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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338960/organellar-genomes-from-a-%C3%A2-5-000-years-old-archaeological-maize-sample-are-closely-related-to-nb-genotype
#1
Bernardo Pérez-Zamorano, Miguel Vallebueno-Estrada, Javier Martínez González, Angel García Cook, Rafael Montiel, Jean-Philippe Vielle-Calzada, Luis Delaye
The story of how pre-Columbian civilizations developed goes hand-in-hand with the process of plant domestication by Mesoamerican inhabitants. Here we present the almost complete sequence of a mitochondrial genome and a partial chloroplast genome from an archaeological maize sample collected at the Valley of Tehuacán, México. Accelerator mass spectrometry dated the maize sample to be 5,040 to 5,300 years before present (95% probability). Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome shows that the archaeological sample branches basal to the other Zea mays genomes, as expected...
March 17, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335445/deciphering-egyptian-hieroglyphs-towards-a-new-strategy-for-navigation-in-museums
#2
Jaime Duque-Domingo, Pedro Javier Herrera, Enrique Valero, Carlos Cerrada
This work presents a novel strategy to decipher fragments of Egyptian cartouches identifying the hieroglyphs of which they are composed. A cartouche is a drawing, usually inside an oval, that encloses a group of hieroglyphs representing the name of a monarch. Aiming to identify these drawings, the proposed method is based on several techniques frequently used in computer vision and consists of three main stages: first, a picture of the cartouche is taken as input and its contour is localized. In the second stage, each hieroglyph is individually extracted and identified...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334006/assessing-various-infrared-ir-microscopic-imaging-techniques-for-post-mortem-interval-evaluation-of-human-skeletal-remains
#3
Claudia Woess, Seraphin Hubert Unterberger, Clemens Roider, Monika Ritsch-Marte, Nadin Pemberger, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, Petra Hatzer-Grubwieser, Walther Parson, Johannes Dominikus Pallua
Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328951/practising-pastoralism-in-an-agricultural-environment-an-isotopic-analysis-of-the-impact-of-the-hunnic-incursions-on-pannonian-populations
#4
Susanne E Hakenbeck, Jane Evans, Hazel Chapman, Erzsébet Fóthi
We conducted a multi-isotope study of five fifth-century AD cemeteries in modern-day Hungary to determine relationships between nomadic-pastoralist incomers-the historically documented Huns and other nomadic groups-and the sedentary agricultural population of the late Roman province of Pannonia. Contemporary historical sources describe this relationship as adversarial and destructive for the late Roman population, but archaeological evidence indicates high levels of hybridity between different groups. We undertook carbon, nitrogen, strontium and oxygen isotope analyses of bone collagen, dentine and tooth enamel at Keszthely-Fenékpuszta, Hács-Béndekpuszta, Győr-Széchenyi Square, Mözs and Szolnok-Szanda to examine these relationships through past subsistence practices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319276/comparisons-of-statistical-techniques-to-assess-age-related-skeletal-markers-in-bioarchaeology
#5
Colleen M Cheverko, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Many authors argue that inconsistencies between studies of skeletal markers are based on different data collection protocols, especially when comparing age-related markers such as osteoarthritis. Less attention is given to the choice of statistical techniques that are used to test the hypotheses associated with the data. This paper addresses how different statistical techniques compare the prevalence of age-related skeletal indicators, specifically osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in eight postcranial joints in 243 adult individuals from seven prehistoric archaeological sites in Central California, and data was compared between three time periods [Early (4800-2800 BP), Middle (2800-1200 BP), and Late (1200-250 BP)] using commonly used statistical tests: chi-square, Fisher's exact, and odds ratios...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300157/environment-induced-changes-in-selective-constraints-on-social-learning-during-the-peopling-of-the-americas
#6
Briggs Buchanan, Anne Chao, Chun-Huo Chiu, Robert K Colwell, Michael J O'Brien, Angelia Werner, Metin I Eren
The weaponry technology associated with Clovis and related Early Paleoindians represents the earliest well-defined evidence of humans in Pleistocene North America. We assess the technological diversity of these fluted stone points found at archaeological sites in the western and eastern halves of North America by employing statistical tools used in the quantification of ecological biodiversity. Our results demonstrate that the earliest hunters in the environmentally heterogeneous East used a more diverse set of points than those in the environmentally homogenous West...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296963/structural-and-compositional-analysis-of-a-casting-mold-sherd-from-ancient-china
#7
Yunbing Zong, Shengkun Yao, Jianfeng Lang, Xuexiang Chen, Jiadong Fan, Zhibin Sun, Xiulan Duan, Nannan Li, Hui Fang, Guangzhao Zhou, Tiqiao Xiao, Aiguo Li, Huaidong Jiang
