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Shahper N Khan, Shakir Khan, Jawed Iqbal, Rosina Khan, Asad U Khan
Candida sp. impelled opportunistic infection in immune-compromised patients ensuing from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms. Moreover, slow spread of Candida species inducing refractory mucosal and invasive infections brings acute resistance to antifungal drugs. Hence, here we probed the effect of encapsulated preparation of cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) in multilamellar liposomes (ML) against Candida albicans. The efficacy of ML-CNMA against Candida biofilm was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy and its percent inhibition, was determined by XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] and crystal violet assay...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chao Lv, Xing Yuan, Hua-Wu Zeng, Run-Hui Liu, Wei-Dong Zhang
Cinnamaldehyde is a main ingredient of cinnamon oils from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, which has been widely used in food and traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells were investigated. Exposure to 4mM glutamate altered the GSH, MDA levels and SOD activity, caused the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulted in the induction of oxidative stress in PC12 cell, ultimately induced cell death...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jung-Hoon Kim
Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
H Huang, Y Wang
The study wasintended to examinethe protective effect of cinnamaldehyde (CM) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice model.The results of the investigation confirmed that, LPS induced inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-13 and IL-1β were significantly decreased by CM. CM also up-regulated level of IL-10. We found that CM significantly attenuated LPS-induced TLR4 expression, NF-κB activation and MPO activity in the lung tissues. It markedly reduced lung wet/dry ratio, and improved typical and severe pathological changes including pulmonary edema in the LPS induced ALI mice...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Erickson M Paragas, Sara C Humphreys, Joshua Min, Carolyn A Joswig-Jones, Silke Leimkühler, Jeffrey P Jones
Although aldehyde oxidase (AO) is an important hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme, it remains understudied and is consequently often overlooked in preclinical studies, an oversight that has resulted in the failure of multiple clinical trials. AO's preclusion to investigation stems from the following: (1) difficulties synthesizing metabolic standards due to the chemospecificity and regiospecificity of the enzyme and (2) significant inherent variability across existing in vitro systems including liver cytosol, S9 fractions, and primary hepatocytes, which lack specificity and generate discordant expression and activity profiles...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Nam-Yi Kim, Sang-Gun Ahn, Soo-A Kim
Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has various functional properties, such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. This study examined the intracellular signaling mechanisms of CA on the oxidative stress response in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). The results showed that CA did not have any cell cytotoxicity or cause morphological changes at concentrations up to 50µM. A CA treatment strongly up-regulated the cellular protein level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Rebecca Van Acker, Annabelle Déjardin, Sandrien Desmet, Lennart Hoengenaert, Ruben Vanholme, Kris Morreel, Francoise Laurans, Hoon Kim, Nicholas Santoro, Cliff Foster, Geert Goeminne, Frédéric Legee, Catherine Lapierre, Gilles Pilate, John Ralph, Wout A Boerjan
In search for renewable energy sources, genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve plant cell wall composition for biofuel and bioproducts generation. Lignin is a major factor determining saccharification efficiency and is therefore a prime target. Here, lignin content and composition were modified in poplar (Populus tremula×P. alba) by specifically downregulating CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 (CAD1) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. These transgenic lines showed no biomass penalty despite a 10% reduction in Klason lignin content and severe shifts in lignin composition...
September 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
Gaalebalwe Ntlhokwe, Magdalena Muller, Elizabeth Joubert, Andreas G J Tredoux, André de Villiers
The volatile composition of honeybush (Cyclopia) species was studied by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS). Headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was used to extract the volatile compounds from tea infusions prepared from the three species C. genistoides, C. maculata and C. subternata. A total of 287 compounds were identified, 101 of which were confirmed using reference standards, while the remainder were tentatively identified using mass spectral and retention index (RI) data...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Reyhaneh Sohrabi, Nasim Pazgoohan, Hasan Rezaei Seresht, Bahareh Amin
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the putative antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of the cinnamon essential oil when administered acute (for 3 doses) and sub-acute (for 14 days) to mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an acute experimental study, forced swim test (FST) was conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like behavior of animals treated with the intraperitoneal (IP) essential oil of cinnamon in triple doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg). In a sub-acute study (14 days in 24-hr intervals) antidepressant-like effects of essential oil (0...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Yue Shi, Xiao-Chun Liang, Hong Zhang, Qing Sun, Qun-Li Wu, Ling Qu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the combination of quercetin (Q), cinnamaldehyde (C) and hirudin (H), a Chinese medicine formula on high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. METHODS: DRG neurons exposed to HG (45 mmol/L) for 24 h were employed as an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and apoptosis were determined. The expression of nuclear factor of Kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa Bα(IκBα), phosphorylated IκBα and Nf-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Stella W Nowotarska, Krzysztof Nowotarski, Irene R Grant, Christopher T Elliott, Mendel Friedman, Chen Situ
The antimicrobial modes of action of six naturally occurring compounds, cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, carvacrol, 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, previously found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) reported to infect food animals and humans and to be present in milk, cheese, and meat, were investigated. The incubation of Map cultures in the presence of all six compounds caused phosphate ions to leak into the extracellular environment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
August 24, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Shunxi Dong, Marcus Frings, Duo Zhang, Qianqian Guo, Constantin Daniliuc, Hanchao Cheng, Carsten Bolm
An N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed highly diastereo- and enantioselective formal [3+2] reaction of o-hydroxy aromatic aldimines and cinnamaldehydes for the preparation of enantioenriched trans-γ-lactams was developed. An internal hydrogen bond between the o-hydroxy and the imine function was crucial for the reactivity and chemical selectivity. Trans-γ-lactam 3d was easily oxidized to multifunctional 1,4-benzoquinone 8 which could further be transformed to biaryl 9 in the presence of a phosphoric acid...
