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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474448/early-cessation-of-ceramic-production-for-ancestral-polynesian-society-in-tonga
#1
David V Burley, Sean P Connaughton, Geoffrey Clark
Ancestral Polynesian society is the formative base for development of the Polynesian cultural template and proto-Polynesian linguistic stage. Emerging in western Polynesia ca 2700 cal BP, it is correlated in the archaeological record of Tonga with the Polynesian Plainware ceramic phase presently thought to be of approximately 800 years duration or longer. Here we re-establish the upper boundary for this phase to no more than 2350 cal BP employing a suite of 44 new and existing radiocarbon dates from 13 Polynesian Plainware site occupations across the extent of Tonga...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473673/mississippian-subadults-from-the-middle-cumberland-and-eastern-regions-of-tennessee-biological-indicators-of-population-interaction
#2
Rebecca Scopa Kelso
OBJECTIVES: Human subadult skeletal remains can provide a unique perspective into biosocial aspects of Mississippian period population interactions within and between the Middle Cumberland (MCR) and Eastern Tennessee Regions (ETR). The majority of previous studies have concentrated on adult skeletal remains, leaving out a large and extremely important population segment. METHODS: Skeletal indicators of disease, growth, body proportions, and metabolic stress were collected from subadult remains from five archaeological sites over several temporal periods...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472442/ancient-genomes-revisit-the-ancestry-of-domestic-and-przewalski-s-horses
#3
Charleen Gaunitz, Antoine Fages, Kristian Hanghøj, Anders Albrechtsen, Naveed Khan, Mikkel Schubert, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Ivy J Owens, Sabine Felkel, Olivier Bignon-Lau, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Alissa Mittnik, Azadeh F Mohaseb, Hossein Davoudi, Saleh Alquraishi, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Eric Crubézy, Norbert Benecke, Sandra Olsen, Dorcas Brown, David Anthony, Ken Massy, Vladimir Pitulko, Aleksei Kasparov, Gottfried Brem, Michael Hofreiter, Gulmira Mukhtarova, Nurbol Baimukhanov, Lembi Lõugas, Vedat Onar, Philipp W Stockhammer, Johannes Krause, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Sainbileg Undrakhbold, Diimaajav Erdenebaatar, Sébastien Lepetz, Marjan Mashkour, Arne Ludwig, Barbara Wallner, Victor Merz, Ilja Merz, Viktor Zaibert, Eske Willerslev, Pablo Librado, Alan K Outram, Ludovic Orlando
The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5,500 ya, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient and modern horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4,000 ya to present only show ~2...
February 22, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466426/archaeological-and-anthropological-studies-on-the-harappan-cemetery-of-rakhigarhi-india
#4
Vasant S Shinde, Yong Jun Kim, Eun Jin Woo, Nilesh Jadhav, Pranjali Waghmare, Yogesh Yadav, Avradeep Munshi, Malavika Chatterjee, Amrithavalli Panyam, Jong Ha Hong, Chang Seok Oh, Dong Hoon Shin
An insufficient number of archaeological surveys has been carried out to date on Harappan Civilization cemeteries. One case in point is the necropolis at Rakhigarhi site (Haryana, India), one of the largest cities of the Harappan Civilization, where most burials within the cemetery remained uninvestigated. Over the course of the past three seasons (2013 to 2016), we therefore conducted excavations in an attempt to remedy this data shortfall. In brief, we found different kinds of graves co-existing within the Rakhigarhi cemetery in varying proportions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466384/archaeological-application-of-airborne-lidar-to-examine-social-changes-in-the-ceibal-region-of-the-maya-lowlands
#5
Takeshi Inomata, Daniela Triadan, Flory Pinzón, Melissa Burham, José Luis Ranchos, Kazuo Aoyama, Tsuyoshi Haraguchi
Although the application of LiDAR has made significant contributions to archaeology, LiDAR only provides a synchronic view of the current topography. An important challenge for researchers is to extract diachronic information over typically extensive LiDAR-surveyed areas in an efficient manner. By applying an architectural chronology obtained from intensive excavations at the site center and by complementing it with surface collection and test excavations in peripheral zones, we analyze LiDAR data over an area of 470 km2 to trace social changes through time in the Ceibal region, Guatemala, of the Maya lowlands...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458978/the-paleoecology-of-pleistocene-birds-from-middle-bed-ii-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania-and-the-environmental-context-of-the-oldowan-acheulean-transition
#6
Kari A Prassack, Michael C Pante, Jackson K Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
