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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531807/high-post-natal-mortality-associated-with-defects-in-lung-maturation-and-reduced-adiposity-in-mice-with-gestational-exposure-to-high-fat-and-n-acetylcysteine
#1
Lyda Williams, Maureen J Charron, Rani S Sellers
Studies have demonstrated that maternal consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) increases offspring susceptibility to metabolic disease. This study was initiated to identify the mechanistic contribution of oxidative stress on this phenomenon. Two weeks prior to mating, dams were fed either HFD or Control diet with or without supplementation with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Pups born to HFD dams had reduced crown rump length (CRL) at birth and higher neonatal mortality compared to pups from Control dams...
May 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529323/an-immunogenic-phenotype-in-paternal-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-at-embryo-implantation-elicits-later-fetal-loss-in-mice
#2
Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Kerrilyn R Diener, John D Hayball, Sarah A Robertson
Central to pregnancy success is a state of T cell tolerance to paternal antigens, which is initiated at conception. The role and regulation of specific phenotypes of CD8(+) T cells in mediating pregnancy tolerance is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the impact on pregnancy outcome of altering the cytokine environment during maternal CD8(+) T cell priming in early pregnancy. Transgenic Act-mOVA male mice were mated to C57BL/6 (B6) females to generate fetuses expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model paternal antigen...
May 22, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528929/female-brazilian-whiptail-lizards-cnemidophorus-ocellifer-prefer-males-with-high-ultraviolet-ornament-reflectance
#3
Carolina M C A Lisboa, Katalin Bajer, Daniel M A Pessoa, Marc Huber, Gabriel C Costa
Conspicuous colouration is an important way of social communication in many taxa. The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has only recently been studied in lizards, and there is not a general understanding of the adaptive role of UV colouration. Colour ornaments can signal male quality in mate choice and are therefore suitable for reliably predicting the outcome of female preference. Here, we tested the potential role of UV colouration in female spatial preference in a non-territorial teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus ocellifer...
May 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528905/a-pheromone-antagonist-regulates-optimal-mating-time-in-the-moth-helicoverpa-armigera
#4
Hetan Chang, Yang Liu, Dong Ai, Xingchuan Jiang, Shuanglin Dong, Guirong Wang
Many insect species use multi-component sex pheromones to discriminate among potential mating partners [1-5]. In moths, pheromone blends tend to be dominated by one or two major components, but behavioral responses are frequently optimized by the inclusion of less abundant minor components [6]. An increasing number of studies have shown that female insects use these chemicals to convey their mating availability to males, who can assess the maturity of females and thus decide when to mate [7, 8]. However, little is known about the biological mechanisms that enable males to assess female reproductive status...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527764/differential-stress-response-of-saccharomyces-hybrids-revealed-by-monitoring-hsp104-aggregation-and-disaggregation
#5
Claudia Kempf, Klaus Lengeler, Jürgen Wendland
Proteotoxic stress may occur upon exposure of yeast cells to different stress conditions. The induction of stress response mechanisms is important for cells to adapt to changes in the environment and ensure survival. For example, during exposure to elevated temperatures the expression of heat shock proteins such as Hsp104 is induced in yeast. Hsp104 extracts misfolded proteins from aggregates to promote their refolding. We used an Hsp104-GFP reporter to analyze the stress profiles of Saccharomyces species hybrids...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526847/odorant-binding-proteins-expression-patterns-in-recently-diverged-species-of-anastrepha-fruit-flies
#6
Emeline Boni Campanini, Carlos Congrains, Felipe Rafael Torres, Reinaldo Alves de Brito
We studied two species of closely related South American fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha obliqua which, despite being able to interbreed, still show some ecological and reproductive differences. Because part of these differences, such as host and mate preferences, may be related to olfactory perception, we focused our investigation on the differential expression of Odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene family, which participate in initial steps of the olfactory signal transduction cascade. We investigated patterns of expression of eight OBP genes by qPCR in male and female head tissues of both species...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526631/mating-strategies-and-sexual-functioning-in-personality-disorders-a%C3%A2-comprehensive-review-of-literature
#7
REVIEW
Alberto Collazzoni, Giacomo Ciocca, Erika Limoncin, Carmela Marucci, Daniele Mollaioli, Stefania Di Sante, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Cinzia Niolu, Alberto Siracusano, Mario Maggi, Giovanni Castellini, Alessandro Rossi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Personality disorders impair several aspects of intrapsychic and interpersonal life. In particular, mating strategies and sexual functioning could manifest in different and/or dysfunctional ways in people with personality disorders. AIM: To describe, through a comprehensive review of the literature, the mating strategies and sexual functioning in patients with personality disorders. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the relation between mating strategies and sexual functioning in personality disorders...
