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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165555/prenatal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-disrupts-ovarian-function-in-a-transgenerational-manner-in-female-mice
#1
Saniya Rattan, Emily Brehm, Liying Gao, Sarah Niermann, Jodi A Flaws
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer found in polyvinyl chloride products such as vinyl flooring, plastic food containers, medical devices, and children's toys. DEHP is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is a known endocrine disrupting chemical. Little is known about the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on the ovary and whether effects occur in subsequent generations. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to DEHP disrupts ovarian functions in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of female mice...
November 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164751/style-polymorphism-in-linum-linaceae-a-case-of-mediterranean-parallel-evolution
#2
J Ruiz-Martín, R Santos-Gally, M Escudero, J J Midgley, R Pérez-Barrales, J Arroyo
Heterostyly is a sex polymorphism which has challenged evolutionary biologists ever since Darwin. One of the lineages where heterostyly, and related stylar conditions, appears more frequently is the family Linaceae and its most diverse and widespread genus, Linum. Thus, this group is particularly suitable for testing competing hypotheses about ancestral and transitional stages on the evolutionary building up of heterostyly. We generated a well-resolved phylogeny of Linum based on extensive sampling and plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, and used it to trace the evolution of character states of style polymorphism and its association with traits related to pollination and breeding systems, obtained from our samples and the literature...
November 22, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164722/experimental-manipulation-reveals-a-trade-off-between-weapons-and-testes
#3
U Somjee, C W Miller, N J Tatarnic, L W Simmons
Theory predicts a trade-off between sexually selected weapons used to secure mates and post-copulatory traits used to maximize fertilization success. However, individuals that have a greater capacity to acquire resources from the environment may invest more in both pre- and post-copulatory traits, and trade-offs may not be readily apparent. Here, we manipulate the phenotype of developing individuals to examine allocation trade-offs between weapons and testes in Mictis profana (Hemiptera: Coreidae), a species where the hind legs are sexually selected weapons used in contests over access to females...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164369/birth-date-promotes-a-tortoise-or-hare-tactic-for-body-mass-development-of-a-long-lived-male-ungulate
#4
Eric S Michel, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang
Maternal and early-life influences may affect life-long individual phenotype, potentially influencing reproductive success. However, some individuals may compensate for a poor start to life, which may improve longevity and reproductive success later in life. We developed four models to assess whether maternal characteristics (age, body mass and previous year cumulative lactation demand) and/or birth date influenced a long-lived mammal's phenotype to maturity. We used a directional separation analysis to assess the relative influence of each maternal characteristic and birth date on captive male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) body mass and antler size...
November 21, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163379/medfly-gut-microbiota-and-enhancement-of-the-sterile-insect-technique-similarities-and-differences-of-klebsiella-oxytoca-and-enterobacter-sp-aa26-probiotics-during-the-larval-and-adult-stages-of-the-vienna-8-d53-genetic-sexing-strain
#5
Georgios A Kyritsis, Antonios A Augustinos, Carlos Cáceres, Kostas Bourtzis
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a major agricultural pest worldwide. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) for this species that allows male-only sterile insects releases has boosted the effectiveness of the environmental friendly pest control method known as the sterile insect technique. The last generation of these strains, the VIENNA 7 and VIENNA 8, are currently used in all mass rearing facilities worldwide and are considered as models for such pest control applications. The sterile insect technique depends on the rearing of sufficient numbers of adequate "biological quality" laboratory flies to be released in the field...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162832/the-roles-of-plasticity-versus-dominance-in-maintaining-polymorphism-in-mating-strategies
#6
Sylvain Moulherat, Alexis Chaine, Alain Mangin, Fabien Aubret, Barry Sinervo, Jean Clobert
Although natural selection is expected to reduce variability, polymorphism is common in nature even under strong selective regimes. Discrete polymorphisms in mating strategies are widespread and offer a good opportunity to understand the genetic processes that allow the maintenance of polymorphism in relatively simple systems. Here we explored the genetic mechanism underlying the expression of discrete mating strategies in the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game. Heterozygotes carry the genetic information for two different strategies, yet little attention has been devoted to the mechanisms underpinning heterozygote phenotype and its consequences for allele frequency dynamics...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160864/clonal-expansion-behind-a-marine-diatom-bloom
#7
Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Domenico D'Alelio, Maria Immacolata Ferrante, Mariano Santoro, Laura Vitale, Gabriele Procaccini, Marina Montresor
Genetic diversity is what selection acts on, thus shaping the adaptive potential of populations. We studied micro-evolutionary patterns of the key planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata at a long-term sampling site over 2 consecutive years by genotyping isolates with 22 microsatellite markers. We show that both sex and vegetative growth interplay in shaping intraspecific diversity. We document a brief but massive demographic and clonal expansion driven by strains of the same mating type. The analysis of an extended data set (6 years) indicates that the genetic fingerprint of P...
