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Obestatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159483/obestatin-can-potentially-differentiate-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells
#1
Rana K El-Asfar, Mohamed M Kamal, Rania S Abd El-Razek, Ebtehal El-Demerdash, Hala O El-Mesallamy
In vitro-generation of β-cells from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) could provide a potential basis for diabetes mellitus cell therapy. However, the generation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from WJ-MSCs remains a challenge. Recently, obestatin, a gut hormone, was found to promote β-cell generation from pancreatic precursor cells. Accordingly, we hypothesize that obestatin can induce the differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of obestatin to generate IPCs in comparison to well-known extrinsic factors that are commonly used in IPCs differentiation protocols from MSCs, namely exendin-4 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151067/the-x-a-like-cell-revisited-spotlight-on-the-peripheral-effects-of-nucb2-nesfatin-1-and-ghrelin
#2
E Weibert, A Stengel
The gastric X/A-like cell was long thought to be restricted to the production of acyl ghrelin. However, the subsequent years witnessed the discovery of other peptide products derived from this cell, namely desacyl ghrelin, obestatin and nesfatin-1. While the role of obestatin remains highly questionable and is very critically discussed in the literature, besides acyl ghrelin also desacyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 have been implicated in the regulation of food intake. As observed for several other peptide hormones before, ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are not restricted to one function but rather exert pleiotropic actions including effects on gastrointestinal motility, thermogenesis, lipid and glucose homeostasis, stress mediation, cardiovascular as well as reproductive functions...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150712/unacylated-ghrelin-and-obestatin-promising-biomarkers-of-protein-energy-wasting-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Alice Monzani, Michela Perrone, Flavia Prodam, Stefania Moia, Giulia Genoni, Sara Testa, Fabio Paglialonga, Anna Rapa, Gianni Bona, Giovanni Montini, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Impairment in orexigenic/anorexigenic hormone balance may be key in the pathogenesis of protein energy wasting in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Measurement of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in children with CKD would help assess the potential contribution of these hormones to uremic protein energy wasting. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin and obestatin were measured in 42 children on conservative treatment (CT), 20 children on hemodialysis, 48 pediatric renal transplant (RTx) recipients and 43 controls (CTR) (mean age 11...
November 18, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137471/serum-levels-of-spexin-and-kisspeptin-negatively-correlate-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-women
#4
P A Kołodziejskii, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, E Korek, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, P Kaczmarek, L Nogowski, P Maćkowiak, K W Nowak, H Krauss, M Z Strowski
Spexin (SPX) and kisspeptin (KISS) are novel peptides relevant in the context of regulation of metabolism, food intake, puberty and reproduction. Here, we studied changes of serum SPX and KISS levels in female non-obese volunteers (BMI<25 kg/m2) and obese patients (BMI>35 kg/m2). Correlations between SPX or KISS with BMI, McAuley index, QUICKI, HOMA IR, serum levels of insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, obestatin, ghrelin and GLP-1 were assessed. Obese patients had lower SPX and KISS levels as compared to non-obese volunteers (SPX: 4...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136785/obestatin-prevents-h2o2-induced-damage-through-activation-of-trkb-in-rgc-5-cells
#5
Yang Liu, Yue-Xian Xing, Xin-Yuan Gao, Hong-Yu Kuang, Jing Zhang, Rong Liu
BACKGROUD: In the early stage of diabetic retinopathy, the damage of retinal ganglion cells already exists, promoting the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role and the mechanisms of obestatin against H2O2-induced damage in RGC-5 cells. METHODS: RGC-5 cells were incubated with various concentrations of obestatin for 24h before H2O2 added. The survival rates of RGC-5 were measured by MTT assay. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and TrkB pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blot analysis...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128523/acute-effect-of-smoking-and-smoking-abstinence-on-energy-intake-and-appetite-related-hormones-blood-concentrations
#6
M Yannakoulia, C A Anastasiou, K Zachari, M Sidiropoulou, P Katsaounou, R Tenta
The effect of smoking on energy balance and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to examine the acute effect of smoking and its abstinence on energy intake, subjective feelings of appetite and related hormones. Fourteen healthy smokers participated in a randomized, crossover study consisting of two trials: the Cigarette trial (participants smoked two cigarettes of their brand within 15min) and the Sham trial (they were asked to hold the cigarette as smoking, but without lighting it)...
November 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108816/obestatin-stimulates-the-somatotrophic-axis-activity-in-sheep
#7
Anna Wójcik-Gładysz, Michał Szlis, Anna Misztal, Bartosz Jarosław Przybył, Jolanta Polkowska
The effects of obestatin (an anorexigenic peripheral peptide) on somatotrophic axis activity in ruminants have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequence of intracerebroventricular infusions of obestatin on the activity of the somatotrophic axis in peripubertal female sheep. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: control group received intracerebroventricular infusions of the vehicle, and the obestatin group was infused with obestatin (25 µg/120 µL h(-1)). The series of four hourly infusions on three consecutive days were performed...
