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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525980/the-distribution-of-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroup-h-in-southern-iberia-indicates-ancient-human-genetic-exchanges-along-the-western-edge-of-the-mediterranean
#1
Candela L Hernández, Jean M Dugoujon, Andrea Novelletto, Juan N Rodríguez, Pedro Cuesta, Rosario Calderón
BACKGROUND: The structure of haplogroup H reveals significant differences between the western and eastern edges of the Mediterranean, as well as between the northern and southern regions. Human populations along the westernmost Mediterranean coasts, which were settled by individuals from two continents separated by a relatively narrow body of water, show the highest frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroup H. These characteristics permit the analysis of ancient migrations between both shores, which may have occurred via primitive sea crafts and early seafaring...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521913/a-6500-year-old-middle-neolithic-child-from-pollera-cave-liguria-italy-with-probable-multifocal-osteoarticular-tuberculosis
#2
Vitale S Sparacello, Charlotte A Roberts, Ammielle Kerudin, Romy Müller
Clear skeletal evidence of prehistoric tuberculosis (TB) is rare, especially in children. We describe and differentially diagnose the pathological changes displayed by a five-year-old child, Pollera 21 (PO21) dated to the Middle Neolithic of Liguria (Italy), or 5740±30 BP (Beta-409341; 6635-6453cal BP, 2σ, OxCal 4.2). PO21 shows a number of osteoarticular lesions, mainly of a lytic nature with very little bone proliferation: the vertebral column, the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the ribcage are involved...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521910/life-not-death-epidemiology-from-skeletons
#3
George R Milner, Jesper L Boldsen
Analytically sophisticated paleoepidemiology is a relatively new development in the characterization of past life experiences. It is based on sound paleopathological observations, accurate age-at-death estimates, an explicit engagement with the nature of mortality samples, and analytical procedures that owe much to epidemiology. Of foremost importance is an emphasis on people, not skeletons. Transforming information gleaned from the dead, a biased sample of individuals who were once alive at each age, into a form that is informative about past life experiences has been a major challenge for bioarchaeologists, but recent work shows it can be done...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521909/proximal-interphalangeal-joint-ankylosis-in-an-early-medieval-horse-from-wroc%C3%A5-aw-cathedral-island-poland
#4
Maciej Janeczek, Aleksander Chrószcz, Vedat Onar, Radomir Henklewski, Aleksandra Skalec
Animal remains that are unearthed during archaeological excavations often provide useful information about socio-cultural context, including human habits, beliefs, and ancestral relationships. In this report, we present pathologically altered equine first and second phalanges from an 11th century specimen that was excavated at Wrocław Cathedral Island, Poland. The results of gross examination, radiography, and computed tomography, indicate osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint, with partial ankylosis...
June 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520745/high-handaxe-symmetry-at-the-beginning-of-the-european-acheulian-the-data-from-la-noira-france-in-context
#5
Radu Iovita, Inbal Tuvi-Arad, Marie-Hélène Moncel, Jackie Despriée, Pierre Voinchet, Jean-Jacques Bahain
In the last few decades, new discoveries have pushed the beginning of the biface-rich European Acheulian from 500 thousand years (ka) ago back to at least 700 ka, and possibly to 1 million years (Ma) ago. It remains, however, unclear to date if handaxes arrived in Europe as a fully developed technology or if they evolved locally from core-and-flake industries. This issue is also linked with another long-standing debate on the existence and behavioral, cognitive, and social meaning of a possibly chronological trend for increased handaxe symmetry throughout the Lower Paleolithic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511559/migrating-microbes-what-pathogens-can-tell-us-about-population-movements-and-human-evolution
#6
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Riaan F Rifkin, Simon J Underdown