Casting had symbolic significance and was strictly controlled in the Shang dynasty of ancient China. Vessel casting was mainly distributed around the Shang capital, Yin Ruins, which indicates a rigorous centralization of authority. Thus, for a casting mold to be excavated far from the capital region is rare. In addition to some bronze vessel molds excavated at the Buyao Village site, another key discovery of a bronze vessel mold occurred at Daxinzhuang. The Daxinzhuang site was a core area in the east of Shang state and is an important site to study the eastward expansion of the Shang...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290309/polydactyly-suggesting-local-husbandry-of-pre-columbian-camelids-a-case-from-castillo-de-huarmey-archaeological-site-northern-coast-of-peru
#8
Weronika Tomczyk, Miłosz Giersz
Three camelid metapodials with polydactyly (additional digits) were found at the Wari culture archaeological site (dated to the Middle Horizon) of Castillo de Huarmey. The anomalous bones were excavated among numerous remains, and presumably represent animals that were sacrificed within the principal mortuary mausoleum. The bones derive from at least two individuals. The etiology of the deformities remains unknown, but the most probable causes include low genetic diversity in the herd or unintended effect of selective breeding...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290306/a-historical-case-of-an-ameloblastoma-from-southern-italy
#9
J Cilli, R D'Anastasio
Jawbones are susceptible to various tumours, some of which originate from dental structures. Here we describe a case of a tumour in a mandible of an old man that was discovered during an archaeological excavation in southern Italy (Torrecuso; 17th-19th centuries). The right mandibular branch presents an extended, multilocular lesion. X-ray analysis shows erosion of the cortical bone layers and the thin trabeculae that circumscribe the lobular areas. Macroscopic and radiological aspects of the mandibular lesion are consistent with an ameloblastoma...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290304/ectopic-eruption-of-a-lower-permanent-molar-from-the-mediaeval-necropolis-of-alc%C3%A3-%C3%A3-ova-do-castelo-m%C3%A3-rtola-portugal
#10
Inês Leandro, Clara Rodrigues, Susana Gómez-Martínez, Cláudia Umbelino
The mediaeval necropolis of Alcáçova do Castelo is located in Mértola, Southern Portugal, and dates from the 14th to the 16th centuries. The archaeological campaigns started in 1978 and continue today, having yielded more than 759 graves. This report discusses an ectopic tooth eruption observed in skeleton 535, an adult female individual. A distal right permanent lower molar presents an ectopic eruption at the posterior margin of the coronoid process. On the opposite side, the first and second permanent molars are present, the left permanent lower third molar is absent and the mandibular ramus cannot be evaluated since it is broken off and lost...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283522/use-of-bacteria-to-stabilize-archaeological-iron
#11
Lucrezia Comensoli, Julien Maillard, Monica Albini, Frederic Sandoz, Pilar Junier, Edith Joseph
Iron artifacts are common among the findings of archaeological excavations. The corrosion layer formed on these objected requires stabilization after their recovery, without which the destruction of the item due to physicochemical damage is likely. Current technologies for the stabilization of the corrosion layer are lengthy and generate hazardous waste products. There is therefore a pressing need for an alternative method to stabilize the corrosion layer on iron objects. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative conservation-restoration method using bacteria...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281649/%C3%AE-15-n-values-in-crassostrea-virginica-shells-provides-early-direct-evidence-for-nitrogen-loading-to-chesapeake-bay
#12
H D Black, C F T Andrus, W J Lambert, T C Rick, D P Gillikin
Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States' east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. Although there have been several sclerochronological studies on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the shells of this species, less is known about δ(15)N values within their shells, which could be a useful paleoenvironmental proxy to assess estuarine nitrogen dynamics. Modern C. virginica samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay for comparison with archaeological shells from nearby sites ranging in age from ~100 to 3,200 years old...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281087/genetic-differentiation-between-upland-and-lowland-populations-shapes-the-y-chromosomal-landscape-of-west-asia
#13
O Balanovsky, M Chukhryaeva, V Zaporozhchenko, V Urasin, M Zhabagin, A Hovhannisyan, A Agdzhoyan, K Dibirova, M Kuznetsova, S Koshel, E Pocheshkhova, I Alborova, R Skhalyakho, O Utevska, Kh Mustafin, L Yepiskoposyan, C Tyler-Smith, E Balanovska
Y-chromosomal variation in West Asian populations has so far been studied in less detail than in the neighboring Europe. Here, we analyzed 598 Y-chromosomes from two West Asian subregions-Transcaucasia and the Armenian plateau-using 40 Y-SNPs and 17 Y-STRs and combined them with previously published data from the region. The West Asian populations fell into two clusters: upland populations from the Anatolian, Armenian and Iranian plateaus, and lowland populations from the Levant, Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula...
