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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726828/archaeology-early-signs-of-human-presence-in-australia
#1
Curtis W Marean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725674/study-of-infectious-diseases-in-archaeological-bone-material-a-dataset
#2
Elisa Pucu, Paula Cascardo, Marcia Chame, Gisele Felice, Niéde Guidon, Maria Cleonice Vergne, Guadalupe Campos, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Daniela Leles
Bones of human and ground sloth remains were analyzed for presence of Trypanosoma cruzi by conventional PCR using primers TC, TC1 and TC2. Sequence results amplified a fragment with the same product size as the primers (300 and 350pb). Amplified PCR product was sequenced and analyzed on GenBank, using Blast. Although these sequences did not match with these parasites they showed high amplification with species of bacteria. This article presents the methodology used and the alignment of the sequences. The display of this dataset will allow further analysis of our results and discussion presented in the manuscript "Finding the unexpected: a critical view on molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases in archaeological samples" (Pucu et al...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710386/seed-coat-thinning-during-horsegram-macrotyloma-uniflorum-domestication-documented-through-synchrotron-tomography-of-archaeological-seeds
#3
Charlene Murphy, Dorian Q Fuller
Reduction of seed dormancy mechanisms, allowing for rapid germination after planting, is a recurrent trait in domesticated plants, and can often be linked to changes in seed coat structure, in particular thinning. We report evidence for seed coat thinning between 2,000 BC and 1,200 BC, in southern Indian archaeological horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum), which it has been possible to document with high precision and non-destructively, through high resolution x-ray computed tomography using a synchrotron...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706348/a-methodological-approach-to-the-study-of-archaeological-cereal-meals-a-case-study-at-%C3%A3-atalh%C3%A3-y%C3%A3-k-east-turkey
#4
Lara González Carretero, Michèle Wollstonecroft, Dorian Q Fuller
This paper presents an integrated methodology for the analysis of archaeological remains of cereal meals, based on scanning electronic microscopic analyses of microstructures of charred food fragments from Neolithic Çatalhöyük (Turkey). The remains of cereal foods as 'bread-like' or 'porridge-like' small charred lumps of various amalgamated plant materials are frequently recovered from Neolithic and later archaeological sites in southwest Asia and Europe. Cereal food remains have recently attracted interest because the identification of their plant contents, the forms of food that they represent and the methods used in their creation can provide unique information about ancient culinary traditions and routine food processing, preparation and cooking techniques...
2017: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704804/influence-of-spectral-resolution-spectral-range-and-signal-to-noise-ratio-of-fourier-transform-infra-red-spectra-on-identification-of-high-explosive-substances
#5
Krzysztof Banas, Agnieszka M Banas, Sascha P Heussler, Mark B H Breese
In the contemporary spectroscopy there is a trend to record spectra with the highest possible spectral resolution. This is clearly justified if the spectral features in the spectrum are very narrow (for example infra-red spectra of gas samples). However there is a plethora of samples (in the liquid and especially in the solid form) where there is a natural spectral peak broadening due to collisions and proximity predominately. Additionally there is a number of portable devices (spectrometers) with inherently restricted spectral resolution, spectral range or both, which are extremely useful in some field applications (archaeology, agriculture, food industry, cultural heritage, forensic science)...
July 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700601/new-regression-formula-to-estimate-the-prenatal-crown-formation-time-of-human-deciduous-central-incisors-derived-from-a-roman-imperial-sample-velia-salerno-italy-i-ii-cent-ce
#6
Alessia Nava, Luca Bondioli, Alfredo Coppa, Christopher Dean, Paola Francesca Rossi, Clément Zanolli
The characterization and quantification of human dental enamel microstructure, in both permanent and deciduous teeth, allows us to document crucial growth parameters and to identify stressful events, thus contributing to the reconstruction of the past life history of an individual. Most studies to date have focused on the more accessible post-natal portion of the deciduous dental enamel, even though the analysis of prenatal enamel is pivotal in understanding fetal growth, and reveals information about the mother's health status during pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696428/growing-the-lost-crops-of-eastern-north-america-s-original-agricultural-system
#7
Natalie G Mueller, Gayle J Fritz, Paul Patton, Stephen Carmody, Elizabeth T Horton
Thousands of years before the maize-based agriculture practiced by many Native American societies in eastern North America at the time of contact with Europeans, there existed a unique crop system only known through archaeological evidence. There are no written or oral records of how these lost crops were cultivated, but several domesticated subspecies have been identified in the archaeological record. Growth experiments and observations of living progenitors of these crops can provide insights into the ancient agricultural system of eastern North America, the role of developmental plasticity in the process of domestication, and the creation and maintenance of diverse landraces under cultivation...