November 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160593/xb-or-not-xb-that-is-the-question-the-interaction-modes-of-haloimidazolium-salts-in-solution
#8
Nils Schulz, Pandian Sokkar, Elric Engelage, Severin Schindler, Mate Erdelyi, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Stefan Matthias Huber
We performed a comparative study on the interaction mode of 2-haloimidazolium salts with anions in solution, particularly with regard to halogen bonding, hydrogen bonding and anion-π interactions. The syntheses and solid-state analyses of a series of sterically and electronically modified 2-haloimidazolium structures is presented. Detailed isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM MD), classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD) and free energy calculations together with NMR were used to elucidate the binding mode in solution...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160553/the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-adaptive-virginity-sex-allocation-and-altruistic-helping-in-haplodiploid-animals
#9
Petri Rautiala, Heikki Helanterä, Mikael Puurtinen
In haplodiploids, females can produce sons from unfertilized eggs without mating. However, virgin reproduction is usually considered to be a result of a failure to mate, rather than an adaptation. Here we build an analytical model for evolution of virgin reproduction, sex-allocation, and altruistic female helping in haplodiploid taxa. We show that when mating is costly (e.g. when mating increases predation risk), virginity can evolve as an adaptive female reproductive strategy. Furthermore, adaptive virginity results in strongly divergent sex-ratios in mated and virgin queen nests ('split sex ratios'), which promotes the evolution of altruistic helping by daughters in mated queen nests...
November 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159925/the-use-of-micro-ct-imaging-to-examine-and-illustrate-fetal-skeletal-abnormalities-in-dutch-belted-rabbits-and-to-prove-concordance-with-alizarin-red-stained-skeletal-examination
#10
Howard M Solomon, Stacia Murzyn, Joyce Rendemonti, Sharon Chapman, Tinamarie Skedzielewski, Beat M Jucker, Dinesh Stanislaus, Hasan Alsaid
OBJECTIVES: In our laboratory we evaluated the use of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) using a high resolution acquisition protocol and fetuses obtained on Gestation Day (GD) 29 (mating = GD 0). METHODS: To show concordance between traditional Alizarin Red S stain and micro-CT skeletal examination methods, 103 fetuses from 19 untreated Dutch belted rabbits were obtained by cesarean section and stored frozen. The fetuses were thawed, imaged and examined digitally by micro-CT, then stained and re-examined using traditional methods...
November 21, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159903/soluble-mhc-molecules-in-immune-regulation-highlighting-class-ii-antigens
#11
REVIEW
Katerina Bakela, Irene Athanassakis
The involvement of Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in the development and regulation of immune response has been well defined over the years, starting from maturation, antigenic peptide loading, migration to the cell membrane for recognition by the T cell receptor and recycling for immune response cessation. During this intracellular trafficking, MHC antigens find a way to be excreted by the cells, since they can be found as soluble MHC class I (sMHCI) and class II (sMHCII) molecules in all body fluids...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159722/inbreeding-in-southeastern-spain-the-impact-of-geography-and-demography-on-marital-mobility-and-marital-distance-patterns-1900-1969
#12
R Calderón, C L Hernández, G García-Varela, D Masciarelli, P Cuesta
In this paper, the structure of a southeastern Spanish population was studied for the first time with respect to its inbreeding patterns and its relationship with demographic and geographic factors. Data on consanguineous marriages (up to second cousins) from 1900 to 1969 were taken from ecclesiastic dispensations. Our results confirm that the patterns and trends of inbreeding in the study area are consistent with those previously observed in most non-Cantabrian Spanish populations. The rate of consanguineous marriages was apparently stable between 1900 and 1935 and then sharply decreased since 1940, which coincides with industrialization in Spain...
November 20, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158971/the-ultimate-legs-of-chilopoda-myriapoda-a-review-on-their-morphological-disparity-and-functional-variability
#13
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158554/genomic-consequences-of-intensive-inbreeding-in-an-isolated-wolf-population
#14
Marty Kardos, Mikael Åkesson, Toby Fountain, Øystein Flagstad, Olof Liberg, Pall Olason, Håkan Sand, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Hans Ellegren
Inbreeding (mating between relatives) is a major concern for conservation as it decreases individual fitness and can increase the risk of population extinction. We used whole-genome resequencing of 97 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf population to identify 'identical-by-descent' (IBD) chromosome segments as runs of homozygosity (ROH). This gave the high resolution required to precisely measure realized inbreeding as the IBD fraction of the genome in ROH (F ROH). We found a striking pattern of complete or near-complete homozygosity of entire chromosomes in many individuals...