May 16, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526582/mait-cells-a-tailor-made-mate-in-the-ancient-battle-against-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Marcela de Lima Moreira, Moriya Tsuji, Alexandra Jane Corbett, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis
It has been almost two decades since the discovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT)-cells. Several advances in the field have been made such as the discovery of the antimicrobial activity of MAIT-cells, the abundance of these cells in human mucosa and in liver and the discovery of ligands able to bind MR1 and activate MAIT-cells. MAIT-cells are a unique subset of innate-like T-cells that express a canonical T-cell receptor with the alpha chain containing hAV7S2 and AJ33 in humans (TCRVα7.2Jα33) and respond to bacterial/fungus vitamin B2 metabolites by an MR1-dependent pathway...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523722/design-of-a-candidate-vibrational-signal-for-mating-disruption-against-the-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-homalodisca-vitripennis
#9
Valerio Mazzoni, Shira D Gordon, Rachele Nieri, Rodrigo Krugner
BACKGROUND: The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important pest of grapevines due to its ability to transmit Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease. GWSS mating communication is based on vibrational signals; therefore, vibrational mating disruption could be an alternative to insecticides for suppression of GWSS population. Our objectives were to identify spectral features of female signal that elicit male signaling, design disruptive signals able to alter male perception and acceptance of a female, and determine the signal intensity required for future field applications...
May 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#10
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522560/the-effect-of-long-term-maternal-smoking-on-the-offspring-s-lung-health
#11
Suporn Sukjamnong, Yik Lung Chan, Razia Zakarya, Sonia Saad, Pawan Sharma, Rachana Santiyanont, Hui Chen, Brian G G Oliver
Maternal smoking during pregnancy contributes to long-term health problems in offspring, especially respiratory disorders which can manifest in either childhood or adulthood. Receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) are multi-ligand receptors abundantly localized in the lung, capable of responding to by-products of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory responses. RAGE signalling is a key regulator of inflammation in cigarette smoking-related pulmonary diseases. However, the impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on lung RAGE signalling in the offspring is unclear...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522417/physiological-responses-of-insects-to-microbial-fermentation-products-insights-from-the-interactions-between-drosophila-and-acetic-acid
#12
Geonho Kim, Jia Hsin Huang, John G McMullen, Peter D Newell, Angela E Douglas
Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521955/prevalence-of-relevant-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-to-elbasvir-in-genotype-1a-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-spain
#13
Claudia Palladino, Beatriz Esteban-Cartelle, Irene Mate-Cano, Marta Sánchez-Carrillo, Salvador Resino, Verónica Briz
Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to the new HCV NS5A inhibitor elbasvir may limit its efficacy and lead to virological failure in HCV-GT1a-infected patients. There are no data outside clinical trials evaluating their prevalence and impact in grazoprevir/elbasvir in GT1a-infected patients in Spain. A multicentre cross-sectional study of 632 initial patients was conducted. In 13 of these patients, the sample could not be amplified or a consensus sequence by Sanger sequencing could not be performed. Ultimately, 617 HCV-G1a-infected individuals treated at 84 Spanish hospitals from the 17 autonomous communities plus the 2 autonomous cities of Spain were analysed...
