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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635635/identifying-bird-remains-using-ancient-dna-barcoding
#1
Love Dalén, Vendela K Lagerholm, Johan A A Nylander, Nick Barton, Zbigniew M Bochenski, Teresa Tomek, David Rudling, Per G P Ericson, Martin Irestedt, John R Stewart
Bird remains that are difficult to identify taxonomically using morphological methods, are common in the palaeontological record. Other types of challenging avian material include artefacts and food items from endangered taxa, as well as remains from aircraft strikes. We here present a DNA-based method that enables taxonomic identification of bird remains, even from material where the DNA is heavily degraded. The method is based on the amplification and sequencing of two short variable parts of the 16S region in the mitochondrial genome...
June 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633358/phylogeography-of-herbarium-specimens-of-asexually-propagated-paper-mulberry-broussonetia-papyrifera-l-l-h%C3%A3-r-ex-vent-moraceae-reveals-genetic-diversity-across-the-pacific
#2
Claudia Payacan, Ximena Moncada, Gloria Rojas, Andrew Clarke, Kuo-Fang Chung, Robin Allaby, Daniela Seelenfreund, Andrea Seelenfreund
Background and Aims: Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631395/a-univariate-approach-to-sex-estimation-for-the-fragmentary-upper-limb
#3
Rosanne Bongiovanni, Carrie B LeGarde
Although there are numerous reliable multivariate models for sex estimation, many scenarios, both forensic and archaeological, result in the recovery of fragmentary remains, which prevents the collection of various standard measurements. The purpose of this research was to establish metric applications for sex estimation from the distal humerus and distal radius of European/American Whites and American Blacks. Data for this research were retrieved from a sample consisting of a larger database from multiple skeletal collections...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626923/comparative-performance-of-deciduous-and-permanent-dental-morphology-in-detecting-biological-relatives
#4
Kathleen S Paul, Christopher M Stojanowski
OBJECTIVES: Dental morphology plays a key role in reconstructing population history and evolutionary relationships at global, regional, and intracemetery scales. At the inter-individual level, it is assumed that close biological kin exhibit greater phenotypic similarity than non-relatives. Heritability estimates provide one measure of phenotypic resemblance but are not easily incorporated into analyses of archaeological samples. In this study we evaluate the assumption that relatives are more similar phenotypically than non-relatives...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622926/hominid-visitation-of-the-moravian-karst-during-the-middle-upper-paleolithic-transition-new-results-from-pod-hradem-cave-czech-republic
#5
L Nejman, R Wood, D Wright, L Lisá, Z Nerudová, P Neruda, A Přichystal, J Svoboda
In 1956-1958, excavations of Pod Hradem Cave in Moravia (eastern Czech Republic) revealed evidence for human activity during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition. This spanned 25,050-44,800 cal BP and contained artefacts attributed to the Aurignacian and Szeletian cultures, including those made from porcelanite (rarely used at Moravian Paleolithic sites). Coarse grained excavation techniques and major inversions in radiocarbon dates meant that site chronology could not be established adequately. This paper documents re-excavation of Pod Hradem in 2011-2012...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621827/maize-zea-mays-consumption-in-the-southern-andes-30%C3%A2-31%C3%A2-s-lat-stable-isotope-evidence-2000-bce-1540-ce
#6
Marta Alfonso-Durruty, Andrés Troncoso, Pablo Larach, Cristian Becker, Nicole Misarti
OBJECTIVES: The timing and dietary role of maize agriculture is central to archaeological discussions in the Andean region. In the semi-arid region of northern Chile (SARNC), archaeological models propose that maize was adopted during the Early Ceramic period in tandem with pottery and sedentism. Through stable isotope (SI) analyses, of bone collagen and apatite, this study assesses the timing of maize introduction, diachronic changes (2,000 BCE to 1,540 CE.), and synchronic dietary variability in the prehistoric SARNC...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621823/raw-material-procurement-for-termite-fishing-tools-by-wild-chimpanzees-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#7
Katarina Almeida-Warren, Volker Sommer, Alex K Piel, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620203/prehistoric-cooking-versus-accurate-palaeotemperature-records-in-shell%C3%A2-midden-constituents
