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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217544/on-the-origin-of-modern-humans-asian-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Christopher J Bae, Katerina Douka, Michael D Petraglia
The traditional "out of Africa" model, which posits a dispersal of modern Homo sapiens across Eurasia as a single wave at ~60,000 years ago and the subsequent replacement of all indigenous populations, is in need of revision. Recent discoveries from archaeology, hominin paleontology, geochronology, genetics, and paleoenvironmental studies have contributed to a better understanding of the Late Pleistocene record in Asia. Important findings highlighted here include growing evidence for multiple dispersals predating 60,000 years ago in regions such as southern and eastern Asia...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216758/iron-age-italic-population-genetics-the-piceni-from-novilara-8th-7th-century-bc
#2
P Serventi, C Panicucci, R Bodega, S De Fanti, S Sarno, M Fondevila Alvarez, F Brisighelli, B Trombetta, P Anagnostou, G Ferri, A Vazzana, C Delpino, G Gruppioni, D Luiselli, E Cilli
BACKGROUND: Archaeological data provide evidence that Italy, during the Iron Age, witnessed the appearance of the first communities with well defined cultural identities. To date, only a few studies report genetic data about these populations and, in particular, the Piceni have never been analysed. AIMS: To provide new data about mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability of an Iron Age Italic population, to understand the contribution of the Piceni in shaping the modern Italian gene pool and to ascertain the kinship between some individuals buried in the same grave within the Novilara necropolis...
December 7, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216199/the-potential-of-statistical-shape-modelling-for-geometric-morphometric-analysis-of-human-teeth-in-archaeological-research
#3
Christopher Woods, Christianne Fernee, Martin Browne, Sonia Zakrzewski, Alexander Dickinson
This paper introduces statistical shape modelling (SSM) for use in osteoarchaeology research. SSM is a full field, multi-material analytical technique, and is presented as a supplementary geometric morphometric (GM) tool. Lower mandibular canines from two archaeological populations and one modern population were sampled, digitised using micro-CT, aligned, registered to a baseline and statistically modelled using principal component analysis (PCA). Sample material properties were incorporated as a binary enamel/dentin parameter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215793/genetic-history-of-the-african-sahelian-populations
#4
REVIEW
V Černý, I Kulichová, E S Poloni, J M Nunes, L Pereira, A Mayor, A Sanchez-Mazas
From a biogeographic perspective Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara Desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the savannah bordering it in the south, is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today...
December 7, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211749/stone-heat-treatment-in-the-early-mesolithic-of-southwestern-germany-interpretation-and-identification
#5
Patrick Schmidt, Océane Spinelli Sanchez, Claus-Joachim Kind
The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208947/the-y-chromosome-haplogroup-c3-f3918-likely-attributed-to-the-mongol-empire-can-be-traced-to-a-2500-year-old-nomadic-group
#6
Ye Zhang, Xiyan Wu, Jiawei Li, Hongjie Li, Yongbin Zhao, Hui Zhou
The Mongol Empire had a significant role in shaping the landscape of modern populations. Many populations living in Eurasia may have been the product of population mixture between ancient Mongolians and natives following the expansion of Mongol Empire. Geneticists have found that most of these populations carried the Y-haplogroup C3* (C-M217). To trace the history of haplogroup (Hg) C3* and to further understand the origin and development of Mongolians, ancient human remains from the Jinggouzi, Chenwugou and Gangga archaeological sites, which belonged to the Donghu, Xianbei and Shiwei, respectively, were analysed...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203672/earliest-hydraulic-enterprise-in-china-5-100-years-ago
#7
Bin Liu, Ningyuan Wang, Minghui Chen, Xiaohong Wu, Duowen Mo, Jianguo Liu, Shijin Xu, Yijie Zhuang
Here we present one of the world's oldest examples of large-scale and formalized water management, in the case of the Liangzhu culture of the Yangtze Delta, dated at 5,300-4,300 years cal B.P. The Liangzhu culture represented a peak of early cultural and social development predating the historically recorded Chinese dynasties; hence, this study reveals more about the ancient origins of hydraulic engineering as a core element of social, political, and economic developments. Archaeological surveys and excavations can now portray the impressive extent and structure of dams, levees, ditches, and other landscape-transforming features, supporting the ancient city of Liangzhu, with an estimated size of about 300 ha...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198403/improving-the-use-of-historical-written-sources-in-paleopathology
#8
Piers D Mitchell