May 15, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520954/h2b-ubiquitylation-and-the-histone-chaperone-asf1-cooperatively-mediate-the-formation-and-maintenance-of-heterochromatin-silencing
#14
Meng-Ying Wu, Chia-Yeh Lin, Hsin-Yi Tseng, Fei-Man Hsu, Pao-Yang Chen, Cheng-Fu Kao
Heterochromatin is a heritable form of gene repression, with critical roles in development and cell identity. Understanding how chromatin factors results in such repression is a fundamental question. Chromatin is assembled and disassembled during transcription, replication and repair by anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1), a highly conserved histone chaperone. Transcription and DNA replication are also affected by histone modifications that modify nucleosome dynamics, such as H2B ubiquitylation (H2Bub). We report here that H2Bub and Asf1 cooperatively promote transcriptional silencing at yeast telomeres and mating loci...
May 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515890/sex-dependent-infection-causes-nonadditive-effects-on-kissing-bug-fecundity
#15
Carezza Botto-Mahan, Verónica Campos, Rodrigo Medel
The influence of parasites on host reproduction has been widely studied in natural and experimental conditions. Most studies, however, have evaluated the parasite impact on female hosts only, neglecting the contribution of males for host reproduction. This omission is unfortunate as sex-dependent infection may have important implications for host-parasite associations. Here, we evaluate for the first time the independent and nonindependent effects of gender infection on host reproductive success using the kissing bug Mepraia spinolai and the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi as model system...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515889/phenotypic-plasticity-in-female-mate-choice-behavior-is-mediated-by-an-interaction-of-direct-and-indirect-genetic-effects-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
David C S Filice, Tristan A F Long
Female mate choice is a complex decision-making process that involves many context-dependent factors. In Drosophila melanogaster, a model species for the study of sexual selection, indirect genetic effects (IGEs) of general social interactions can influence female mate choice behaviors, but the potential impacts of IGEs associated with mating experiences are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether the IGEs associated with a previous mating experience had an effect on subsequent female mate choice behaviors and quantified the degree of additive genetic variation associated with this effect...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515879/sexual-signals-reflect-telomere-dynamics-in-a-wild-bird
#17
Conor Claverie Taff, Corey R Freeman-Gallant
Telomere dynamics in natural populations have been linked to survival, reproduction, and energetic investment. Given their putative role in mediating life-history trade-offs, telomeres are also a likely candidate for maintaining honesty in sexually selected signals; few studies to date, however, have demonstrated a correlation between sexual signals and telomere dynamics. Here, we show that plumage coloration in male common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) is correlated with both relative telomere length and with the rate of telomere loss between years...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515877/sex-specific-repeatabilities-and-effects-of-relatedness-and-mating-status-on-copulation-duration-in-an-acridid-grasshopper
#18
Michael Haneke-Reinders, Klaus Reinhold, Tim Schmoll
In species with direct sperm transfer, copulation duration is a crucial trait that may affect male and female reproductive success and that may vary with the quality of the mating partner. Furthermore, traits such as copulation duration represent the outcome of behavioral interactions between the sexes, for which it is important-but often difficult-to determine which sex is in phenotypic control. Using a double-mating protocol, we compared copulation durations between (1) virgin and nonvirgin and (2) sibling and nonsibling mating pairs in rufous grasshoppers Gomphocerippus rufus...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515783/trans-generational-plasticity-in-response-to-immune-challenge-is-constrained-by-heat-stress
#19
Olivia Roth, Susanne H Landis
Trans-generational plasticity (TGP) is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of TGP. For the first time, we here explore how the combination of an abiotic and a biotic environmental factor in the parental generation plays out as trans-generational effect in the offspring...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515417/a-generalized-population-dynamics-model-for-reproductive-interference-with-absolute-density-dependence
#20
Daisuke Kyogoku, Teiji Sota
Interspecific mating interactions, or reproductive interference, can affect population dynamics, species distribution and abundance. Previous population dynamics models have assumed that the impact of frequency-dependent reproductive interference depends on the relative abundances of species. However, this assumption could be an oversimplification inappropriate for making quantitative predictions. Therefore, a more general model to forecast population dynamics in the presence of reproductive interference is required...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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