mite-induced-type-ii-airway-inflammation
#1
Kirsty Meldrum, Sarah B Robertson, Isabella Römer, Tim Marczylo, Lareb S N Dean, Andrew Rogers, Timothy W Gant, Rachel Smith, Terry D Tetley, Martin O Leonard
BACKGROUND: Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO2 NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. RESULTS: Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO2 NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia...
May 23, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785413/multivariate-analysis-of-inflammatory-endotypes-in-recurrent-nasal-polyposis-in-a-chinese-population
#2
B Wei, F Liu, J Zhang, Y Liu, J Du, S Liu, N Zhang, C Bachert, J Meng
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remains a challenging clinical problem due to its propensity for recurrence. However, data on the frequency of CRSwNP recurrence after surgery in China are rare. METHODS: 78 CRSwNP patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery were followed-up for 8 years and classified into recurrent and non-recurrent groups. A cluster analysis of the CRSwNP based on inflammatory endotypes was performed, and the endotypes were secondarily matched with clinical phenotypes...
May 22, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777682/inhibition-of-bet-bromodomains-restores-corticosteroid-responsiveness-in-a-mixed-granulocytic-mouse-model-of-asthma
#3
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Naif O Al-Harbi, Nahid Siddiqui, Khalid E Ibrahim, Sabry M Attia
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by different endotypes/phenotypes. Th2/Th17 driven mixed granulocytic asthma is one of them and shows resistance to corticosteroid therapy. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are required for differentiation of Th17 cells which play a pivotal role in neutrophilic inflammation. Therefore, we sought to characterize the differential effects of BET inhibitor versus corticosteroids, and their potential synergism in cockroach allergen extract (CE)-induced mixed granulocytic (eosinophilic and neutrophilic) mouse model of asthma having Th2/Th17 endotype...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751005/eosinophilic-esophagitis-time-to-classify-into-endotypes
#4
EDITORIAL
Anna E Ferguson, Patricia C Fulkerson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731100/endotype-driven-care-pathways-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#5
REVIEW
Claus Bachert, Nan Zhang, Peter W Hellings, Jean Bousquet
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been differentiated clinically into CRS without nasal polyps and CRS with nasal polyps, with both forms subjected to glucocorticosteroid and antibiotic treatments and, if not successful, to nasal and sinus surgery tailored to endoscopic and computed tomographic scan findings. The elaboration of endotypes based on pathomechanisms involving different immune responses offers new possibilities in terms of prediction of prognosis and risks and sophisticated guidance in personalized pharmacotherapy, surgical approaches, and innovative treatment approaches in the CRS field with various biologics...
May 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730081/eosinophilic-oesophagitis-endotype-classification-by-molecular-clinical-and-histopathological-analyses-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Tetsuo Shoda, Ting Wen, Seema S Aceves, J Pablo Abonia, Dan Atkins, Peter A Bonis, Julie M Caldwell, Kelley E Capocelli, Christina L Carpenter, Margaret H Collins, Evan S Dellon, Michael D Eby, Nirmala Gonsalves, Sandeep K Gupta, Gary W Falk, Ikuo Hirano, Paul Menard-Katcher, Jonathan T Kuhl, Jeffrey P Krischer, John Leung, Vincent A Mukkada, Jonathan M Spergel, Michael P Trimarchi, Guang-Yu Yang, Nives Zimmermann, Glenn T Furuta, Marc E Rothenberg
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is understood in terms of quantifiable histological, endoscopic, and molecular features. Data are scant for inter-relations of these features and their potential to identify distinct disease endotypes. We aimed to identify clinical-pathological correlations between endoscopic and histological disease variables by transcription profiling of the oesophagus of patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis of varying severity and disease activity states. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional study across ten hospital sites in the USA associated with the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers...