The texts written by the people of past societies can provide key information that enhances our understanding of disease in the past. Written sources and art can describe cultural contexts that not only help us interpret lesions in excavated human remains, but also provide evidence for past disease events themselves. However, in recent decades many biohistorical articles have been published that claim to diagnose diseases present in past celebrities or well known individuals, often using less than scholarly methodology...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198400/osteochondritis-dissecans-of-skeletal-elements-of-the-foot-in-a-19th-century-rural-farming-community-from-the-netherlands
#9
Irene Vikatou, Menno L P Hoogland, Andrea L Waters-Rist
Osteochondritis Dissecans (OD) is a pathological condition of the subchondral bone and surrounding cartilage of synovial joints, associated with strenuous activity and/or trauma. Reports of OD in archaeological skeletal remains are few and the majority demonstrate low OD prevalence (<1%). A predominantly 19th century skeletal sample from Middenbeemster, the Netherlands, was assessed for OD. The sample included adult individuals of both sexes. There were no definitive OD lesions in non-pedal elements, yet 12...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198394/reestablishing-rigor-in-archaeological-parasitology
#10
REVIEW
Karl Reinhard
Archaeological parasitology originated in the mid-twentieth century with interdisciplinary teams of specialists directed by archaeologists. The goals of such studies were detailed analyses of dietary, medicinal, and environmental factors that shaped the patterns of infection. By the 1970s, a cadre of unique coprolite analysts was trained to analyze macroscopic and microscopic remains for integrated reconstructions of the cultural determinants of parasitism. During these first phases of research, diagnostic rigor was maintained by direct training of specialists in parasitology and archaeology sub-disciplines including archaeobotany and archaeopalynology...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198393/differential-diagnosis-in-archaeology
#11
D F Lawler
Diagnosing archaeological bone specimens can be likened to practices used in medical and veterinary medical health care. Increasing the rigor of archaeological diagnosis can be supported by a systematic approach derived from health care settings. The process of information synthesis and diagnosis can be viewed as being very similar among these disciplines. A first diagnostic step is developing an Initial Information Set (sometimes called an Initial Database in health care environments) from descriptive data about the archaeological specimen or the patient, accompanied by recording environmental and ecological observations...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198392/reprint-of-differential-diagnosis-trepanation
#12
REVIEW
John W Verano
Trepanation is the scraping, cutting, or drilling of an opening (or openings) into the neurocranium. World surveys reveal that a number of ancient cultures experimented with cranial surgery, and that in some areas these practices continued into modern times. Archaeological discoveries of possible trepanations continue to be made, often from geographic areas or time periods from which the practice was not previously known. Unfortunately, most of these reports describe single crania with healed defects interpreted as trepanations...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198391/spondylolysis-in-the-past-a-case-study-of-hunter-gatherers-from-southern-patagonia
#13
M D D'Angelo Del Campo, J A Suby, P García-Laborde, R A Guichón
Spondylolysis is a fracture of the pars interarticularis, the portion of the neural arch that lies between the superior articular facets and the inferior articular facets. Clinical evidence has suggested repetitive trauma to be the most probable cause, even though morphological weakness of the vertebra is probably also involved. Prevalence is between 3% and 8% in modern populations, while in archaeological samples it varies from 0% to 71.4%. Considering that very little data about this condition is available in past populations from the southern extreme of South America, the aim of this paper is to analyze the spondylolysis in a human skeletal sample from Southern Patagonia and, at the same time, to explore the prevalence of spondylolysis in archaeological contexts around the world to gain a better understanding of the results presented here...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191518/new-paleoparasitological-investigations-from-the-pre-inca-to-hispanic-contact-period-in-northern-chile
#14
Mônica Vieira de Souza, Lucélia Guedes Ribeiro da Silva, Verónica Silva-Pinto, Pablo Mendez-Quiros, Sergio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Alena Mayo Iñiguez
Paleoparasitological studies have demonstrated that changes in environment or culture are reflected in the patterns of parasitic infection diseases in populations worldwide. The advent of agriculture and animal domestication, with its accompanying reduction in human mobility and expanding population involves changes in or emergence of, parasites, the so-called first epidemiological transition. Cultural processes related to territory occupation contribute to both loss and acquisition of parasites. The archaeological site Lluta 57 in the Lluta Valley, Chile, provides a chronology of the transition from the pre-Inca or Late Intermediate Period (LIP), through the Late or Inca Period (LP), to the Hispanic Contact Period (HCP), providing the possibility of evaluating this epidemiological transition...