November 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858127/serum-ghrelin-but-not-obestatin-is-a-potential-predictor-of-acute-pancreatitis-severity
#8
Huilin Wang, Mengbin Qin, Zhihai Liang, Renjie Chang, Hongzong Fu, Yule Wei, Guodu Tang
The roles of ghrelin and obestatin in AP remain controversial.This study investigates the effects and the predictive value of serum ghrelin and obestatin levels in the early stage of AP.A total of 193 consecutive patients with AP and 24 healthy controls were included. Patients were divided into mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP), and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) groups. Serum levels of ghrelin and obestatin were measured on the first, third, and fifth days of hospitalization...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807720/comparison-of-the-therapeutic-effects-of-sildenafil-citrate-heparin-and-neuropeptides-in-a-rat-model-of-acetic-acid-induced-gastric-ulcer
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mehmet Kalayci, Mehmet Ali Kocdor, Tuncay Kuloglu, İbrahim Sahin, Mehmet Sarac, Aziz Aksoy, Meltem Yardim, Semih Dalkilic, Onur Gursu, Suna Aydin, Ramazan Fazil Akkoc, Meltem Ugras, Gokhan Artas, İbrahim Hanifi Ozercan, Kader Ugur, Suleyman Aydin
AIMS: The purpose of our investigative work has been to determine whether there can be therapeutic roles in the administration of sildenafil citrate, heparin and several neuropeptides on an animal model where gastric ulcers were induced with acetic acid, and to compare their efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals were divided into 13 groups, with 4 animals in each. Gastric ulcers was induced in the animals of 12 groups with one untreated group being left as the control (Group I - control; given normal saline (NS))...
October 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770954/assessment-of-obestatin-and-arginine-vasopressin-avp-levels-in-acute-renal-failure-and-acute-heart-failure
#10
X-Y Miao, Z Li, Z Hui, F Liu, X-W Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to assess the clinical application of obestatin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in cases of acute renal failure (ARF) and acute heart failure (AHF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 30 cases of ARF, 30 cases of AHF, 30 cases of ARF complicated with AHF, and 30 cases of healthy subjects (control group) were successively selected. An ELISA test was conducted to detect levels of obestatin and AVP. Routine biochemistry testing was applied to detect the levels of serum creatinine and calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759087/saliva-serum-ghrelin-obestatin-and-homocysteine-levels-in-patients-with-ischaemic-heart-disease
#11
Nermin Kilic, Necati Dagli, Suleyman Aydin, Fazilet Erman, Yuksel Bek, Okhan Akin, S S Kilic, Haci Kemal Erdemli, Hasan Alacam
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare ghrelin, obestatin, homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B12 and folate levels in the serum and saliva of ischaemic heart disease patients. METHODS: Serum and saliva were collected from 33 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) patients and 28 age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals. Levels of acylated and desacylated ghrelin, obestatin and Hcy were determined using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Acylated ghrelin, desacylated ghrelin and obestatin levels in the saliva were found to be higher than those in the serum of the control group, while acylated and desacylated ghrelin levels in the saliva were significantly lower than those in the serum...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750736/obestatin-increases-the-regenerative-capacity-of-human-myoblasts-transplanted-intramuscularly-in-an-immunodeficient-mouse-model
#12
Icia Santos-Zas, Elisa Negroni, Kamel Mamchaoui, Carlos S Mosteiro, Rosalia Gallego, Gillian S Butler-Browne, Yolanda Pazos, Vincent Mouly, Jesus P Camiña
Although cell-based therapy is considered a promising method aiming at treating different muscular disorders, little clinical benefit has been reported. One of major hurdles limiting the efficiency of myoblast transfer therapy is the poor survival of the transplanted cells. Any intervention upon the donor cells focused on enhancing in vivo survival, proliferation, and expansion is essential to improve the effectiveness of such therapies in regenerative medicine. In the present work, we investigated the potential role of obestatin, an autocrine peptide factor regulating skeletal muscle growth and repair, to improve the outcome of myoblast-based therapy by xenotransplanting primary human myoblasts into immunodeficient mice...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744974/obestatin-regulates-cardiovascular-function-and-promotes-cardioprotection-through-the-nitric-oxide-pathway
#13
Claudia Penna, Francesca Tullio, Saveria Femminò, Carmine Rocca, Tommaso Angelone, Maria C Cerra, Maria Pia Gallo, Iacopo Gesmundo, Alessandro Fanciulli, Maria Felice Brizzi, Pasquale Pagliaro, Giuseppe Alloatti, Riccarda Granata
Patients with ischaemic heart disease or chronic heart failure show altered levels of obestatin, suggesting a role for this peptide in human heart function. We have previously demonstrated that GH secretagogues and the ghrelin gene-derived peptides, including obestatin, exert cardiovascular effects by modulating cardiac inotropism and vascular tone, and reducing cell death and contractile dysfunction in hearts subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), through the Akt/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. However, the mechanisms underlying the cardiac actions of obestatin remain largely unknown...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744641/effect-of-chronic-administration-of-obestatin-and-its-fragment-fnap-nh2-on-behavioral-activity-and-nociceptive-threshold-in-rats-with-normal-and-excess-body-weight
#14
E E Khirazova, E S Motorykina, M V Maslova, A S Maklakova, A V Graf, N A Sokolova, A A Kamenskii
The effects of chronic intranasal administration of 300 nmol/kg obestatin and its fragment FNAP-NH2 on behavioral activity and nociceptive threshold were examined in male Wistar rats with normal body weight or alimentary obesity. In normal rats, obestatin produced no effect on behavior and nociception, whereas FNAP-NH2 fragment enhanced risk-taking behavior. Rats with excess body weight demonstrated less pronounced risk-taking behavior and elevated nociceptive threshold in comparison with normal animals, but these differences were abolished by chronic administration of FNAP-NH2...
