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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351591/could-seasonally-deteriorating-environments-favour-the-evolution-of-autogamous-selfing-and-a-drought-escape-physiology-through-indirect-selection-a-test-of-the-time-limitation-hypothesis-using-artificial-selection-in-clarkia
#1
Simon K Emms, Alisa A Hove, Leah S Dudley, Susan J Mazer, Amy S Verhoeven
Background and Aims: The evolution of selfing from outcrossing may be the most common transition in plant reproductive systems and is associated with a variety of ecological circumstances and life history strategies. The most widely discussed explanation for these associations is the reproductive assurance hypothesis - the proposition that selfing is favoured because it increases female fitness when outcross pollen receipt is limited. Here an alternative explanation, the time limitation hypothesis, is addressed, one scenario of which proposes that selfing may evolve as a correlated response to selection for a faster life cycle in seasonally deteriorating environments...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351021/coupling-reinforcement-and-speciation
#2
Roger K Butlin, Carole M Smadja
During the process of speciation, populations may diverge for traits and at their underlying loci that contribute barriers to gene flow. These barrier traits and barrier loci underlie individual barrier effects, by which we mean the contribution that a barrier locus or trait-or some combination of barrier loci or traits-makes to overall isolation. The evolution of strong reproductive isolation typically requires the origin of multiple barrier effects. Critically, it also requires the coincidence of barrier effects; for example, two barrier effects, one due to assortative mating and the other due to hybrid inviability, create a stronger overall barrier to gene flow if they coincide than if they distinguish independent pairs of populations...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#3
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350346/chemical-characterization-of-young-virgin-queens-and-mated-egg-laying-queens-in-the-ant-cataglyphis-cursor-random-forest-classification-analysis-for-multivariate-datasets
#4
Thibaud Monnin, Florence Helft, Chloé Leroy, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Claudie Doums
Social insects are well known for their extremely rich chemical communication, yet their sex pheromones remain poorly studied. In the thermophilic and thelytokous ant, Cataglyphis cursor, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and Dufour's gland contents of queens of different age and reproductive status (sexually immature gynes, sexually mature gynes, mated and egg-laying queens) and of workers. Random forest classification analyses showed that the four groups of individuals were well separated for both chemical sources, except mature gynes that clustered with queens for cuticular hydrocarbons and with immature gynes for Dufour's gland secretions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350146/macacine-herpesvirus-1-antibody-prevalence-and-dna-shedding-among-invasive-rhesus-macaques-silver-springs-state-park-florida-usa
#5
Samantha M Wisely, Katherine A Sayler, C Jane Anderson, Carisa L Boyce, Amy R Klegarth, Steve A Johnson
We compiled records on macacine herpesvirus 1 (McHV-1) seroprevalence and, during 2015-2016, collected saliva and fecal samples from the free-ranging rhesus macaques of Silver Springs State Park, a popular public park in central Florida, USA, to determine viral DNA shedding and perform sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the US5 and US5-US6 intragenic sequence from free-ranging and laboratory McHV-1 variants did not reveal genomic differences. In animals captured during 2000-2012, average annual seroprevalence was 25% ± 9 (mean ± SD)...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348834/activity-strengths-of-cortical-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-are-correlated-with-transgenerational-inheritance-of-learning-ability
#6
Yulong Liu, Rongjing Ge, Xin Zhao, Rui Guo, Li Huang, Shidi Zhao, Sudong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
The capabilities of learning and memory in parents are presumably transmitted to their offsprings, in which genetic codes and epigenetic regulations are thought as molecular bases. As neural plasticity occurs during memory formation as cellular mechanism, we aim to examine the correlation of activity strengths at cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability. In a mouse model of associative learning, paired whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion, whose onset appeared fast (high learning efficiency, HLE) or slow (low learning efficiency, LLE)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348515/genetic-evidence-for-panmixia-in-a-colony-breeding-crater-lake-cichlid-fish
#7
T K Lehtonen, K R Elmer, M Lappalainen, A Meyer
Fine-scaled genetic structuring, as seen for example in many lacustrine fish, typically relates to the patterns of migration, habitat use, mating system or other ecological factors. Because the same processes can also affect the propensity of population differentiation and divergence, assessments of species from rapidly speciating clades, or with particularly interesting ecological traits, can be especially insightful. For this study, we assessed the spatial genetic relationships, including the genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal, in a colony-breeding cichlid fish, Amphilophus astorquii, endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua, using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci (n = 123 individuals from three colonies)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346643/genetic-characterization-of-a-vang-type-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-clinical-isolate
#8
Mohamed Sassi, François Guérin, Léonie Lesec, Christophe Isnard, Marguerite Fines-Guyon, Vincent Cattoir, Jean-Christophe Giard
