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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915348/the-emergence-of-animal-management-in-the-southern-levant
#1
Natalie D Munro, Guy Bar-Oz, Jacqueline S Meier, Lidar Sapir-Hen, Mary C Stiner, Reuven Yeshurun
Our compilation of zooarchaeological data from a series of important archaeological sites spanning the Epipaleolithic through Pre-Pottery Neolithic B periods in the Mediterranean Hills of the southern Levant contributes to major debates about the beginnings of ungulate management in Southwest Asia. The data support an onset of ungulate management practices by the Early PPNB (10,500-10,000 cal. BP), more than 500 years earlier than previously thought for this region. There is a clear developmental connection between reduced hunting intensity and the uptake of ungulate management, confirming that this process began in response to local, density-dependent demographic factors...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915206/ossification-of-the-ligamentum-flavum-in-a-nineteenth-century-skeletal-population-sample-from-ireland-using-bioarchaeology-to-reveal-a-neglected-spine-pathology
#2
Jonny Geber, Niels Hammer
Ossification of the ligamentum flavum of the spine (OLF) is rarely reported in individuals of European ancestry. It has, however, been observed in archaeological skeletons from Europe. The aim of this study was to revisit OLF rates, utilising a mid-nineteenth-century skeletal sample from Ireland. The hypothesis was that the OLF prevalence rate was similar to studies on non-Europeans. Spines from 345 individuals were analysed, and the extent of OLF recorded on the cranial and caudal attachment sites of each vertebra using the following classification system: Grade 0 (no change); Grade 1 (<2 mm); Grade 2 (2-4 mm); Grade 3 (≥4 mm)...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915063/reassessing-the-chronology-of-the-archaeological-site-of-anzick
#3
Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Michael R Waters, Thomas W Stafford, Sarah L Anzick, Daniel Comeskey, Thibaut Devièse, Thomas Higham
Found in 1968, the archaeological site of Anzick, Montana, contains the only known Clovis burial. Here, the partial remains of a male infant, Anzick-1, were found in association with a Clovis assemblage of over 100 lithic and osseous artifacts-all red-stained with ochre. The incomplete, unstained cranium of an unassociated, geologically younger individual, Anzick-2, was also recovered. Previous chronometric work has shown an age difference between Anzick-1 and the Clovis assemblage (represented by dates from two antler rod samples)...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907541/therapeutic-tattooing-in-the-arctic-ethnographic-archaeological-and-ontological-frameworks-of-analysis
#4
Lars Krutak
This essay describes the potential for using ethnographic evidence and mummified tattooed skin to reflect on past therapeutic tattoo practice in the Arctic. It also considers the ways in which circumpolar concepts of disease emerged in relation to the agency of nonhuman entities. I argue that specific forms of curative tattooing offer interpretive models for the paleopathological and bioarchaeological study of care through an ontological framework of analysis.
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906668/elongated-odontoid-process-in-late-holocene-skeletal-remains-from-b6-archaeological-site-mendoza-argentina
#5
J A Suby, P Novellino, G Da Peña, C D Pandiani
The odontoid process of the axis can be affected by congenital or acquired pathologies. While abnormalities such as os odontoideum, agenesis, and fractures are reported in archaeological remains, the abnormality of an elongated length of the odontoid process has not been described in the paleopathological literature. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two individuals with elongated odontoid processes from a skeletal assemblage from the B6 archaeological site (Mendoza, Argentina), and to discuss the possible etiologies of the condition, with particular attention given to the relation to trauma and Crowned Dens Syndrome (CDS), a condition characterized by the ossification of ligaments of the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904060/complex-history-of-dog-canis-familiaris-origins-and-translocations-in-the-pacific-revealed-by-ancient-mitogenomes
#6
K Greig, A Gosling, C J Collins, J Boocock, K McDonald, D J Addison, M S Allen, B David, M Gibbs, C F W Higham, F Liu, I J McNiven, S O'Connor, C H Tsang, R Walter, E Matisoo-Smith
Archaeological evidence suggests that dogs were introduced to the islands of Oceania via Island Southeast Asia around 3,300 years ago, and reached the eastern islands of Polynesia by the fourteenth century AD. This dispersal is intimately tied to human expansion, but the involvement of dogs in Pacific migrations is not well understood. Our analyses of seven new complete ancient mitogenomes and five partial mtDNA sequences from archaeological dog specimens from Mainland and Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific suggests at least three dog dispersal events into the region, in addition to the introduction of dingoes to Australia...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903903/reply-to-tosh-et-al-quantitative-analyses-of-cultural-evolution-require-engagement-with-historical-and-archaeological-research
#7
Thomas E Currie, Peter Turchin, Harvey Whitehouse, Pieter François, Kevin Feeney, Daniel Mullins, Daniel Hoyer, Christina Collins, Stephanie Grohmann, Patrick Savage, Gavin Mendel-Gleason, Edward Turner, Agathe Dupeyron, Enrico Cioni, Jenny Reddish, Jill Levine, Greine Jordan, Eva Brandl, Alice Williams, Rudolf Cesaretti, Marta Krueger, Alessandro Ceccarelli, Joe Figliulo-Rosswurm, Po-Ju Tuan, Peter Peregrine, Arkadiusz Marciniak, Johannes Preiser-Kapeller, Nikolay Kradin, Andrey Korotayev, Alessio Palmisano, David Baker, Julye Bidmead, Peter Bol, David Christian, Connie Cook, Alan Covey, Gary Feinman, Árni Daníel Júlíusson, Axel Kristinsson, John Miksic, Ruth Mostern, Cameron Petrie, Peter Rudiak-Gould, Barend Ter Haar, Vesna Wallace, Victor Mair, Liye Xie, John Baines, Elizabeth Bridges, Joseph Manning, Bruce Lockhart, Amy Bogaard, Charles Spencer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902771/a-non-invasive-spectroscopic-study-to-evaluate-both-technological-features-and-conservation-state-of-two-types-of-ancient-roman-coloured-bricks
#8
C Scatigno, N Prieto-Taboada, M Preite Martinez, A M Conte, J M Madariaga
The study of both original and decaying compounds is relevant in understanding the chemistry behind the deterioration processes, above all in open museum contexts where environmental stressors affect the artefacts. In this sense, a combination of non-invasive spectroscopy techniques (Raman spectroscopy, μ-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) was applied on an ancient Roman building (130 CE), the "Casa di Diana" Mithraeum at Ostia Antica archaeological site. The aim is to study the raw materials, manufacturing and decaying products of the two observed types of Roman fired bricks (red and yellow) that compose the building...