July 5, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695206/a-fourth-denisovan-individual
#8
Viviane Slon, Bence Viola, Gabriel Renaud, Marie-Theres Gansauge, Stefano Benazzi, Susanna Sawyer, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Michael V Shunkov, Anatoly P Derevianko, Janet Kelso, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo
The presence of Neandertals in Europe and Western Eurasia before the arrival of anatomically modern humans is well supported by archaeological and paleontological data. In contrast, fossil evidence for Denisovans, a sister group of Neandertals recently identified on the basis of DNA sequences, is limited to three specimens, all of which originate from Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains (Siberia, Russia). We report the retrieval of DNA from a deciduous lower second molar (Denisova 2), discovered in a deep stratigraphic layer in Denisova Cave, and show that this tooth comes from a female Denisovan individual...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688671/mining-metagenomic-data-sets-for-ancient-dna-recommended-protocols-for-authentication
#9
REVIEW
Felix M Key, Cosimo Posth, Johannes Krause, Alexander Herbig, Kirsten I Bos
While a comparatively young area of research, investigations relying on ancient DNA data have been highly valuable in revealing snapshots of genetic variation in both the recent and the not-so-recent past. Born out of a tradition of single-locus PCR-based approaches that often target individual species, stringent criteria for both data acquisition and analysis were introduced early to establish high standards of data quality. Today, the immense volume of data made available through next-generation sequencing has significantly increased the analytical resolution offered by processing ancient tissues and permits parallel analyses of host and microbial communities...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688460/chronometric-investigations-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-the-zagros-mountains-using-ams-radiocarbon-dating-and-bayesian-age-modelling
#10
Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Katerina Douka, Daniel Comeskey, Behrouz Bazgir, Nicholas J Conard, Curtis W Marean, Andreu Ollé, Marcel Otte, Laxmi Tumung, Mohsen Zeidi, Thomas F G Higham
The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is often linked with a bio-cultural shift involving the dispersal of modern humans outside of Africa, the concomitant replacement of Neanderthals across Eurasia, and the emergence of new technological traditions. The Zagros Mountains region assumes importance in discussions concerning this period as its geographic location is central to all pertinent hominin migration areas, pointing to both east and west. As such, establishing a reliable chronology in the Zagros Mountains is crucial to our understanding of these biological and cultural developments...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682803/the-skeleton-of-the-azzio-s-crypt-northern-italy-a-forensic-case-in-an-archaeological-context
#11
Marta Licata, Chiara Rossetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681298/biodeterioration-of-pompeian-mural-paintings-fungal-colonization-favoured-by-the-presence-of-volcanic-material-residues
#12
Marco Veneranda, Nagore Prieto-Taboada, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Maite Maguregui, Hector Morillas, Iker Marcaida, Kepa Castro, Juan Manuel Madariaga, Massimo Osanna
This work was focused on the study of the biodegradation processes jeopardizing a mural painting conserved in the basement of Ariadne House (archaeological site of Pompeii, Italy). The fresco stood out for its peculiar state of preservation: the upper part, recovered in 1988, was just barely colonized by microorganisms. On the contrary, the lower part (excavated in 2005) was almost completely covered by extensive biological patinas. The genomic characterization carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) highlighted the presence of seven different fungi strains on the mural surface...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680685/humans-permanently-occupied-the-andean-highlands-by-at-least-7%C3%A2-ka
#13
Randall Haas, Ioana C Stefanescu, Alexander Garcia-Putnam, Mark S Aldenderfer, Mark T Clementz, Melissa S Murphy, Carlos Viviano Llave, James T Watson
High-elevation environments above 2500 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.) were among the planet's last frontiers of human colonization. Research on the speed and tempo of this colonization process is active and holds implications for understanding rates of genetic, physiological and cultural adaptation in our species. Permanent occupation of high-elevation environments in the Andes Mountains of South America tentatively began with hunter-gatherers around 9 ka according to current archaeological estimates, though the timing is currently debated...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680659/proteomic-profiling-of-archaeological-human-bone