Objectives: To characterize, phenotypically and genotypically, the first Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate harbouring a vanG operon. Methods: The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG operon was studied by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346429/the-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-obeticholic-acid-upregulates-biliary-excretion-of-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-via-mate-1-during-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Andrea Ferrigno, Laura Giuseppina Di Pasqua, Clarissa Berardo, Veronica Siciliano, Vittoria Rizzo, Luciano Adorini, Plinio Richelmi, Mariapia Vairetti
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) biliary excretion occurs during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), prompting us to study the effects of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on bile, serum and tissue levels of ADMA after I/R. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered 10mg/kg/day of OCA or vehicle for 5 days and were subjected to 60 min partial hepatic ischemia or sham-operated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346368/mechanical-feedback-coordinates-cell-wall-expansion-and-assembly-in-yeast-mating-morphogenesis
#10
Samhita P Banavar, Carlos Gomez, Michael Trogdon, Linda R Petzold, Tau-Mu Yi, Otger Campàs
The shaping of individual cells requires a tight coordination of cell mechanics and growth. However, it is unclear how information about the mechanical state of the wall is relayed to the molecular processes building it, thereby enabling the coordination of cell wall expansion and assembly during morphogenesis. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that a mechanical feedback coordinating cell wall assembly and expansion is essential to sustain mating projection growth in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345961/effects-of-quercetin-kaempferol-and-exogenous-glutathione-on-phospho-and-total-akt-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#11
William Y Boadi, Andrew Lo
Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor for some types of cancer, such as prostate and lung. The AKT or PI3K-AKT is a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival and growth in response to extracellular signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, and exogenous glutathione (GSH) on the expressions of phospho- and total-AKT levels in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) levels were measured in the treated samples and used as the internal standard...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345222/development-and-implementation-of-multilocus-sequence-typing-to-study-the-diversity-of-the-yeast-kluyveromyces-marxianus-in-italian-cheeses
#12
Fabrizia Tittarelli, Javier A Varela, Loughlin Gethins, Catherine Stanton, R P Ross, Giovanna Suzzi, Luigi Grazia, Rosanna Tofalo, John P Morrissey
The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus possesses advantageous traits like rapid growth, GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status and thermotolerance that make it very suitable for diverse biotechnological applications. Although physiological studies demonstrate wide phenotypic variation within the species, there is only limited information available on the genetic diversity of K. marxianus. The aim of this work was to develop a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method for K. marxianus to improve strain classification and selection...
January 18, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343748/sac7-and-rho1-regulate-the-white-to-opaque-switching-in-candida-albicans
#13
Siwy Ling Yang, Guisheng Zeng, Fong Yee Chan, Yan-Ming Wang, Dongliang Yang, Yue Wang
Candida albicans cells homozygous at the mating-type locus stochastically undergo the white-to-opaque switching to become mating-competent. This switching is regulated by a core circuit of transcription factors organized through interlocking feedback loops around the master regulator Wor1. Although a range of distinct environmental cues is known to induce the switching, the pathways linking the external stimuli to the central control mechanism remains largely unknown. By screening a C. albicans haploid gene-deletion library, we found that SAC7 encoding a GTPase-activating protein of Rho1 is required for the white-to-opaque switching...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343607/behavioural-tactic-predicts-preoptic-hypothalamic-gene-expression-more-strongly-than-developmental-morph-in-fish-with-alternative-reproductive-tactics
#14
Joel A Tripp, Ni Y Feng, Andrew H Bass
Reproductive success relies on the coordination of social behaviours, such as territory defence, courtship and mating. Species with extreme variation in reproductive tactics are useful models for identifying the neural mechanisms underlying social behaviour plasticity. The plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus) is a teleost fish with two male reproductive morphs that follow widely divergent developmental trajectories and display alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). Type I males defend territories, court females and provide paternal care, but will resort to cuckoldry if they cannot maintain a territory...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343442/the-transcription-factor-stat6-mediates-direct-repression-of-inflammatory-enhancers-and-limits-activation-of-alternatively-polarized-macrophages
#15
Zsolt Czimmerer, Bence Daniel, Attila Horvath, Dominik Rückerl, Gergely Nagy, Mate Kiss, Matthew Peloquin, Marietta M Budai, Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Zoltan Simandi, Laszlo Steiner, Bela Nagy, Szilard Poliska, Csaba Banko, Zsolt Bacso, Ira G Schulman, Sascha Sauer, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Judith E Allen, Szilvia Benko, Laszlo Nagy
The molecular basis of signal-dependent transcriptional activation has been extensively studied in macrophage polarization, but our understanding remains limited regarding the molecular determinants of repression. Here we show that IL-4-activated STAT6 transcription factor is required for the direct transcriptional repression of a large number of genes during in vitro and in vivo alternative macrophage polarization. Repression results in decreased lineage-determining transcription factor, p300, and RNA polymerase II binding followed by reduced enhancer RNA expression, H3K27 acetylation, and chromatin accessibility...