BACKGROUND: The biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. While many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. The story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. The evolution and distribution of disease in Africa is of particular interest, because of the deep history of human evolution in Africa, the presence of a variety of non-human primates, and tropical reservoirs of emerging infectious diseases...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510186/broomcorn-and-foxtail-millet-were-cultivated-in-taiwan-about-5000%C3%A2-years-ago
#7
Chen-Hwa Tsang, Kuang-Ti Li, Tze-Fu Hsu, Yuan-Ching Tsai, Po-Hsuan Fang, Yue-Ie Caroline Hsing
BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical remains of millet were found at the Nan-kuan-li East site in Tainan Science Park, southern Taiwan. This site, dated around 5000-4300 BP, is characterized by remains of the Tapenkeng culture, the earliest Neolithic culture found so far in Taiwan. A large number of millet-like carbonized and charred seeds with varied sizes and shapes were unearthed from the site by the flotation method. Since no millet grain was ever found archaeologically in Taiwan previously, this discovery is of great importance and significance...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490768/analytical-evidence-of-enamel-hypomineralisation-on-permanent-and-primary-molars-amongst-past-populations
#8
Elsa Garot, Christine Couture-Veschambre, David Manton, Cédric Beauval, Patrick Rouas
Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) involve prevalent qualitative structural developmental anomalies of tooth enamel affecting the first permanent molars (and often incisors) and the second primary molars, respectively. These demarcated hypomineralised lesions of enamel manifest as white-cream or yellow-brown opacities, with possible post-eruptive localised loss of enamel. Aetiological hypotheses have involved contemporary life factors (i.e. environmental pollutant exposure or early childhood medications) in contrast to factors not limited to a specific time period (i...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489015/tracking-the-evolution-of-causal-cognition-in-humans
#9
Marlize Lombard, Peter Gärdenfors
We suggest a seven-grade model for the evolution of causal cognition as a framework that can be used to gauge variation in the complexity of causal reasoning from the panin-hominin split until the appearance of cognitively modern hunter-gatherer communities. The intention is to put forward a cohesive model for the evolution of causal cognition in humans, which can be assessed against increasingly fine-grained empirical data from the palaeoanthropological and archaeological records. We propose that the tracking behaviour (i...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486705/a-new-model-for-ancient-dna-decay-based-on-paleogenomic-meta-analysis
#10
Logan Kistler, Roselyn Ware, Oliver Smith, Matthew Collins, Robin G Allaby
The persistence of DNA over archaeological and paleontological timescales in diverse environments has led to a revolutionary body of paleogenomic research, yet the dynamics of DNA degradation are still poorly understood. We analyzed 185 paleogenomic datasets and compared DNA survival with environmental variables and sample ages. We find cytosine deamination follows a conventional thermal age model, but we find no correlation between DNA fragmentation and sample age over the timespans analyzed, even when controlling for environmental variables...
May 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484806/chemical-characterisation-of-the-whole-plant-cell-wall-of-archaeological-wood-an-integrated-approach
#11
Luca Zoia, Diego Tamburini, Marco Orlandi, Jeannette Jacqueline Łucejko, Anika Salanti, Eeva-Liisa Tolppa, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini
Wood artefacts undergo complex alteration and degradation during ageing, and gaining information on the chemical composition of wood in archaeological artefacts is fundamental to plan conservation strategies. In this work, an integrated analytical approach based on innovative NMR spectroscopy procedures, gel permeation chromatography and analytical pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was applied for the first time on archaeological wood from the Oseberg collection (Norway), in order to evaluate the chemical state of preservation of the wood components, without separating them...