#14
Rikai Sawafuji, Enrico Cappellini, Tomohito Nagaoka, Anna K Fotakis, Rosa Rakownikow Jersie-Christensen, Jesper V Olsen, Kazuaki Hirata, Shintaroh Ueda
Ancient protein analysis provides clues to human life and diseases from ancient times. Here, we performed shotgun proteomics of human archeological bones for the first time, using rib bones from the Hitotsubashi site (AD 1657-1683) in Tokyo, called Edo in ancient times. The output data obtained were analysed using Gene Ontology and label-free quantification. We detected leucocyte-derived proteins, possibly originating from the bone marrow of the rib. Particularly prevalent and relatively high expression of eosinophil peroxidase suggests the influence of infectious diseases...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679457/new-parasitological-findings-for-pre-hispanic-camelids
#15
V Taglioretti, M H Fugassa, D Rindel, N H Sardella
Paleoparasitological examination provides information of parasite-host associations in the past, shedding light on the geographical origin of some parasites, on the possible dispersal routes and on some of the processes that modelled the parasitic communities. The aim of the present study was to examine parasite remains present in camelid coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque, Patagonia and to discuss the paleoparasitological findings in a biogeographical and paleoecological context...
July 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675306/express-use-of-monte-carlo-simulation-as-a-tool-for-non-destructive-ed-xrf-analysis-of-archaeological-copper-based-artifacts-from-the-chalcolithic-site-of-perdig%C3%A3%C2%B5es-southern-portugal
#16
Carlo Emanuele Bottaini, Antonio Brunetti, Ignacio Montero Ruiz, António Valera, Antonio Candeias, José Mirão
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673982/starch-granule-evidence-for-the-earliest-potato-use-in-north-america
#17
Lisbeth A Louderback, Bruce M Pavlik
The prehistory of wild potato use, leading to its domestication and diversification, has been well-documented in, and confined to, South America. At least 20 tuber-bearing, wild species of Solanum are known from North and Central America, yet their importance in ancient diets has never been assessed from the archaeological record. Here, we report the earliest evidence of wild potato use in North America at 10,900-10,100 calendar years (cal) B.P. in the form of well-preserved starch granules extracted from ground stone tools at North Creek Shelter, southern Utah...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669760/eight-millennia-of-matrilineal-genetic-continuity-in-the-south-caucasus
#18
Ashot Margaryan, Miroslava Derenko, Hrant Hovhannisyan, Boris Malyarchuk, Rasmus Heller, Zaruhi Khachatryan, Pavel Avetisyan, Ruben Badalyan, Arsen Bobokhyan, Varduhi Melikyan, Gagik Sargsyan, Ashot Piliposyan, Hakob Simonyan, Ruzan Mkrtchyan, Galina Denisova, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Eske Willerslev, Morten E Allentoft
The South Caucasus, situated between the Black and Caspian Seas, geographically links Europe with the Near East and has served as a crossroad for human migrations for many millennia [1-7]. Despite a vast archaeological record showing distinct cultural turnovers, the demographic events that shaped the human populations of this region is not known [8, 9]. To shed light on the maternal genetic history of the region, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes of 52 ancient skeletons from present-day Armenia and Artsakh spanning 7,800 years and combined this dataset with 206 mitochondrial genomes of modern Armenians...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664976/diet-of-the-prehistoric-population-of-rapa-nui-easter-island-chile-shows-environmental-adaptation-and-resilience
#19
Catrine L Jarman, Thomas Larsen, Terry Hunt, Carl Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G Close, Brian N Popp
OBJECTIVES: The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660862/high-resolution-x-ray-diffraction-with-no-sample-preparation
#20
G M Hansford, S M R Turner, P Degryse, A J Shortland
It is shown that energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) implemented in a back-reflection geometry is extremely insensitive to sample morphology and positioning even in a high-resolution configuration. This technique allows high-quality X-ray diffraction analysis of samples that have not been prepared and is therefore completely non-destructive. The experimental technique was implemented on beamline B18 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Oxfordshire, UK. The majority of the experiments in this study were performed with pre-characterized geological materials in order to elucidate the characteristics of this novel technique and to develop the analysis methods...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section A, Foundations and Advances
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