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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207835/identification-of-plant-cells-in-black-pigments-of-prehistoric-spanish-levantine-rock-art-by-means-of-a-multi-analytical-approach-a-new-method-for-social-identity-materialization-using-cha%C3%A3-ne-op%C3%A3-ratoire
#1
Esther López-Montalvo, Clodoaldo Roldán, Ernestina Badal, Sonia Murcia-Mascarós, Valentín Villaverde
We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202101/berber-genealogy-and-the-politics-of-prehistoric-archaeology-and-craniology-in-french-algeria-1860s-1880s
#2
Bonnie Effros
Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine...
February 16, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194930/representation-archaeology-and-genealogy-three-spatial-metaphors-for-inquiring-into-nursing-phenomena-with%C3%A2-foucauldian-discourse-analysis
#3
Michael E Clinton, Rusla Anne Springer
Foucault used the "Quadrilateral of Language" metaphor to describe how language functioned in what the French called the Classic Age, roughly 1650 to 1800, the period from Descartes to Kant. His purpose was to show how the functions of language changed radically with the arrival of the Modern Age (~1800). Foucault developed his archaeological methods to investigate the impact of this change, but later revised his methods to introduce genealogical strategies to conduct "histories of the present". Our purpose in this paper is to clarify Foucault's thinking about ruptures in the functions of language and to show their implications for analyzing nursing discourse...
February 14, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193874/six-centuries-of-geomagnetic-intensity-variations-recorded-by-royal-judean-stamped-jar-handles
#4
Erez Ben-Yosef, Michael Millman, Ron Shaar, Lisa Tauxe, Oded Lipschits
Earth's magnetic field, one of the most enigmatic physical phenomena of the planet, is constantly changing on various time scales, from decades to millennia and longer. The reconstruction of geomagnetic field behavior in periods predating direct observations with modern instrumentation is based on geological and archaeological materials and has the twin challenges of (i) the accuracy of ancient paleomagnetic estimates and (ii) the dating of the archaeological material. Here we address the latter by using a set of storage jar handles (fired clay) stamped by royal seals as part of the ancient administrative system in Judah (Jerusalem and its vicinity)...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192967/direct-analysis-of-xanthine-stimulants-in-archaeological-vessels-by-laser-desorption-rempi
#5
Shawn C Owens, Jacob Berenbeim, Marshall Ligare, Lisa E Gulian, Faady M Siouri, Samuel Boldissar, Stuart Tyson-Smith, Gregory Daniel Wilson, Anabel Ford, Mattanjah S De Vries
Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy (REMPI) generates simultaneous vibronic spectroscopy and fragment free mass spectrometry to identify molecules within a complex matrix. We combined laser desorption with REMPI spectroscopy to study organic residues within pottery sherds from Maya vessels (600-900 CE) and Missisippian vessels (1100-1200 CE), successfully detecting three molecular markers, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, associated with the use of cacao. This analytical approach provides a high molecular specificity, based on both wavelength and mass identification...
February 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182645/between-a-rock-and-a-soft-place-using-optical-ages-to-date-ancient-clam-gardens-on-the-pacific-northwest
#6
Christina M Neudorf, Nicole Smith, Dana Lepofsky, Ginevra Toniello, Olav B Lian
Rock-walled archaeological features are notoriously hard to date, largely because of the absence of suitable organic material for radiocarbon dating. This study demonstrates the efficacy of dating clam garden wall construction using optical dating, and uses optical ages to determine how sedimentation rates in the intertidal zone are affected by clam garden construction. Clam gardens are rock-walled, intertidal terraces that were constructed and maintained by coastal First Nation peoples to increase bivalve habitat and productivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178584/comparative-study-of-the-claws-of-pediculus-humanus-capitis-between-archaeological-and-modern-specimens
#7
Hipólito Núñez, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Natalia Aravena
Metric data of the claws of archaeological specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis (dating between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500) and modern lice specimens coming from school children were analyzed and compared. Both sets of samples come from Arica in northern Chile. The overall sample is comprised of 14 archaeological specimens (6 females and 8 males) of Pediculus humanus capitis and 22 modern specimens (13 females and 9 males). All specimens were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using variable pressure mode...
