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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444234/inferring-allele-frequency-trajectories-from-ancient-dna-indicates-that-selection-on-a-chicken-gene-coincided-with-changes-in-medieval-husbandry-practices
#1
Liisa Loog, Mark G Thomas, Ross Barnett, Richard Allen, Naomi Sykes, Ptolemaios D Paxinos, Ophelie Lebrasseur, Keith Dobney, Joris Peters, Andrea Manica, Greger Larson, Anders Eriksson
Ancient DNA provides an opportunity to infer the drivers of natural selection by linking allele frequency changes to temporal shifts in environment or cultural practices. However, analyses have often been hampered by uneven sampling and uncertainties in sample dating, as well as being confounded by demographic processes. Here we present a Bayesian statistical framework for quantifying the timing and strength of selection using ancient DNA that explicitly addresses these challenges. We applied this method to time series data for two loci: TSHR and BCDO2, both argued to have undergone strong and recent selection in domestic chickens...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436665/intra-and-interskeletal-proteome-variations-in-fresh-and-buried-bones
#2
Noemi Procopio, Andrew T Chamberlain, Michael Buckley
Proteomic methods are acquiring greater importance in archaeology and palaeontology due to the longevity of proteins in skeletal remains. There are also developing interests in forensic applications, offering the potential to shed light on post-mortem intervals and age at death estimation. However, our understanding of intra- and interskeletal proteome variations is currently severely limited. Here, we evaluated the proteomes obtained from five distinct subsamples of different skeletal elements from buried pig carcasses to ascertain the extent of variation within and between individuals...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434795/near-eastern-plant-domestication-a-history-of-thought
#3
REVIEW
Shahal Abbo, Avi Gopher
The Agricultural Revolution and plant domestication in the Near East (among its components) have fascinated generations of scholars. Here, we narrate the history of ideas underlying plant domestication research since the late 19th century. Biological and cultural perspectives are presented through two prevailing models: one views plant domestication as a protracted, unconscious evolutionary mutualistic (noncentric) process. The second advocates a punctuated, knowledge-based human initiative (centric). We scrutinize the research landscape while assessing the underlying evolutionary and cultural mechanisms...
April 20, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434538/thinking-locally-environmental-reconstruction-of-middle-and-later-stone-age-archaeological-sites-in-ethiopia-kenya-and-zambia-based-on-ungulate-stable-isotopes
#4
Joshua R Robinson
Our knowledge of the Pleistocene environments of Africa consists primarily of data at a scale too coarse to capture the full habitat variation important to hominins 'on the ground.' These environments are complex, highly variable, and poorly understood. As such, data from individual sites are a needed addition to our current paleoenvironmental reconstructions. This study offers a site-based approach focusing on stable isotope analyses of fossil faunal tooth enamel from three archaeological sites in tropical Africa...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429066/atmospheric-pressure-maldi-for-the-noninvasive-characterization-of-carbonaceous-ink-from-renaissance-documents
#5
Giuseppe Grasso, Marzia Calcagno, Alessandro Rapisarda, Roberta D'Agata, Giuseppe Spoto
The analytical methods that are usually applied to determine the compositions of inks from ancient manuscripts usually focus on inorganic components, as in the case of iron gall ink. In this work, we describe the use of atmospheric pressure/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (AP/MALDI-MS) as a spatially resolved analytical technique for the study of the organic carbonaceous components of inks used in handwritten parts of ancient books for the first time. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (L-PAH) were identified in situ in the ink of XVII century handwritten documents...
April 21, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426839/medical-history-in-the-hellenic-journal-of-nuclear-medicine
#6
EDITORIAL
Andreas Otte, Byeong Cheol Ahn
The Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine is about to celebrate its 20th anniversary end of 2017. On board of the editorial team since 2003, this journal has influenced me like a good friend over the many past years. From time to time, the journal has published interesting and valuable historical notes. They show that nuclear medicine has a history and that medicine is its basis. They also teach us today, and some of the ancient perspectives and approaches are still valid. The reader of HJNM may be interested in these historical contributions, as they are timeless...