May 2, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718738/treatment-of-severe-uncontrolled-eosinophilic-asthma-where-we-are-heading
#7
Jonathan A Bernstein, Reynold Panettieri
OBJECTIVE: We sought to highlight how our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma has evolved over time and discuss the role of biomarkers in treatment advances and emerging new therapies. DATA SOURCES: Nonsystematic PubMed literature search. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were selected based on areas of relevance to the classification of asthma by endotype, with an emphasis on the evolution of current treatment guidelines for severe asthma...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707206/recent-advances-in-biologic-therapy-of-asthma-and-the-role-in-therapy-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#8
REVIEW
Rohit Divekar, Devyani Lal
Great strides have been made in the last five years in understanding the pathology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). CRS is now accepted to be the end-stage manifestation of inflammation resultant from various pathogenetic mechanisms. This has resulted in increasing recognition of distinct CRS endotypes. Such endotypes encompass a cluster of patients with similar pathogenic mechanisms that may have common therapeutic targets and responsiveness to interventions. The elucidation of mechanisms leading to the development of chronic upper (sino-nasal) airway inflammation has to some extent paralleled investigations of aberrant pathways operant in asthma...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705381/high-dimensional-immune-biomarkers-demonstrate-differences-in-phenotypes-and-endotypes-in-food-allergy-and-asthma
#9
R Sharon Chinthrajah, Natasha Purington, Vanitha Sampath, Sandra Andorf, Monali Manohar, Mary Prunicki, Xiaoying Zhou, Dana Tupa, Kari C Nadeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680368/purification-and-characterization-of-alginate-lyase-from-sphingomonas-sp-zh0
#10
Manman He, Min Guo, Xu Zhang, Keke Chen, Jinping Yan, Chagan Irbis
Alginate lyases degrade alginate in a beta-elimination reaction to produce oligosaccharides. Thus, alginate lyases are widely used in the food/pharmaceutical industries and are commercially valuable. In this study, four alginate lyase encoding genes were successfully cloned from Sphingomonas sp. ZH0. The expression systems of these alginate lyases were then constructed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant ZH0-I, ZH0-II, ZH0-III and ZH0-IV were purified from E. coli cells and were confirmed to be monomeric enzymes with molecular weights of approximately 91, 52, 67, and 113 kDa, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676185/blood-eosinophil-and-basophil-values-before-and-after-surgery-for-eosinophilic-type-sinonasal-polyps
#11
Giuseppe Brescia, Daniela Parrino, Claudia Zanotti, Giulia Tealdo, Umberto Barion, Paolo Sfriso, Gino Marioni
Background Blood eosinophil and basophil levels have recently been considered for the purpose of endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Histologically, eosinophilic-type CRSwNPs have been associated with high recurrence rates after treatment. Objective The present study was the first to compare blood eosinophil and basophil counts in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods The study concerned 79 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676067/significance-of-skin-barrier-dysfunction-in-atopic-dermatitis
#12
REVIEW
Byung Eui Kim, Donald Y M Leung
The epidermis contains epithelial cells, immune cells, and microbes which provides a physical and functional barrier to the protection of human skin. It plays critical roles in preventing environmental allergen penetration into the human body and responsing to microbial pathogens. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common, complex chronic inflammatory skin disease. Skin barrier dysfunction is the initial step in the development of AD. Multiple factors, including immune dysregulation, filaggrin mutations, deficiency of antimicrobial peptides, and skin dysbiosis contribute to skin barrier defects...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674612/autoantibodies-in-myositis
#13
REVIEW
Neil J McHugh, Sarah L Tansley
The discovery of novel autoantigen systems related to idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (collectively referred to as myositis) in adults and children has had major implications for the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases across a wide range of medical specialties. Traditionally, autoantibodies found in patients with myositis are described as being myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) or myositis-associated autoantibodies (MAAs), depending on their prevalence in other, related conditions. However, certain MSAs are more closely associated with extramuscular manifestations, such as skin and lung disease, than with myositis itself...