January 27, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177051/dental-caries-at-lapa-do-santo-central-eastern-brazil-an-early-holocene-archaeological-site
#8
Pedro DA-Gloria, Rodrigo E Oliveira, Walter A Neves
The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses...
February 6, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169321/a-new-perspective-on-studying-burial-environment-before-archaeological-excavation-analyzing-bacterial-community-distribution-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#9
Jinjin Xu, Yanfei Wei, Hanqing Jia, Lin Xiao, Decai Gong
Burial conditions play a crucial role in archaeological heritage preservation. Especially, the microorganisms were considered as the leading causes which incurred degradation and vanishment of historic materials. In this article, we analyzed bacterial diversity and community structure from M1 of Wangshanqiao using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that microbial communities in burial conditions were diverse among four different samples. The samples from the robber hole varied most obviously in community structure both in Alpha and Beta diversity...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167791/impact-of-pre-columbian-geoglyph-builders-on-amazonian-forests
#10
Jennifer Watling, José Iriarte, Francis E Mayle, Denise Schaan, Luiz C R Pessenda, Neil J Loader, F Alayne Street-Perrott, Ruth E Dickau, Antonia Damasceno, Alceu Ranzi
Over 450 pre-Columbian (pre-AD 1492) geometric ditched enclosures ("geoglyphs") occupy ∼13,000 km(2) of Acre state, Brazil, representing a key discovery of Amazonian archaeology. These huge earthworks were concealed for centuries under terra firme (upland interfluvial) rainforest, directly challenging the "pristine" status of this ecosystem and its perceived vulnerability to human impacts. We reconstruct the environmental context of geoglyph construction and the nature, extent, and legacy of associated human impacts...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166908/the-middle-stone-age-human-fossil-record-from-klasies-river-main-site
#11
Frederick E Grine, Sarah Wurz, Curtis W Marean
The paleoanthropological significance of Klasies River Main Site derives from its abundant Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological debris and the hominin fossils that have featured in discussions about modern human emergence. Despite their significance, the human remains have yet to be contextualized within the spatial, stratigraphic and geochronological framework of the site. We provide an updated overview of the stratigraphy and geochronology of the site, and review the human fossil record in this context. We also provide the first anatomical interpretations of many of the cranial vault fragments...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166905/the-earliest-long-distance-obsidian-transport-evidence-from-the-%C3%A2-200%C3%A2-ka-middle-stone-age-sibilo-school-road-site-baringo-kenya
#12
Nick Blegen
This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162001/genetic-affiliation-of-pre-hispanic-and-contemporary-mayas-through-maternal-linage
#13
Mirna Isabel Ochoa-Lugo, María de Lourdes Muñoz, Gerardo Pérez-Ramírez, Kristine G Beaty, Mauro López-Armenta, Javiera Cervini-Silva, Miguel Moreno-Galeana, Adrián Martínez Meza, Eduardo Ramos, Michael H Crawford, Arturo Romano-Pacheco
Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161510/the-material-record-and-the-antiquity-of-language
#14
REVIEW
Ian Tattersall
One view of language origins sees it as ancient and selection-driven; the other as recent and emergent. Such disagreement occurs because language is ephemeral, detectable only by indirect proxies. Because internalized language and symbolic thought are tightly linked, the best archaeological proxies for language are symbolic objects. Nothing indicates convincingly that any hominid behaved symbolically prior to Homo sapiens, which originated 200 kyr ago but started behaving symbolically only 100 kyr later. Most probably the necessary neural underpinnings arose exaptively in the extensive developmental reorganization that gave rise to anatomically distinctive Homo sapiens, and were recruited subsequently via a necessarily behavioral stimulus...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159222/multi-analytical-technique-study-of-human-bones-from-an-archaeological-discovery
#15
J I Lachowicz, S Palomba, P Meloni, M Carboni, G Sanna, R Floris, V Pusceddu, M Sarigu
In 1953, during the building restoration of San Michele church (Bono, Sardinia, 16th-19th Century), a high number of disarticulated skeletons were recovered. From a group of 412 hip bones, two of these, affected by several pathological lesions, were analysed. The two coxal bones can be referred to the same individual, an adult man. A multi-analytical study, started with the purpose of investigating the bone pathology, was extended to characterize the mineral components of a large representative set of bones from the same ossuary, all attributed to adult men who lived in the region four-two centuries ago...