April 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277507/archaeology-digital-maps-illuminate-ancient-trade-routes
#14
Michael J Harrower, Ioana A Dumitru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276513/widespread-platinum-anomaly-documented-at-the-younger-dryas-onset-in-north-american-sedimentary-sequences
#15
Christopher R Moore, Allen West, Malcolm A LeCompte, Mark J Brooks, I Randolph Daniel, Albert C Goodyear, Terry A Ferguson, Andrew H Ivester, James K Feathers, James P Kennett, Kenneth B Tankersley, A Victor Adedeji, Ted E Bunch
Previously, a large platinum (Pt) anomaly was reported in the Greenland ice sheet at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) (12,800 Cal B.P.). In order to evaluate its geographic extent, fire-assay and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FA and ICP-MS) elemental analyses were performed on 11 widely separated archaeological bulk sedimentary sequences. We document discovery of a distinct Pt anomaly spread widely across North America and dating to the Younger Dryas (YD) onset. The apparent synchroneity of this widespread YDB Pt anomaly is consistent with Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) data that indicated atmospheric input of platinum-rich dust...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276055/patterns-of-long-bone-growth-in-a-mid-19th-century-documented-sample-of-the-urban-poor-from-bethnal-green-london-uk
#16
Rachel Ives, Louise Humphrey
OBJECTIVES: Studies of male and female long bone growth in past populations are limited and usually constrained by the lack of personal identification. This article aimed to evaluate long bone growth in a series of mid-19(th) century documented burials associated with the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maximum diaphyseal lengths from 74 males and 70 females (2 months to 12 years) were compared to modern reference data from North America...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273067/aboriginal-mitogenomes-reveal-50-000-years-of-regionalism-in-australia
#17
Ray Tobler, Adam Rohrlach, Julien Soubrier, Pere Bover, Bastien Llamas, Jonathan Tuke, Nigel Bean, Ali Abdullah-Highfold, Shane Agius, Amy O'Donoghue, Isabel O'Loughlin, Peter Sutton, Fran Zilio, Keryn Walshe, Alan N Williams, Chris S M Turney, Matthew Williams, Stephen M Richards, Robert J Mitchell, Emma Kowal, John R Stephen, Lesley Williams, Wolfgang Haak, Alan Cooper
Aboriginal Australians represent one of the longest continuous cultural complexes known. Archaeological evidence indicates that Australia and New Guinea were initially settled approximately 50 thousand years ago (ka); however, little is known about the processes underlying the enormous linguistic and phenotypic diversity within Australia. Here we report 111 mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from historical Aboriginal Australian hair samples, whose origins enable us to reconstruct Australian phylogeographic history before European settlement...
March 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266657/diverse-origin-of-mitochondrial-lineages-in-iron-age-black-sea-scythians
#18
Anna Juras, Maja Krzewińska, Alexey G Nikitin, Edvard Ehler, Maciej Chyleński, Sylwia Łukasik, Marta Krenz-Niedbała, Vitaly Sinika, Janusz Piontek, Svetlana Ivanova, Miroslawa Dabert, Anders Götherström
Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264299/-i-cetopirus-complanatus-i-cirripedia-coronulidae-from-the-late-middle-pleistocene-human-settlement-of-pinnacle-point-13b-mossel-bay-south-africa
#19
Alberto Collareta, Curtis W Marean, Antonieta Jerardino, Mark Bosselaers
The late Middle Pleistocene cave site of Pinnacle Point 13B (PP13B, South Africa) has provided the archaeologically oldest evidences yet known of human consumption of marine resources. Among the marine invertebrates recognised at PP13B, an isolated whale barnacle compartment was tentatively determined as Coronula diadema and regarded as indirect evidence of human consumption of a baleen whale (likely Megaptera novaeangliae). In this paper we redetermine this coronulid specimen as Cetopirus complanatus. This record significantly extends the fossil history of C...
February 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259612/the-effect-of-boundary-constraints-on-finite-element-modelling-of-the-human-pelvis
#20
Peter J Watson, Ali Dostanpor, Michael J Fagan, Catherine A Dobson
The use of finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanics of anatomical systems critically relies on the specification of physiologically representative boundary conditions. The biomechanics of the pelvis has been the specific focus of a number of FEA studies previously, but it is also a key aspect in other investigations of, for example, the hip joint or new design of hip prostheses. In those studies, the pelvis has been modelled in a number of ways with a variety of boundary conditions, ranging from a model of the whole pelvic girdle including soft tissue attachments to a model of an isolated hemi-pelvis...
March 1, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
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