#8
Peter Müller, Philip T Staudigel, Sean T Murray, Robert Vernet, Jean-Paul Barusseau, Hildegard Westphal, Peter K Swart
The reconstruction of pre-depositional cooking treatments used by prehistoric coastal populations for processing aquatic faunal resources is often difficult in archaeological shell midden assemblages. Besides limiting our knowledge of various social, cultural, economic and technological aspects of shell midden formation, unknown pre-depositional cooking techniques can also introduce large errors in palaeoclimate reconstructions as they can considerably alter the geochemical proxy signatures in calcareous skeletal structures such as bivalve shells or fish otoliths...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620190/formation-of-biphasic-hydroxylapatite-beta-magnesium-tricalcium-phosphate-in-heat-treated-salmonid-vertebrae
#9
Don H Butler, Ruth Shahack-Gross
Ichthyoarchaeological evidence is uncommon at ancient hunter-gatherer sites from various regions and timeframes. This research contributes to the development of microarchaeological techniques useful for identifying fishing economies in situations where classifiable bones are unavailable. Specifically, traces of heat altered bone mineral in domestic hearths are expected to provide markers for discarded fish remains. We used a series of laboratory incineration experiments to characterize the mineralogy of burned salmonid vertebrae...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615641/an-earlier-revolution-genetic-and-genomic-analyses-reveal-pre-existing-cultural-differences-leading-to-neolithization
#10
Michela Leonardi, Guido Barbujani, Andrea Manica
Archaeological evidence shows that, in the long run, Neolitization (the transition from foraging to food production) was associated with demographic growth. We used two methods (patterns of linkage disequilibrium from whole-genome SNPs and MSMC estimates on genomes) to reconstruct the demographic profiles for respectively 64 and 24 modern-day populations with contrasting lifestyles across the Old World (sub-Saharan Africa, south-eastern Asia, Siberia). Surprisingly, in all regions, food producers had larger effective population sizes (N e) than foragers already 20 k years ago, well before the Neolithic revolution...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614397/what-was-the-population-of-great-zimbabwe-ce1000-1800
#11
Shadreck Chirikure, Thomas Moultrie, Foreman Bandama, Collett Dandara, Munyaradzi Manyanga
The World Heritage Site of Great Zimbabwe is one of the most iconic and largest archaeological settlements in Africa. It was the hub of direct and indirect trade which internally connected various areas of southern Africa, and externally linked them with East Africa and the Near and Far East. Archaeologists believe that at its peak, Great Zimbabwe had a fully urban population of 20,000 people concentrated in approximately 2.9 square kilometres (40 percent of 720 ha). This translates to a population density of 6,897, which is comparable with that of some of the most populous regions of the world in the 21st century...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609785/comprehensive-analysis-of-microorganisms-accompanying-human-archaeological-remains
#12
Anna Philips, Ireneusz Stolarek, Bogna Kuczkowska, Anna Juras, Luiza Handschuh, Janusz Piontek, Piotr Kozlowski, Marek Figlerowicz
Background.: Metagenome analysis has become a common source of information about microbial communities that occupy a wide range of niches, including archaeological specimens. It has been shown that vast majority of DNA extracted from ancient samples come from bacteria (presumably modern contaminants). However, characterization of microbial DNA accompanying human remains has never been done systematically for a wide range of different samples. Findings.: We used metagenomic approaches to perform comparative analyses of microorganism communities present in 161 archaeological human remains...
June 13, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600869/follow-up-on-the-characterization-of-peptidic-markers-in-hair-and-fur-for-the-identification-of-common-north-american-species
#13
Caroline Solazzo
RATIONALE: Species identification of hair is routinely done by microscopic analysis. Following previous studies that used protein analysis to characterize species markers in hair and wool, the present work aims at covering a larger number of species and to ultimately offer a method for rapid hair identification in forensics and archaeology. METHODS: Hair is mostly made of alpha-keratins; these proteins have only been sequenced in a handful of species and most animal families are under-represented...