November 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158481/female-specific-myoinhibitory-peptide-neurons-regulate-mating-receptivity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Yong-Hoon Jang, Hyo-Seok Chae, Young-Joon Kim
Upon mating, fruit fly females become refractory to further mating for several days. An ejaculate protein called sex peptide (SP) acts on uterine neurons to trigger this behavioural change, but it is still unclear how the SP signal modifies the mating decision. Here we describe two groups of female-specific local interneurons that are important for this process-the ventral abdominal lateral (vAL) and ventral abdominal medial (vAM) interneurons. Both vAL and vAM express myoinhibitory peptide (Mip)-GAL4. vAL is positive for Mip neuropeptides and the sex-determining transcriptional factor doublesex...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158478/structural-basis-for-xenobiotic-extrusion-by-eukaryotic-mate-transporter
#16
Hirotake Miyauchi, Satomi Moriyama, Tsukasa Kusakizako, Kaoru Kumazaki, Takanori Nakane, Keitaro Yamashita, Kunio Hirata, Naoshi Dohmae, Tomohiro Nishizawa, Koichi Ito, Takaaki Miyaji, Yoshinori Moriyama, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Osamu Nureki
Mulitidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family transporters export xenobiotics to maintain cellular homeostasis. The human MATE transporters mediate the excretion of xenobiotics and cationic clinical drugs, whereas some plant MATE transporters are responsible for aluminum tolerance and secondary metabolite transport. Here we report the crystal structure of the eukaryotic MATE transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana, at 2.6 Å resolution. The structure reveals that its carboxy-terminal lobe (C-lobe) contains an extensive hydrogen-bonding network with well-conserved acidic residues, and their importance is demonstrated by the structure-based mutational analysis...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158338/genes-integral-to-the-reproductive-function-of-male-reproductive-tissues-drive-heterogeneity-in-evolutionary-rates-in-japanese-quail
#17
Findley R Finseth, Richard G Harrison
Early comparative genomics studies originally uncovered a non-intuitive pattern - genes involved in reproduction appeared to evolve more rapidly than other classes of genes.  Currently, however, the emerging consensus is that genes encoding reproductive proteins evolve under variable selective pressures, producing more heterogeneous divergence patterns than previously appreciated.  We investigate a facet of that heterogeneity and explore the factors that drive male reproductive tissue-based heterogeneity in evolutionary rates...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158336/severe-fertility-effects-of-sheepish%C3%A2-sperm-caused-by-failure-to-enter-female-sperm-storage-organs-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Masatoshi Tomaru, Takashi Ohsako, Masahide Watanabe, Naoto Juni, Hiroshi Matsubayashi, Hiromi Sato, Ayako Takahashi, Masa-Toshi Yamamoto
In Drosophila, mature sperm are transferred from males to females during copulation, stored in the sperm storage organs of females, and then utilized for fertilization. Here, we report a gene named sheepish (shps) of D. melanogaster that is essential for sperm storage in females. shps mutant males, although producing morphologically normal and motile sperm that are effectively transferred to females, produce very few offspring. Direct counts of sperm indicated that the primary defect was correlated to failure of shps sperm to migrate into the female sperm storage organs...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157723/implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-therapy-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-simple-substudy
#19
Mate Vamos, Jeff S Healey, Jia Wang, Stuart J Connolly, Philippe Mabo, Lieselot VanErven, Josef Kautzner, Michael Glikson, Jorg Neuzner, Gilles O'Hara, Xavier Vinolas, Frederik Gadler, Stefan H Hohnloser
BACKGROUND: Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are considered to be at high risk for elevated defibrillation thresholds, peri-procedural complications, and failed appropriate shocks. OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of defibrillation testing in HCM patients undergoing ICD implantation. METHODS: Defibrillation thresholds, perioperative complications, and long-term outcomes were compared between patients with HCM, and those with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy (ICM/DCM) enrolled in the SIMPLE trial...
November 17, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156995/combined-repeated-dose-and-reproductive-developmental-toxicity-screening-test-of-benzene-1-1-oxybis-tetrapropylene-derivs-in-rats
#20
Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Sunao Aso, Toshio Kobayashi, Takayuki Koga, Satsuki Hoshuyama, Yutaka Oshima, Katsumi Miyata, Yuji Kusune, Takako Muroi, Naoki Hashizume, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Shozo Ajimi, Kotaro Furukawa
We have conducted animal toxicity tests of chemicals for a chemical safety program implemented by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. Here we conducted a combined repeated-dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test of benzene, 1,1'-oxybis-, tetrapropylene derivs. (BOTD). BOTD was administered to 9-week-old Crl:CD(SD) male and female rats by gavage at 0, 40, 200, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were treated for 42 days including mating period. Females were treated for 42-53 days through the premating, mating, pregnancy, and until Day 4 of lactation periods...
November 20, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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