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Junheon Kim, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Jeongmin Kim, Si Hyeock Lee, Chung Gyoo Park
Fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (EOs) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii were examined. Analyses by GC, GC-MS, and NMR led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from Gaultheria fragrantissima, Croton anistatum, Illicium verum, Liquidamabar orientalis, Cinnamomum cassia, Rosa damasena, and Santalum album, respectively. In fumigant toxicity test, G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum exhibited 100, 93...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiao-Qiang Li, Xiao-Xiao Liu, Xue-Ying Wang, Yan-Hua Xie, Qian Yang, Xin-Xin Liu, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Wei Cao, Si-Wang Wang
The chemical property of cinnamaldehyde is unstable in vivo, although early experiments have shown its obvious therapeutic effects on viral myocarditis (VMC). To overcome this problem, we used cinnamaldehyde as a leading compound to synthesize derivatives. Five derivatives of cinnamaldehyde were synthesized: 4-methylcinnamaldehyde (1), 4-chlorocinnamaldehyde (2), 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3), α-bromo-4-methylcinnamaldehyde (4), and α-bromo-4-chlorocinnamaldehyde (5). Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells infected by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) were used to evaluate their antiviral and cytotoxic effects...
October 17, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Leni R Rivera, TinaMarie Lieu, Daniel P Poole, Hyun-Jung Cho, David M Bravo, John B Furness
TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients) include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
L Buntinx, T Voets, B Morlion, L Vangeel, M Janssen, E Cornelissen, J Vriens, J de Hoon, E Levtchenko
Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation due to loss of function of the lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS). The most common mutation in cystinosis patients of Northern Europe consists of a 57-kb deletion. This deletion not only inactivates the CTNS gene but also extends into the non-coding region upstream of the start codon of the TRPV1 gene, encoding the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1. To evaluate the consequences of the 57-kb deletion on functional TRPV1 expression, we compared thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivity of cystinosis patients with matched healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hiroshi Uchi, Mao Yasumatsu, Saori Morino-Koga, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue
BACKGROUND: Dioxins and other environmental pollutants are toxic and remain in biological tissues for a long time leading to various levels of oxidative stress. Although the toxicity of these agents has been linked to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), no effective treatment has been developed. OBJECTIVE: To explore novel phytochemicals that inhibit AHR activation in keratinocytes. METHODS: Keratinocytes were used in this study because the skin is one of the organs most affected by dioxin and other environmental pollutants...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
L Buntinx, L Chang, A Amin, B Morlion, J de Hoon
AIM: To develop a non-invasive, safe and reproducible target-engagement biomarker for future TRPA1 antagonists in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Dose Finding (n = 11): 3%, 10%, and 30% cinnamaldehyde (CA) and placebo (=vehicle) was topically applied on the right forearm. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni was used to compare between doses. Reproducibility: 10% CA doses were topically applied during 1 visit on both arms (n = 10) or during 2 visits (n = 23) separated by a washout period of 7 days...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Hong Wei, Hai-Yun Wu, Zuyue Chen, Ai-Niu Ma, Xiao-Fang Mao, Teng-Fei Li, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang, Antti Pertovaara
Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is associated with various pain hypersensitivity conditions. Spinally, TRPA1 is expressed by central terminals of nociceptive nerve fibers and astrocytes. Among potential endogenous agonists of TRPA1 is H2O2 generated by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) in astrocytes. Here we studied whether prolonged block of the spinal TRPA1 or astrocytes starting at time of injury attenuates development and/or maintenance of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Additionally, TRPA1 and DAAO mRNA were determined in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH)...
September 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mohammed N A Khalil, Mostafa I Fekry, Mohamed A Farag
Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are distributed worldwide as major food complement providing a source of sugars and dietary fiber as well as macro- and micronutrients. Although phytochemical analyses of date fruit non-volatile metabolites have been reported, much less is known about the aroma given off by the fruit, which is critical for dissecting sensory properties and quality traits. Volatile constituents from 13 date varieties grown in Egypt were profiled using SPME-GCMS coupled to multivariate data analysis to explore date fruit aroma composition and investigate potential future uses by food industry...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Rachel Z Behar, Wentai Luo, Sabrina C Lin, Yuhuan Wang, Jackelyn Valle, James F Pankow, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution, concentration and toxicity of cinnamaldehyde in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) refill fluids and aerosols. METHODS: The distribution and concentration of cinnamaldehyde were determined in 39 e-cigarette refill fluids plus 6 duplicates using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A cinnamaldehyde toxicity profile was established for embryonic and adult cells using a live cell imaging assay, immunocytochemistry, the comet assay and a recovery assay...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Verónica Romero-Gil, Antonio Garrido-Fernández, Francisco N Arroyo-López
A probabilistic/logistic model, based on binary data (growth/no growth), was used to assess the effects of sodium metabisulphite (SM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 0-1000 mg/L) against the main microbial groups found in table olive environment [lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae], according to pH (range 3.5-5.0), and type of acidifying agent (HCl or pyruvic acid). The inhibitory effect of SM depended on the pH while that of CIN was scarcely influenced by it (except for LAB). LAB were more sensitive to SM, while yeasts were to CIN...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Deepti P Karumathil, Meera Surendran-Nair, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