July 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675664/obestatin-controls-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-and-autophagy-lysosome-systems-in-glucocorticoid-induced-muscle-cell-atrophy
#15
Tania Cid-Díaz, Icía Santos-Zas, Jessica González-Sánchez, Uxía Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Carlos S Mosteiro, Xesús Casabiell, Tomás García-Caballero, Vincent Mouly, Yolanda Pazos, Jesús P Camiña
BACKGROUND: Many pathological states characterized by muscle atrophy are associated with an increase in circulating glucocorticoids and poor patient prognosis, making it an important target for treatment. The development of treatments for glucocorticoid-induced and wasting disorder-related skeletal muscle atrophy should be designed based on how the particular transcriptional program is orchestrated and how the balance of muscle protein synthesis and degradation is deregulated. Here, we investigated whether the obestatin/GPR39 system, an autocrine/paracrine signaling system acting on myogenesis and with anabolic effects on the skeletal muscle, could protect against glucocorticoid-induced muscle cell atrophy...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666876/endogenous-peptide-profile-for-elucidating-biosynthetic-processing-of-the-ghrelin-precursor
#16
Takashi Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Iwakura, Naoto Minamino, Kenji Kangawa, Kazuki Sasaki
Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide primarily produced by gastric endocrine cells. The biosynthetic cleavage site of ghrelin has been well documented, but how its downstream region undergoes proteolytic processing remains poorly explored. Here, we provide the first snapshot of endogenous peptides from the ghrelin precursor by profiling the secretopeptidome of cultured mouse ghrelin-producing cells during exocytosis. Mapping of MS/MS sequenced peptides to the precursor highlighted three atypical monobasic processing sites, including the established C-terminus of ghrelin and the N-terminal cleavage site for obestatin, a putative 23-amino-acid C-terminally amidated peptide...
September 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653126/impact-of-metabolic-hormones-secreted-in-human-breast-milk-on-nutritional-programming-in-childhood-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Pilar Amellali Badillo-Suárez, Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Xóchitl Nieves-Morales
Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming"...
September 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649890/alteration-of-ghrelin-obestatin-ratio-in-adolescence-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#18
Weiguang Wu, Xiaobin Fan, Yuecheng Yu, Zheng Wang, Yingchun Wang
Ghrelin, an endoggenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in the regulation of energy homeostasis and pituitary hormone secretion. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. Ghrelin and obestatin are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by insulin resistance and pituitary hormone secretion disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate ghrelin/obestatin imbalance in relation to insulin resistance and pituitary hormone in adolescence with PCOS...
June 24, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638683/low-prevalence-of-obesity-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-is-associated-with-high-obestatin-level
#19
Süleyman Serdar Koca, Murat Kara, Metin Özgen, Ramazan Dayanan, Caner Feyzi Demir, Kader Aksoy, Nevin İlhan, Emir Dönder, Ahmet Işık
OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with altered body composition. Ghrelin has anti-inflammatory effects, and its level is altered in obesity and inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and ghrelin and obestatin levels in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-three (143) patients with BD and 112 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Participants were subdivided according to the body mass index (BMI) as lean (<18...
June 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522824/obestatin-controls-skeletal-muscle-fiber-type-determination
#20
Icía Santos-Zas, Tania Cid-Díaz, Jessica González-Sánchez, Uxía Gurriarán-Rodriguez, Carlos Seoane-Mosteiro, Begoña Porteiro, Rubén Nogueiras, Xesús Casabiell, José Luis Relova, Rosalía Gallego, Vincent Mouly, Yolanda Pazos, Jesus P Camiña
Obestatin/GPR39 signaling stimulates skeletal muscle growth and repair by inducing both G-protein-dependent and -independent mechanisms linking the activated GPR39 receptor with distinct sets of accessory and effector proteins. In this work, we describe a new level of activity where obestatin signaling plays a role in the formation, contractile properties and metabolic profile of skeletal muscle through determination of oxidative fiber type. Our data indicate that obestatin regulates Mef2 activity and PGC-1α expression...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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