Fossil bird data (community composition and taphonomic profiles) are used here to infer the environmental context of the Oldowan-Acheulean transitional period at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. This is the first comprehensive report on the Middle Bed II avifauna and includes fossils excavated by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) and recently rediscovered fossils collected by Mary Leakey. Crane, ibis, darter, owl, raptor, crow, and vulture are reported from Bed II for the first time. The presence of these taxa, absent earlier in this Bed, point to a general opening and drying of the landscape with grassland and open woodland expansion...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456891/frequency-and-developmental-timing-of-linear-enamel-hypoplasia-defects-in-early-archaic-texan-hunter-gatherers
#7
J Colette Berbesque, Kara C Hoover
Digital photographs taken under controlled conditions were used to examine the incidence of linear enamel hypoplasia defects (LEHs) in burials from the Buckeye Knoll archaeological site (41VT98 Victoria county, Texas), which spans the Early to Late Archaic Period (ca. 2,500-6,500 BP uncorrected radiocarbon). The majority (68 of 74 burials) date to the Texas Early Archaic, including one extremely early burial dated to 8,500 BP. The photogrammetric data collection method also results in an archive for Buckeye Knoll, a significant rare Archaic period collection that has been repatriated and reinterred...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454669/rabbits-and-the-specious-origins-of-domestication
#8
Evan K Irving-Pease, Laurent A F Frantz, Naomi Sykes, Cécile Callou, Greger Larson
Rabbits are commonly thought to have been domesticated in ∼AD600 by French monks. Using historical and archaeological records, and genetic methods, we demonstrate that this is a misconception and the general inability to date domestication stems from both methodological biases and the lack of appreciation of domestication as a continuum.
January 27, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454127/neurosurgery-on-a-pregnant-woman-with-post-mortem-fetal-extrusion-an-unusual-case-from-medieval-italy
#9
REVIEW
Alba Pasini, Vanessa Samantha Manzon, Xabier Gonzalez-Muro, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
Trepanation is one of the most ancient and applied surgical treatments; several archaeologically documented cases are known, dated back from Prehistory to the Middle ages. This case study reports the anthropological analysis of the skeletal remains of a young medieval woman and a fetus (Imola, Italy). The fetal remains were laid between her pelvis and lower limbs. A perforating injury was observed to her frontal bone. After assessing biological profiles, we attempted to interpret the injury and to reconstruct possible circumstances of death...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453358/georeferenced-soil-provenancing-with-digital-signatures
#10
M Tighe, N Forster, C Guppy, D Savage, P Grave, I M Young
The provenance or origin of a soil sample is of interest in soil forensics, archaeology, and biosecurity. In all of these fields, highly specialized and often expensive analysis is usually combined with expert interpretation to estimate sample origin. In this proof of concept study we apply rapid and non-destructive spectral analysis to the question of direct soil provenancing. This approach is based on one of the underlying tenets of soil science - that soil pedogenesis is spatially unique, and thus digital spectral signatures of soil can be related directly, rather than via individual soil properties, to a georeferenced location...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446560/less-of-a-bird-s-song-than-a-hard-rock-ensemble
#11
Robert Hosfield, James Cole, John McNabb
Corbey et al. (2016) propose that the Acheulean handaxe was, at least in part, under genetic control. An alternative perspective is offered here, focusing on the nature of the Acheulean handaxe and the archaeological record, and re-emphasizing their status as cultural artefacts. This is based on four main arguments challenging the proposals of Corbey et al. Firstly, handaxes do not have to track environmental variation to be a cultural artefact, given their role as a hand-held butchery knife or multi-purpose tool...
January 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441608/hyperpolarized-laplace-nmr
#12
Ville-Veikko Telkki
Laplace NMR, dealing with NMR relaxation and diffusion experiments, reveals details of molecular motion and provides chemical resolution complementary to NMR spectra. Laplace NMR has witnessed a great progress in past decades due to the development of methodology and signal processing, and it has lots of extremely interesting applications in various fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, geology, archaeology and medicine. The aim of this minireview is to give a pedagogically oriented overview of Laplace NMR...