January 16, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342928/protein-oxidation-and-sensory-quality-of-brine-injected-pork-loins-added-ascorbate-or-extracts-of-green-tea-or-mat%C3%A3-during-chill-storage-in-high-oxygen-modified-atmosphere
#16
Sisse Jongberg, Mari Ann Tørngren, Leif H Skibsted
Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O₂ and 20% CO₂) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant...
January 15, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341814/utilizing-a-rat-delayed-implantation-model-to-teach-integrative-endocrinology-and-reproductive-biology
#17
Rodney D Geisert, Michael F Smith, Amanda L Schmelzle, Jonathan A Green
In this teaching laboratory, the students are directed in an exercise that involves designing and performing an experiment to determine estrogen's role in regulating delayed implantation (diapause) in female rats. To encourage active participation by the students, a discussion question is provided before the laboratory exercise in which each student is asked to search the literature and provide written answers to questions and to formulate an experiment to test the role of ovarian estrogen in inducing implantation in female rats...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340252/positive-selection-on-human-gamete-recognition-genes
#18
Michael W Hart, Daryn A Stover, Vanessa Guerra, Sahar V Mozaffari, Carole Ober, Carina F Mugal, Ingemar Kaj
Coevolution of genes that encode interacting proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs can lead to variation in reproductive compatibility between mates and reproductive isolation between members of different species. Previous studies in mice and other mammals have focused in particular on evidence for positive or diversifying selection that shapes the evolution of genes that encode sperm-binding proteins expressed in the egg coat or zona pellucida (ZP). By fitting phylogenetic models of codon evolution to data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified candidate sites evolving under diversifying selection in the human genes ZP3 and ZP2...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340106/a-maternal-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-addition-to-a-postnatal-high-fat-diet-leads-to-metabolic-syndrome-with-spatial-learning-and-memory-deficits-beneficial-effects-of-resveratrol
#19
Shih-Wen Li, Hong-Ren Yu, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Mao-Meng Tiao, You-Lin Tain, I-Chun Lin, Yu-Ju Lin, Kow-Aung Chang, Ching-Chou Tsai, Li-Tung Huang
We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet consumption during pregnancy, lactation, and/or post weaning, altered the expression of molecular mediators involved in hippocampal synaptic efficacy and impaired spatial learning and memory in adulthood. The beneficial effect of resveratrol was assessed. Dams were fed a rat chow diet or a high-fat diet before mating, during pregnancy, and throughout lactation. Offspring were weaned onto either a rat chow or a high-fat diet. Four experimental groups were generated, namely CC, HC, CH, and HH (maternal chow diet or high-fat diet; postnatal chow diet or high-fat diet)...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340027/dual-sirt1-expression-patterns-strongly-suggests-its-bivalent-role-in-human-breast-cancer
#20
Khaldoun Rifaï, Gaëlle Judes, Mouhamed Idrissou, Marine Daures, Yves-Jean Bignon, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, Dominique Bernard-Gallon
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1 is a class-III histone deacetylase involved in apoptosis regulation, DNA repair and tumorigenesis. However, its role in breast carcinoma remains controversial, as both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting functions have been reported. Also, there are very few reports available where expression of SIRT1 is comprehensively analyzed in breast tumors classified by molecular subtype...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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