January 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426763/individual-based-modelling-of-population-growth-and-diffusion-in-discrete-time
#7
Natalie Tkachenko, John D Weissmann, Wesley P Petersen, George Lake, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Simone Callegari
Individual-based models (IBMs) of human populations capture spatio-temporal dynamics using rules that govern the birth, behavior, and death of individuals. We explore a stochastic IBM of logistic growth-diffusion with constant time steps and independent, simultaneous actions of birth, death, and movement that approaches the Fisher-Kolmogorov model in the continuum limit. This model is well-suited to parallelization on high-performance computers. We explore its emergent properties with analytical approximations and numerical simulations in parameter ranges relevant to human population dynamics and ecology, and reproduce continuous-time results in the limit of small transition probabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423023/nanoscale-modifications-in-the-early-heating-stages-of-bone-are-heterogeneous-at-the-microstructural-scale
#8
Aurélien Gourrier, Céline Chadefaux, Estelle Lemaitre, Ludovic Bellot-Gurlet, Michael Reynolds, Manfred Burghammer, Marie Plazanet, Georges Boivin, Delphine Farlay, Oliver Bunk, Ina Reiche
Nanoscale studies of bone provide key indicators to evidence subtle structural changes that may occur in the biomedical, forensic and archaeological contexts. One specific problem encountered in all those disciplines, for which the identification of nanostructural cues could prove useful, is to properly monitor the effect of heating on bone tissue. In particular, the mechanisms at work at the onset of heating are still relatively unclear. Using a multiscale approach combining Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron quantitative scanning small-angle X-ray scattering imaging (qsSAXSI) and polarized light (PL) microscopy, we investigate the ultrastructure of cortical bovine bone heated at temperatures < 300°C, from the molecular to the macroscopic scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419880/trepanation-practices-in-asclepieia-systematizing-a-neurosurgerical-innovation
#9
REVIEW
Gregory Tsoucalas, Antonis A Kousoulis, Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos, Markos Sgantzos
As ancient Greeks started looking for deities that could fulfil the pragmatic needs of common people, local heroes started being mythologized and worshipped through cults. The most widespread such example was Asclepius, possibly a skilled war surgeon who followed military expeditions to Colchis and Troy. He was worshipped at religious temples called Asclepieia where certain specific medical and surgical techniques were followed. The most advanced must have been skull trepanation, most likely done as an acute operation to release intracranial pressure...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411821/electrochemical-discrimination-of-mints-the-last-chinese-emperors-kuang-hs%C3%A3-and-hs%C3%A3-an-t-ung-monetary-unification
#10
Antonio Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa Doménech-Carbó, Elena Montagna, Carla Álvarez-Romero, Yu Lee
An electrochemical methodology for discriminating monetary emissions, a recurrent problem in much archaeological studies, is introduced. The method is based on the record of voltammetric signatures of cuprite and tenorite corrosion products in the patina using a minimally invasive nanosampling following the voltammetry of immobilized particles methodology. A model for the depth variation of voltammetric electrochemical parameters characterizing the composition of the corrosion patinas is presented. This model permits to rationalize electrochemical data and discriminate different monetary emissions...
July 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407333/bioarchaeological-profile-of-stress-and-dental-disease-among-ancient-high-altitude-himalayan-communities-of-nepal
#11
Jacqueline T Eng, Mark Aldenderfer
OBJECTIVES: This study examines biological indicators of dental disease and nonspecific stress in human remains of three high altitude Himalayan archaeological sites to test whether shared ecological constraints led to similar bioarchaeological profiles in these markers. METHODS: Samples (n = 170) derive from three sites in Nepal dating to two periods (400-50 BCE and c. 400-650 CE). Dental diseases (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and abscesses) were assessed by both the number of individuals and the number of elements observed, while childhood stress markers included observation of growth disruptions (enamel hypoplasia and adult femur length/stature) and cranial porosities...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399298/an-early-holocene-record-of-cimex-hemiptera-cimicidae-from-western-north-america
#12
Martin E Adams, Dennis L Jenkins
The subfossil remains of 14 cimicids (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) were recovered during archaeological investigations of the Paisley Five Mile Point Cave site (35LK3400), an exceptionally well-dated (n = 229 radiocarbon dates) late Pleistocene-early Holocene rock shelter site in south-central Oregon. Nine of the specimens have been assigned to three modern species of Nearctic Cimicidae-Cimex antennatus Usinger & Ueshima, Cimex latipennis Usinger & Ueshima, and Cimex pilosellus (Horváth)-whereas the remaining five individuals were too fragmentary to positively identify...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391747/a-foetal-tile-from-an-archaeological-site-anthropological-investigation-of-human-remains-recovered-in-a-medieval-cemetery-in-northern-italy
#13
Marta Licata, Chiara Rossetti, Adelaide Tosi, Paola Badino