June 7, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902271/the-archaeological-evidence-for-the-appearance-of-pastoralism-and-farming-in-southern-africa
#9
Faye Lander, Thembi Russell
This paper is a response to the growing reference to archaeological evidence by linguists and geneticists interested in the spread of early farmers and pastoralists in southern Africa. It presents two databases. The first contains the archaeological evidence for pastoralism and farming in southern Africa, for the period 550 BC to AD 1050. This is the first time that the seven different types of archaeological evidence that have traditionally been used to identify both spread events are presented together at this scale...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902207/soil-analysis-in-discussions-of-agricultural-feasibility-for-ancient-civilizations-a-critical-review-and-reanalysis-of-the-data-and-debate-from-chaco-canyon-new-mexico
#10
Jon-Paul P McCool, Samantha G Fladd, Vernon L Scarborough, Stephen Plog, Nicholas P Dunning, Lewis A Owen, Adam S Watson, Katelyn J Bishop, Brooke E Crowley, Elizabeth A Haussner, Kenneth B Tankersley, David Lentz, Christopher Carr, Jessica L Thress
Questions about how archaeological populations obtained basic food supplies are often difficult to answer. The application of specialist techniques from non-archaeological fields typically expands our knowledge base, but can be detrimental to cultural interpretations if employed incorrectly, resulting in problematic datasets and erroneous conclusions not easily caught by the recipient archaeological community. One area where this problem has failed to find resolution is Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, the center of one of the New World's most vibrant ancient civilizations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895688/ancient-genomes-from-north-africa-evidence-prehistoric-migrations-to-the-maghreb-from-both-the-levant-and-europe
#11
Rosa Fregel, Fernando L Méndez, Youssef Bokbot, Dimas Martín-Socas, María D Camalich-Massieu, Jonathan Santana, Jacob Morales, María C Ávila-Arcos, Peter A Underhill, Beth Shapiro, Genevieve Wojcik, Morten Rasmussen, André E R Soares, Joshua Kapp, Alexandra Sockell, Francisco J Rodríguez-Santos, Abdeslam Mikdad, Aioze Trujillo-Mederos, Carlos D Bustamante
The extent to which prehistoric migrations of farmers influenced the genetic pool of western North Africans remains unclear. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Neolithization process may have happened through the adoption of innovations by local Epipaleolithic communities or by demic diffusion from the Eastern Mediterranean shores or Iberia. Here, we present an analysis of individuals' genome sequences from Early and Late Neolithic sites in Morocco and from Early Neolithic individuals from southern Iberia...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892345/organizational-complexity-and-demographic-scale-in-primary-states
#12
David S Sandeford
The relationship between organizational complexity and demographic scale is an enduring research problem at the intersection of the natural and social sciences and has far reaching implications for the study of social evolution, particularly the emergence and collapse of complex social organizations such as chiefdoms, states and empires. Anthropological models of social evolution universally assume that population growth plays a critical role in the development of organizational complexity; however, the relationship between organizational complexity and demographic scale has not been formalized and cross-culturally validated...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887372/a-probable-case-of-metastatic-carcinoma-in-the-medieval-netherlands
#13
Rachel Schats, Menno Hoogland, Andrea Waters-Rist
Despite recent considerable gains, our knowledge of cancer in antiquity is still limited. This paper discusses an adult individual from a Dutch medieval hospital site who demonstrates osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions on the ribs, scapula, clavicle, and vertebrae. The morphology, radiographic appearance, and distribution of the skeletal lesions suggest that this individual was affected by metastatic carcinoma. This case increases the number of publications that present an osteoblastic and osteolytic response to cancer and contributes to the body of evidence for archaeological neoplastic disease...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886427/feet-and-fertility-in-the-healing-temples-a-symbolic-communication-system-between-gods-and-men
#14
Marco Cilione, Silvia Marinozzi, Valentina Gazzaniga
Anatomical ex-votos of feet have always been interpreted as representing the unhealthy part of the body for which patients were asking healing. However, according to the archaeological data and literary sources, another interpretation is also possible: the purpose of this article is to focus on the strong relationship between feet and fertility in the ancient world by cross-referencing the available archaeological evidence with the scientific data relating to this topic. That shed light on an important aspect of the Healing Temples in Greek and Roman medicine...