The study investigated the efficacy of two natural, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), and eugenol (EG) for decreasing Acinetobacter baumannii adhesion to and invasion of human keratinocytes (HEK001). Moreover, the efficacy of two PDAs for inhibiting A. baumannii biofilm formation was determined using an in vitro collagen matrix wound model. Additionally, the effect of TC and EG on A. baumannii biofilm architecture was visualized using confocal scanning microscopy. Further the effect of both PDAs on genes critical for biofilm synthesis was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 13, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Karamatullah Danyal, Willem de Jong, Edmund O'Brien, Robert Alan Bauer, David Earl Heppner, Andrew Little, Milena Hristova, Aida Habibovic, Albert van der Vliet
Acrolein is a major thiol-reactive component of cigarette smoke (CS) that is thought to contribute to increased asthma incidence associated with smoking. Here, we explored the effects of acute acrolein exposure on innate airway responses to two common airborne allergens, house dust mite and Alternaria alternata, and observed that acrolein exposure of C57BL/6 mice (5 ppm, 4 hrs) dramatically inhibited innate airway responses to subsequent allergen challenge, demonstrated by attenuated release of the epithelial-derived cytokines IL-33, IL-25, and IL-1α...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Wen-Xiu Hao, Yun-Tao Zhang, Ya-Jie Zhang
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of cinnamaldehyde(CA) on osteogenic function and BMP-2 expression of mice osteoblast. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 sub-clone 14 cells were cultured in the presence of CA at 0(control group), 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 μg/mL. The cell proliferation rate was measured by MTT assay 1, 3, 5 d after exposure. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was detected at 3, 5, 7 d to observe the effect of 6 concentrations of CA on osteoblast function. The mRNA expression of BMP-2 was quantified by real-time PCR(RT-qPCR) 1, 3, 5 d after exposure to (10,20 μg/mL) CA...
June 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Timothy James Egan, Mario A Acuña, Marcy Zenobi-Wong, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, David Urech
Determining the functional significance of post-translational modifications advances our understanding of many broadly-expressed proteins, and particularly ion channels. The enzymes that catalyze these modifications are often expressed in a cell-type specific manner, resulting in considerable structural diversity among post-translationally modified proteins that are expressed across a variety of cell types. TRP channels exhibit notably variable behavior between cell types in vitro and in vivo , and they are frequently modified with N-glycans that contribute to protein function...
August 31, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Kakuyou Ogawa, Michiho Ito
Inhalation of scent compounds with phenylpropanoidal structures, such as trans-cinnamaldehyde, is expected to increase the appetite. The scent of curry powder is well known for its appetite-enhancing effect on humans. In this work, we show that the appetite of mice after inhalation of curry powder essential oil or benzylacetone showed a similar increase. The components of curry oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and eugenol, each showed appetite-enhancing effects; therefore, these three scent compounds may be the active compounds in curry powder oil...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Sara A Burt, Simone J M Adolfse, Dina S A Ahad, Monique H G Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Betty G M Jongerius-Gortemaker, Jan A Post, Holger Brüggemann, Regiane R Santos
Essential oils and organic acids are used as feed additives to improve health status and reduce colonization with pathogens. Although bactericidal in vitro, concentrations achieved in the animal gut are probably not lethal to pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and cinnamic, lactic and propionic acids on the ability of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 (ST) to invade intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and on the expression levels of immune related genes in the cells...
August 25, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ahmad-Faris Seman-Kamarulzaman, Zeti-Azura Mohamed-Hussein, Chyan Leong Ng, Maizom Hassan
Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold) to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps...
2016: PloS One
J Malheiro, I Gomes, A Borges, M M S M Bastos, J-Y Maillard, F Borges, M Simões
The indiscriminate use of biocides for general disinfection has contributed to the increased incidence of antimicrobial tolerant microorganisms. This study aims to assess the potential of seven phytochemicals (tyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamaldehyde, coumaric acid, cinnamic acid and eugenol) in the control of planktonic and sessile cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol showed antimicrobial properties, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 3-5 and 5-12 mM and minimum bactericidal concentrations of 10-12 and 10-14 mM against S...
October 2016: Biofouling
Liqing Zhang, Zhangang Zhang, Yan Fu, Pin Yang, Zhenxia Qin, Yongjun Chen, Ying Xu
Microglia activation and neuroinflammation are critically involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Patients with neurodegenerative disorders often suffer memory impairment and currently there is no effective treatment for inflammation-led memory impairment. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) isolated from medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory capability. However, the potential of TCA to be used to improve memory impairment under neuroinflammation has not been explored...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
Lang-Hong Wang, Man-Sheng Wang, Xin-An Zeng, De-Ming Gong, Yan-Bo Huang
BACKGROUND: Some antibacterial agents exert their antimicrobial action by targeting the cytoplasmic macromolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, to disturb the properties of macromolecules that may deeply influnence their biological activities and functions. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) is a natural antibacterial ingredient found in the bark and leaves of cinnamon trees. METHODS: The inhibitory mechanism of a typical enzyme, β-galactosidase by CIN was investigated by UV-visible, fluorescence, 3-D spectroscopy, circular dichroism, atomic force microscopy and molecular modeling studies...
August 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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