November 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191415/paleoecology-of-the-serengeti-during-the-oldowan-acheulean-transition-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania-the-mammal-and-fish-evidence
#15
Faysal Bibi, Michael Pante, Antoine Souron, Kathlyn Stewart, Sara Varela, Lars Werdelin, Jean-Renaud Boisserie, Mikael Fortelius, Leslea Hlusko, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
Eight years of excavation work by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has produced a rich vertebrate fauna from several sites within Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Study of these as well as recently re-organized collections from Mary Leakey's 1972 HWK EE excavations here provides a synthetic view of the faunal community of Olduvai during Middle Bed II at ∼1.7-1.4 Ma, an interval that captures the local transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. We expand the faunal list for this interval, name a new bovid species, clarify the evolution of several mammalian lineages, and record new local first and last appearances...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190783/satellite-imagery-based-monitoring-of-archaeological-site-damage-in-the-syrian-civil-war
#16
Jesse Casana, Elise Jakoby Laugier
Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186200/sea-level-rise-and-archaeological-site-destruction-an-example-from-the-southeastern-united-states-using-dinaa-digital-index-of-north-american-archaeology
#17
David G Anderson, Thaddeus G Bissett, Stephen J Yerka, Joshua J Wells, Eric C Kansa, Sarah W Kansa, Kelsey Noack Myers, R Carl DeMuth, Devin A White
The impact of changing climate on terrestrial and underwater archaeological sites, historic buildings, and cultural landscapes can be examined through quantitatively-based analyses encompassing large data samples and broad geographic and temporal scales. The Digital Index of North American Archaeology (DINAA) is a multi-institutional collaboration that allows researchers online access to linked heritage data from multiple sources and data sets. The effects of sea-level rise and concomitant human population relocation is examined using a sample from nine states encompassing much of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the southeastern United States...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186153/the-peer-review-gap-a-longitudinal-case-study-of-gendered-publishing-and-occupational-patterns-in-a-female-rich-discipline-western-north-america-1974-2016
#18
Shannon Tushingham, Tiffany Fulkerson, Katheryn Hill
Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that women continue to be underrepresented in publication output in the sciences. This is true even in female-rich fields such as archaeology. Since most gender-related publication studies rely on data from peer-reviewed journals, it would be instructive, though challenging, to also track publication output in non-refereed and professional or industry venues, which tend to be more accessible to those working in extra-academic settings. This comparison is important in fields such as archaeology in which the vast majority (approximately 90%) of practitioners in the USA work for private sector cultural resource management firms and federal and state agencies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185525/primate-archaeology-evolves
#19
REVIEW
Michael Haslam, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Tomos Proffitt, Adrian Arroyo, Tiago Falótico, Dorothy Fragaszy, Michael Gumert, John W K Harris, Michael A Huffman, Ammie K Kalan, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, William McGrew, Eduardo B Ottoni, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Caroline Schuppli, Fiona Stewart, Amanda Tan, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Lydia V Luncz
Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182897/archaeology-and-anatomy
#20
EDITORIAL
G Baggieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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