March 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152590/minimizing-laboratory-induced-decay-in-bone-proteomics
#16
Noemi Procopio, Michael Buckley
Proteomics methods are being increasingly used to study archaeological and palaeontological bone, assisting in species identification and phylogenetic studies as well as improving our understanding of bone diagenesis. More recently, there are developing interests in the study of post-translational modifications, some of which are potentially diagnostic of decay, but none of the previous extraction methods have been developed in light of this. To be able to record close to natural deamidation levels of samples, an extraction procedure should minimize laboratory-induced decay, such as asparagine and glutamine deamidations, which are considered most strongly related with decay and known to occur frequently with standard laboratory procedures...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152079/wadi-el-sheikh-a-new-archaeological-investigation-of-ancient-egyptian-chert-mines
#17
E Christiana Köhler, Elizabeth Hart, Michael Klaunzer
This article provides an overview of the first results from archaeological investigations at Wadi el-Sheikh in Egypt by the University of Vienna Middle Egypt Project. Chert was an important raw material used to produce tools, implements and jewelry in ancient times. Wadi el-Sheikh was exploited over thousands of years as it was probably the most important source of chert in Pharaonic civilization. The results of our new investigations that involved surveys and test excavations indicate the presence of large scale mining activities in the first half of the 3rd Millennium B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152046/migrating-huns-and-modified-heads-eigenshape-analysis-comparing-intentionally-modified-crania-from-hungary-and-georgia-in-the-migration-period-of-europe
#18
Peter Mayall, Varsha Pilbrow, Liana Bitadze
An intentionally modified head is a visually distinctive sign of group identity. In the Migration Period of Europe (4th- 7th century AD) the practice of intentional cranial modification was common among several nomadic groups, but was strongly associated with the Huns from the Carpathian Basin in Hungary, where modified crania are abundant in archaeological sites. The frequency of modified crania increased substantially in the Mtskheta region of Georgia in this time period, but there are no records that Huns settled here...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145782/shouldering-the-past-photography-archaeology-and-collective-effort-at-the-tomb-of-tutankhamun
#19
Christina Riggs
Photographing archaeological labor was routine on Egyptian and other Middle Eastern sites during the colonial period and interwar years. Yet why and how such photographs were taken is rarely discussed in literature concerned with the history of archaeology, which tends to take photography as given if it considers it at all. This paper uses photographs from the first two seasons of work at the tomb of Tutankhamun (1922-4) to show that photography contributed to discursive strategies that positioned archaeology as a scientific practice - both in the public presentation of well-known sites and in the self-presentation of archaeologists to themselves and each other...
December 1, 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141965/evolution-of-stored-product-entomology-protecting-the-world-food-supply
#20
David W Hagstrum, Thomas W Phillips
Traditional methods of stored-product pest control were initially passed from generation to generation. Ancient literature and archaeology reveal hermetic sealing, burning sulfur, desiccant dusts, and toxic botanicals as early control methods. Whereas traditional nonchemical methods were subsequently replaced by synthetic chemicals, other traditional methods were improved and integrated with key modern pesticides. Modern stored-product integrated pest management (IPM) makes decisions using knowledge of population dynamics and threshold insect densities...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
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