April 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670881/impact-of-transcriptomics-on-our-understanding-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Milica Vukmirovic, Naftali Kaminski
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal fibrotic lung disease characterized by aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma with extensive changes to the phenotypes of all lung resident cells. The introduction of transcriptomics, genome scale profiling of thousands of RNA transcripts, caused a significant inversion in IPF research. Instead of generating hypotheses based on animal models of disease, or biological plausibility, with limited validation in humans, investigators were able to generate hypotheses based on unbiased molecular analysis of human samples and then use animal models of disease to test their hypotheses...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629407/new-treatment-options-for-copd-how-do-we-decide-phenotypes-endotypes-or-treatable-traits
#15
Ron Balkissoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611440/new-biologics-for-allergic-diseases
#16
Laurie A Manka, Michael E Wechsler
Allergic conditions such as asthma and atopic dermatitis have a high prevalence but represent a heterogeneous group of diseases despite similar clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology. A better understanding of the phenotypes and endotypes of these diseases has driven rapid development of biologic medications targeting many steps of the inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: There are 2 major inflammatory pathways that drive allergic diseases: Type-2 (Th-2) inflammation and non-type 2 inflammation...
April 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608467/how-to-cope-with-food-allergy-symptoms
#17
Antoine Deschildre, Stéphanie Lejeune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Food allergy symptoms may involve a wide variety of organs (skin, gastrointestinal tract, and eyes) and systems (respiratory, circulatory, and neurological). They are often associated. Their severity ranges from mild to potentially life-threatening reactions and the presentation from acute to chronic. RECENT FINDINGS: Food allergies have been the focus of multiple studies, position papers, and guidelines in recent years. They have defined an approach in classifying symptoms as mild to anaphylactic, distinguishing objective from subjective symptoms, and describing their heterogeneity, specific phenotypes or syndromes (e...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606855/benralizumab-in-the-treatment-of-severe-asthma-design-development-and-potential-place-in-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Corrado Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella, Andrea Bruni, Rosa Terracciano, Girolamo Pelaia
Asthma is a widespread and heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the airways, which is characterized by several different phenotypes and endotypes. In particular, eosinophilic airway inflammation is a common pathologic trait of both allergic and nonallergic asthma. The key cytokine responsible for maturation, activation, recruitment, and survival of eosinophils is interleukin (IL)-5, which is mainly produced by T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Therefore, for uncontrolled patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, who are not fully responsive to corticosteroids, IL-5 represents a very important molecular target for add-on biological therapies...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605619/evolution-in-the-surgical-management-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-current-indications-and-pitfalls
#19
Michael A Kohanski, Elina Toskala, David W Kennedy
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) consists of a range of inflammatory conditions in the sinuses that may result in clinical symptoms and the underlying pathophysiology and its relationship to lower airway disease is complex. Current definitions of CRS may serve more as an indication for potential surgical intervention rather than a marker of disease state. CRS can be asymptomatic and may require medical management to avoid disease progression and to minimize the risk of lower airway disease. Endoscopic surgery has undergone a significant evolution and refinement but the most common surgical complication remains persistent inflammation and recurrence of disease...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604251/atopic-dermatitis-subjects-colonized-with-staphylococcus-aureus-have-a-distinct-phenotype-and-endotype
#20
Eric L Simpson, Miguel Villarreal, Brett Jepson, Nick Rafaels, Gloria David, Jon Hanifin, Patricia Taylor, Mark Boguniewicz, Takeshi Yoshida, Anna De Benedetto, Kathleen C Barnes, Donald Y M Leung, Lisa A Beck
Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients are commonly colonized with Staphylococcus aureus (ADS.aureus+) but what differentiates this group from noncolonized AD subjects (ADS.aureus-) has not been well-studied. To evaluate whether these two groups have unique phenotypic or endotypic features we performed a multi-center, cross-sectional study enrolling ADS.aureus+ (N=51) and ADS.aureus- (N=45) subjects defined by the presence or absence of S. aureus by routine culture techniques and nonatopic, noncolonized controls NAS...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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