June 9, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880321/earliest-probable-case-of-mueller-weiss-disease-from-ancient-egypt
#15
Riccardo Chiavegatti, Paula Canales, Eduardo Saldias, Albert Isidro
Mueller-Weiss disease is an alteration of the tarsal navicular that is primarily due to anomalous ossification of the bone and lateral deviation of the talar head associated with screw-like movement through the axis of the subtalar joint. This syndrome tends to be associated with various degrees of flatfoot and hindfoot valgus combined with subtalar joint varus. Ancient cases of Mueller-Weiss disease have not been described in specialized literature. We present the case of an adult male from the Hellenistic period (Ptolemaic dynasty; fourth to first century BC), the skeleton for which was found inside a sarcophagus in the archaeological site of Sharuna (middle Egypt) with Mueller-Weiss disease...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874634/in-situ-multianalytical-approach-to-analyze-and-compare-the-degradation-pathways-jeopardizing-two-murals-exposed-to-different-environments-ariadne-house-pompeii-italy
#16
M Veneranda, N Prieto-Taboada, S Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, M Maguregui, H Morillas, I Marcaida, K Castro, F-J Garcia-Diego, M Osanna, J M Madariaga
This study aimed at using portable analytical techniques to characterize original and decayed materials from two murals paintings of Ariadne House (archaeological site of Pompeii, Italy) and define the degradation pathways threatening their conservation. The first wall, located in an outdoor environment, has been directly exposed to degradation processes triggered by weathering and atmospheric pollution. The second wall, placed in a basement under the ground floor, has been constantly sheltered from sunlight exposure and drastic temperature fluctuations...
May 29, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874227/rare-late-pleistocene-early-holocene-human-mandibles-from-the-niah-caves-sarawak-borneo
#17
Darren Curnoe, Ipoi Datan, Jian-Xin Zhao, Charles Leh Moi Ung, Maxime Aubert, Mohammed S Sauffi, Goh Hsiao Mei, Raynold Mendoza, Paul S C Taçon
The skeletal remains of Late Pleistocene-early Holocene humans are exceptionally rare in island Southeast Asia. As a result, the identity and physical adaptations of the early inhabitants of the region are poorly known. One archaeological locality that has historically been important for understanding the peopling of island Southeast Asia is the Niah Caves in the northeast of Borneo. Here we present the results of direct Uranium-series dating and the first published descriptions of three partial human mandibles from the West Mouth of the Niah Caves recovered during excavations by the Harrissons in 1957...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866832/restructuring-of-nutrient-flows-in-island-ecosystems-following-human-colonization-evidenced-by-isotopic-analysis-of-commensal-rats
#18
Jillian A Swift, Patrick Roberts, Nicole Boivin, Patrick V Kirch
The role of humans in shaping local ecosystems is an increasing focus of archaeological research, yet researchers often lack an appropriate means of measuring past anthropogenic effects on local food webs and nutrient cycling. Stable isotope analysis of commensal animals provides an effective proxy for local human environments because these species are closely associated with human activities without being under direct human management. Such species are thus central to nutrient flows across a range of socionatural environments and can provide insight into how they intersected and transformed over time...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864597/the-use-of-warmed-ethyl-vinyl-acetate-in-reassembling-skeletal-remains
#19
Stephen Knott
Fragmentation of skeletal material is a common occurrence in archaeological excavations and during forensic investigations. Traditionally the reconstruction of skeletal fragments has relied on the use of adhesive tapes, waxes and glues. The application of warmed ethyl vinyl acetate or EVA enables precise anatomical location without damage to the skeletal material. If reversal is required, the EVA can be removed without damage. This inexpensive technique will enhance the capabilities of research investigators when reconstructing skeletal remains...
May 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864147/phytoliths-as-an-indicator-of-early-modern-humans-plant-gathering-strategies-fire-fuel-and-site-occupation-intensity-during-the-middle-stone-age-at-pinnacle-point-5-6-south-coast-south-africa
#20
Irene Esteban, Curtis W Marean, Erich C Fisher, Panagiotis Karkanas, Dan Cabanes, Rosa M Albert
The study of plant remains in archaeological sites, along with a better understanding of the use of plants by prehistoric populations, can help us shed light on changes in survival strategies of hunter-gatherers and consequent impacts on modern human cognition, social organization, and technology. The archaeological locality of Pinnacle Point (Mossel Bay, South Africa) includes a series of coastal caves, rock-shelters, and open-air sites with human occupations spanning the Acheulian through Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA)...
2018: PloS One
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