May 8, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484618/detecting-taxonomic-and-phylogenetic-signals-in-equid-cheek-teeth-towards-new-palaeontological-and-archaeological-proxies
#12
T Cucchi, A Mohaseb, S Peigné, K Debue, L Orlando, M Mashkour
The Plio-Pleistocene evolution of Equus and the subsequent domestication of horses and donkeys remains poorly understood, due to the lack of phenotypic markers capable of tracing this evolutionary process in the palaeontological/archaeological record. Using images from 345 specimens, encompassing 15 extant taxa of equids, we quantified the occlusal enamel folding pattern in four mandibular cheek teeth with a single geometric morphometric protocol. We initially investigated the protocol accuracy by assigning each tooth to its correct anatomical position and taxonomic group...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484253/human-ancestry-correlates-with-language-and-reveals-that-race-is-not-an-objective-genomic-classifier
#13
Jennifer L Baker, Charles N Rotimi, Daniel Shriner
Genetic and archaeological studies have established a sub-Saharan African origin for anatomically modern humans with subsequent migrations out of Africa. Using the largest multi-locus data set known to date, we investigated genetic differentiation of early modern humans, human admixture and migration events, and relationships among ancestries and language groups. We compiled publicly available genome-wide genotype data on 5,966 individuals from 282 global samples, representing 30 primary language families. The best evidence supports 21 ancestries that delineate genetic structure of present-day human populations...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483274/predictive-factors-for-alveolar-fenestration-and-dehiscence
#14
A-M Grimoud, V E Gibbon, I Ribot
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution and incidence of two forms of alveolar bone resorption known as fenestration and dehiscence across time and space. To accomplish this a Medieval French population was studied and the results were compared with other studies to examine incidence and distribution of alveolar bone resorption. Thus, 1175 teeth were analysed for 81 individuals, from an agropastoral Medieval (12th-14th century) archaeological site of Vilarnau located in the South of France...
March 22, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483041/homo-naledi-and-pleistocene-hominin-evolution-in-subequatorial-africa
#15
Lee R Berger, John Hawks, Paul Hgm Dirks, Marina Elliott, Eric M Roberts
New discoveries and dating of fossil remains from the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, have strong implications for our understanding of Pleistocene human evolution in Africa. Direct dating of Homo naledi fossils from the Dinaledi Chamber (Berger et al., 2015) shows that they were deposited between about 236 ka and 335 ka (Dirks et al., 2017), placing H. naledi in the later Middle Pleistocene. Hawks and colleagues (Hawks et al., 2017) report the discovery of a second chamber within the Rising Star system (Dirks et al...
May 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480145/insights-of-the-dental-calculi-microbiome-of-pre-columbian-inhabitants-from-puerto-rico
#16
Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Yvonne Narganes-Storde, Luis Chanlatte-Baik, Gary A Toranzos, Raul J Cano
BACKGROUND: The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479520/trepanation-to-treat-a-head-wound-a-case-of-neurosurgery-from-13-th-century-tuscany
#17
REVIEW
Giulia Riccomi, Gino Fornaciari, Angelica Vitiello, Anna Bini, Davide Caramella, Valentina Giuffra
During the archaeological excavations conducted in the 13(th) century cemetery of the Church of S. Agostino in Poggibonsi, Tuscany (Italy), a skull with evidences of neurosurgical intervention was brought to light. The skull, belonging to an adult male, shows two traumatic lesions produced by bladed instruments. The first lesion, located on the anterior part of the parietal bones, involved only the outer cranial table; bone remodeling indicates that the individual survived the injury for a long time. The second lesion, located on the frontal bone, involved all the thickness of the bone; the absence of reparative processes allows a diagnosis of peri mortem lesion...
May 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470204/archaeology-of-rats-and-resilience
#18
Jared Diamond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467628/differences-between-biological-and-chronological-age-at-death-in-human-skeletal-remains-a-change-of-perspective
#19
Lourdes R Couoh
OBJECTIVES: This analysis seeks to determine whether differences between real and estimated chronological age (CA) with biological age (BA) in skeletal individuals reflect variability in aging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 87 individuals of two samples, ranging from 20 to 94 years old, were analyzed. One, partially documented, belongs to a Mexican skeletal collection dating to the 20th century; the other is an assemblage of prehispanic individuals from different archaeological sites...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467343/a-reading-of-archaeological-and-anthropological-results-of-the-second-half-of-the-19th-century-on-paleoanthropological-skull-in-a-prehistoric-cave-of-north-west-lombardy
#20
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