BACKGROUND: The recovery of foetal remains is very sporadic in archaeology, especially due the scarce degree of bone mineralisation. This paper presents the singular archaeological discovery of a foetal tile preserving the bone remains, object of our anthropological examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The foetal tile was discovered during an archaeological excavation in a medieval site (Northern Italy). The tile was analysed by CT scan and later, human remains were anthropologically examined...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389681/-adna-research-from-a%C3%A2-historical-perspective
#14
Elsbeth Bösl
aDNA studies are a cooperative field of research with a broad range of applications including evolutionary biology, genetics, anthropology and archaeology. Scientists are using ancient molecules as source material for historical questions. Colleagues from the humanities are observing this with both interest and concern because aDNA research is affecting academic identities and both concepts of history and historiography. aDNA research developed in a way that can be described as a Hype Cycle (Chackie Fenn)...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386446/early-animal-farming-and-zoonotic-disease-dynamics-modelling-brucellosis-transmission-in-neolithic-goat-populations
#15
Guillaume Fournié, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Robin Bendrey
Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386123/eastern-mediterranean-mobility-in-the-bronze-and-early-iron-ages-inferences-from-ancient-dna-of-pigs-and-cattle
#16
Meirav Meiri, Philipp W Stockhammer, Nimrod Marom, Guy Bar-Oz, Lidar Sapir-Hen, Peggy Morgenstern, Stella Macheridis, Baruch Rosen, Dorothée Huchon, Joseph Maran, Israel Finkelstein
The Late Bronze of the Eastern Mediterranean (1550-1150 BCE) was a period of strong commercial relations and great prosperity, which ended in collapse and migration of groups to the Levant. Here we aim at studying the translocation of cattle and pigs during this period. We sequenced the first ancient mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA of cattle from Greece and Israel and compared the results with morphometric analysis of the metacarpal in cattle. We also increased previous ancient pig DNA datasets from Israel and extracted the first mitochondrial DNA for samples from Greece...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382719/ancient-mitochondrial-dna-and-ancestry-of-paquim%C3%A3-inhabitants-casas-grandes-a-d-1200-1450
#17
Ana Y Morales-Arce, Meradeth H Snow, Jane H Kelley, M Anne Katzenberg
OBJECTIVES: The Casas Grandes (Paquimé) culture, located in the Northwest of Chihuahua, Mexico reached its apogee during the Medio Period (A.D. 1200-1450). Paquimé was abandoned by the end of the Medio Period (A.D. 1450), and the ancestry of its inhabitants remains unsolved. Some authors suggest that waves of Mesoamerican immigrants, possibly merchants, stimulated Paquimé's development during the Medio Period. Archaeological evidence suggests possible ties to groups that inhabited the Southwestern US cultures...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382011/demonstration-and-pantomime-in-the-evolution-of-teaching
#18
Peter Gärdenfors
Donald proposes that early Homo evolved mimesis as a new form of cognition. This article investigates the mimesis hypothesis in relation to the evolution of teaching. The fundamental capacities that distinguish hominin teaching from that of other animals are demonstration and pantomime. A conceptual analysis of the instructional and communicative functions of demonstration and pantomime is presented. Archaeological evidence that demonstration was used for transmitting the Oldowan technology is summarized. It is argued that pantomime develops out of demonstration so that the primary objective of pantomime is that the onlooker learns the motoric patterns shown in the pantomime...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377518/ancient-individuals-from-the-north-american-northwest-coast-reveal-10-000-years-of-regional-genetic-continuity
#19
John Lindo, Alessandro Achilli, Ugo A Perego, David Archer, Cristina Valdiosera, Barbara Petzelt, Joycelynn Mitchell, Rosita Worl, E James Dixon, Terence E Fifield, Morten Rasmussen, Eske Willerslev, Jerome S Cybulski, Brian M Kemp, Michael DeGiorgio, Ripan S Malhi
Recent genomic studies of both ancient and modern indigenous people of the Americas have shed light on the demographic processes involved during the first peopling. The Pacific Northwest Coast proves an intriguing focus for these studies because of its association with coastal migration models and genetic ancestral patterns that are difficult to reconcile with modern DNA alone. Here, we report the low-coverage genome sequence of an ancient individual known as "Shuká Káa" ("Man Ahead of Us") recovered from the On Your Knees Cave (OYKC) in southeastern Alaska (archaeological site 49-PET-408)...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365126/prehistoric-funerary-complexity-in-northern-iberia-studied-by-using-dental-morphology
#20
Diego López-Onaindia, M Eulàlia Subirà
During the Neolithic Age and afterwards, several funerary practices coexisted in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. According to archaeological data, there was a coexistence of sepulchral caves and megalithic monuments at the end of the Neolithic, following the dominance of open-air pit burials during the Middle Neolithic. The aim of this work is to analyze the biological relationships between individuals representing those cultures, based on their dental morphology - the first such attempt...
March 9, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
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