August 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kamel M Kamel, Islam A Khalil, Mostafa E Rateb, Hosieny Elgendy, Seham Elhawary
This study aimed to coat lipid-based nanocarriers with chitosan to encapsulate nutraceuticals, minimize opsonization, and facilitate passive-targeting. Phase one was concerned with standardization according to the World Health Organization. Qualitative analysis using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) investigated the active constituents, especially reported cytotoxic agents. Cinnamaldehyde and rosmarinic acid were selected to be quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera, Sirimal Premakumara Galbada Arachchige, Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya
Ethanol (95%) and dichloromethane : methanol (1 : 1) bark extracts of authenticated Ceylon cinnamon were investigated for range of antilipidemic activities (ALA): HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities and bile acids binding in vitro. Individual compounds in bark extracts were also evaluated. Bark extracts showed ALA in all the assays studied. The IC50 (μg/mL) values ranged within 153.07 ± 8.38-277.13 ± 32.18, 297.57 ± 11.78-301.09 ± 4...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kyoji Furuta, Yu Kawai, Yosuke Mizuno, Yurika Hattori, Hiroko Koyama, Yoko Hirata
Novel 3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]alkyl-2-oxindole analogs were synthesized by either of the following two pathways: (1) a sequence of Knoevenagel condensation of oxindole with (4-dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde-hydrogenation, or (2) alkylation of oxindole dianion with [(4-dimethylamino)phenyl]alkyl halides. Subsequent alkylation at C-3 and/or N-1 of the oxindole skeleton by anion-based methods provided additional substituted derivatives for structure-activity relationship studies. Their effects on neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress were evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase assay...
September 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
L M Katiki, A M E Barbieri, R C Araujo, C J Veríssimo, H Louvandini, J F S Ferreira
Anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes is a worldwide problem. Multi-drug resistant haemonchosis is the most serious impediment for small ruminant systems, and there are no new drug candidates currently under development. Molecules from natural sources have demonstrated anthelmintic activity against parasites. In this work, the monoterpenoids carvacrol, carvone, cineole, linalool, limonene, and thymol and the phenylpropanoids cinnamaldehyde, anethole, vanillin, and eugenol were assessed individually or in mixtures of ten binary, three ternary, and three quaternary combinations using the in vitro egg hatch assay with eggs of a multi-drug resistant strain of Haemonchus contortus...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Pragyanshu Khare, Vandana Bijalwan, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Bacteriostatic properties of a potential anti-obesity agent cinnamaldehyde (CMN) may present untoward effects on the resident gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) with CMN prevents unwanted effects of CMN on gut microbiota and associated metabolic outcomes in HFD-fed mice. Male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10), were fed on normal chow, or HFD (58% fat kcal), HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) and HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) + IMOs (1 g kg(-1) ) for 12 weeks...
August 11, 2017: BioFactors
Xuan Guo, Wen Sun, Liansha Huang, Lili Wu, Yi Hou, Lingling Qin, Tonghua Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Young-Sil Lee, Eunjung Son, Seung-Hyung Kim, Yun Mi Lee, Ohn Soon Kim, Dong-Seon Kim
Chrysanthemum indicum Linne flower (CF) and Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Persl bark (CB) extracts have served as the main ingredients in several prescriptions designed to treat hyperuricemia and gout in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine. However, little is known about the combination effects of a CF and CB (CC) mixture on hyperuricemia. In our study, we investigated the antihyperuricemic effects of CC mixture and the mechanisms underlying these effects in normal and potassium oxonate- (PO-) induced hyperuricemic rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jack William Houghton, Joachim Hans, Manuel Pesaro, Jakob Peter Ley, Guy Howard Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
The extensional rheology (ER) of saliva is a property associated with its ability to coat surfaces and is important for the maintenance of a normal mouth feeling. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in the oral cavity and this study investigated how the sensory effects of TRP channel agonists modify the ER of saliva. Healthy volunteers rinsed with solutions containing a TRP agonist. Unstimulated whole mouth saliva (WMS) was collected prior to rinsing and WMS was collected during the first and second minutes after the mouth rinse...
August 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
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