June 10, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592838/the-first-neanderthal-remains-from-an-open-air-middle-palaeolithic-site-in-the-levant
#14
Ella Been, Erella Hovers, Ravid Ekshtain, Ariel Malinski-Buller, Nuha Agha, Alon Barash, Daniella E Bar-Yosef Mayer, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Lihi Levin, Noam Greenbaum, Netta Mitki, Gregorio Oxilia, Naomi Porat, Joel Roskin, Michalle Soudack, Reuven Yeshurun, Ruth Shahack-Gross, Nadav Nir, Mareike C Stahlschmidt, Yoel Rak, Omry Barzilai
The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582402/a-matter-of-months-high-precision-migration-chronology-of-a-bronze-age-female
#15
Karin Margarita Frei, Chiara Villa, Marie Louise Jørkov, Morten E Allentoft, Flemming Kaul, Per Ethelberg, Samantha S Reiter, Andrew S Wilson, Michelle Taube, Jesper Olsen, Niels Lynnerup, Eske Willerslev, Kristian Kristiansen, Robert Frei
Establishing the age at which prehistoric individuals move away from their childhood residential location holds crucial information about the socio dynamics and mobility patterns in ancient societies. We present a novel combination of strontium isotope analyses performed on the over 3000 year old "Skrydstrup Woman" from Denmark, for whom we compiled a highly detailed month-scale model of her migration timeline. When combined with physical anthropological analyses this timeline can be related to the chronological age at which the residential location changed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576881/assessing-elements-of-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-for-plant-domestication-and-agricultural-origin-research
#16
Dolores R Piperno
The development of agricultural societies, one of the most transformative events in human and ecological history, was made possible by plant and animal domestication. Plant domestication began 12,000-10,000 y ago in a number of major world areas, including the New World tropics, Southwest Asia, and China, during a period of profound global environmental perturbations as the Pleistocene epoch ended and transitioned into the Holocene. Domestication is at its heart an evolutionary process, and for many prehistorians evolutionary theory has been foundational in investigating agricultural origins...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569709/remembering-future-risk-considering-technologies-of-the-archive-for-discussion-of-t%C3%A5-hoku-s-seismological-past-after-2011
#17
Kristina Buhrman
In Japan, calls for the discovery, preservation, and translation of old documents that mention past earthquakes only intensified after the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster of March 2011. A closer look at the original record and archival processes that have gone into the historical account of the earthquake and tsunami of 9 July 869 reveals the ways in which the "memory" of the Jōgan tsunami depends as much on modern seismic archaeology and educational institutions as ancient documents. Historical risk assessment, therefore, must draw on both old and new technologies of the archive...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568904/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-ancient-sheep-from-altai
#18
M A Dymova, A V Zadorozhny, O V Mishukova, E A Khrapov, A S Druzhkova, V A Trifonov, I G Kichigin, A A Tishkin, S P Grushin, M L Filipenko
A comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of ancient and modern sheep can shed light on the origin of these animals and their distribution as well as help to evaluate the role of humans at each formation stage of different sheep breeds. Here we isolated ancient DNA and performed sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop from 17 sheep bone remains (~4000-1000 years old) found in the archaeological complexes in the south of Altai (Western Siberia). The length of the sequences obtained ranged between 318 and 586 bp...
May 31, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558646/microevolution-of-the-noble-crayfish-astacus-astacus-in-the-southern-balkan-peninsula
#19
Anastasia Laggis, Athanasios D Baxevanis, Alexandra Charalampidou, Stefania Maniatsi, Alexander Triantafyllidis, Theodore J Abatzopoulos
BACKGROUND: The noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) displays a complex historical and contemporary genetic status in Europe. The species divergence has been shaped by geological events (i.e. Pleistocene glaciations) and humanly induced impacts (i.e. translocations, pollution, etc.) on its populations due to species commercial value and its niche degradation. Until now, limited genetic information has been procured for the Balkan area and especially for the southernmost distribution of this species (i...
May 30, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555247/rib-anomalies-in-a-neolithic-period-skeleton-from-croatia
#20
Petra Rajić Šikanjić, Zrinka Premužić, Maja Krznarić Škrivanko
Congenital anomalies develop during intrauterine development. They can occur in soft tissues as well as skeletal elements and vary from minor to life threatening. In this paper we present a case of an individual from the Neolithic site of Vinka, Croatia. This adult male exhibited multiple congenital anomalies on cranial and postcranial skeleton. These include several rib anomalies on the right side: hyperplasia of the third rib, bifid fourth rib and flaring of the eighth rib. Additionally, lambdoid ossicles, parastyle of the second maxillary molar and supracondylar processes of the humeri are present...
May 30, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
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