February 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440523/current-and-potential-roles-of-archaeology-in-the-development-of-cultural-evolutionary-theory
#13
REVIEW
Raven Garvey
Archaeology has much to contribute to the study of cultural evolution. Empirical data at archaeological timescales are uniquely well suited to tracking rates of cultural change, detecting phylogenetic signals among groups of artefacts, and recognizing long-run effects of distinct cultural transmission mechanisms. Nonetheless, these are still relatively infrequent subjects of archaeological analysis and archaeology's potential to help advance our understanding of cultural evolution has thus far been largely unrealized...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438388/ancient-dna-analysis-of-indigenous-rockfish-use-on-the-pacific-coast-implications-for-marine-conservation-areas-and-fisheries-management
#14
Antonia T Rodrigues, Iain McKechnie, Dongya Y Yang
Rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are a common marine fish in nearshore and continental shelf environments in the North Pacific Ocean. They are frequently identified in coastal archaeological sites in western North America; however, the morphological similarity of rockfish species limits conventional zooarchaeological identifications to the genus level. This study applies ancient DNA analysis to 96 archaeological rockfish specimens from four sites on separate islands in an archipelago on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436511/analysing-the-structure-and-glass-transition-behaviour-of-silks-for-archaeology-and-conservation
#15
Jianlan Wang, Juan Guan, Nicholas Hawkins, Fritz Vollrath
Silk is an iconic material in many cultures. Silk archaeology and conservation is affected by silk production technology as well as subsequent environmental effects such as humidity, temperature, UV radiation and ageing . The complex interactions and various effects on silk materials affect the practical use of silk, for example, in the conservation of ancient manuscripts. This study examines the various influences of silk provenance and processing, adhesive coatings and chemical treatments as well as natural and artificial ageing of the silk material...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434269/archaeology-and-ichnology-at-gombore-ii-2-melka-kunture-ethiopia-everyday-life-of-a-mixed-age-hominin-group-700-000-years-ago
#16
Flavio Altamura, Matthew R Bennett, Kristiaan D'Août, Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Rita T Melis, Sally C Reynolds, Margherita Mussi
We report the occurrence at 0.7 million years (Ma) of an ichnological assemblage at Gombore II-2, which is one of several archaeological sites at Melka Kunture in the upper Awash Valley of Ethiopia, 2000 m asl. Adults and children potentially as young as 12 months old left tracks in a silty substrate on the shore of a body of water where ungulates, as well as other mammals and birds, congregated. Furthermore, the same layers contain a rich archaeological and palaeontological record, confirming that knapping was taking place in situ and that stone tools were used for butchering hippo carcasses at the site...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431155/reconstructing-archaeological-networks-with-structural-holes
#17
Viviana Amati, Termeh Shafie, Ulrik Brandes
Model-based reconstruction is an approach to infer network structures where they cannot be observed. For archaeological networks, several models based on assumptions concerning distance among sites, site size, or costs and benefits have been proposed to infer missing ties. Since these assumptions are formulated at a dyadic level, they do not provide means to express dependencies among ties and therefore include less plausible network scenarios. In this paper we investigate the use of network models that explicitly incorporate tie dependence...
2018: J Archaeol Method Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420468/contesting-early-archaeology-in-california
#18
Joseph V Ferraro, Katie M Binetti, Logan A Wiest, Donald Esker, Lori E Baker, Steven L Forman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415021/exploratory-palynological-studies-at-the-tell-el-daba-a-avaris-archaeological-site
#19
Mohamed F Azzazy
A palynological study of samples collected from the Tell el-Daba'a (Avaris) archaeological site, the capital of the Hyksos located in the Northeastern Nile Delta, Egypt, was conducted. A range of samples were analyzed for pollen content: mudbricks from tomb walls dating from the Middle (cal. 2124-1778 BC) and New Kingdom ages (cal. 1550-1750 BC), kitchen remains dating from the Middle Kingdom, kitchen middens from the 19th Dynasty (cal. 1750-1058 BC), and tomb offering jars from the Late Period (cal.1000-600 BC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412519/high-throughput-dna-sequencing-of-ancient-wood
#20
Stefanie Wagner, Frédéric Lagane, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Mikkel Schubert, Thibault Leroy, Erwan Guichoux, Emilie Chancerel, Inger Bech-Hebelstrup, Vincent Bernard, Cyrille Billard, Yves Billaud, Matthias Bolliger, Christophe Croutsch, Katarina Čufar, Frédérique Eynaud, Karl Uwe Heussner, Joachim Köninger, Fabien Langenegger, Frédéric Leroy, Christine Lima, Nicoletta Martinelli, Garry Momber, André Billamboz, Oliver Nelle, Antoni Palomo, Raquel Piqué, Marianne Ramstein, Roswitha Schweichel, Harald Stäuble, Willy Tegel, Xavier Terradas, Florence Verdin, Christophe Plomion, Antoine Kremer, Ludovic Orlando
Reconstructing the colonization and demographic dynamics that gave rise to extant forests is essential to forecasts of forest responses to environmental changes. Classical approaches to map how population of trees changed through space and time largely rely on pollen distribution patterns, with only a limited number of studies exploiting DNA molecules preserved in wooden tree archaeological and subfossil remains. Here, we advance such analyses by applying high throughput (HTS) DNA sequencing to wood archaeological and subfossil material for the first time, using a comprehensive sample of 167 European white oak waterlogged remains spanning a large temporal (from 550 to 9,800 years) and geographical range across Europe...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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