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Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Halef Okan Dogan, Begum Yurdakok, Kubra Dogan, Sevil Vural, Fatma Meric Yilmaz, Atilla Isgoren
Aroclor 1254 is a widespread toxic compound of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), which can create significant nervous problems. No remedies have been found to date. The aim of this study was to reveal the damage that occurs in the central nervous system of rat pups exposed to Aroclor 1254 in the prenatal period, and to show the inhibiting effect of curcumin, which is a strong anti-oxidant and neuroprotective substance. The study established 3 groups of adult female and male Wistar albino rats. The rats were mated within these groups and the offspring rats were evaluated within the group given Aroclor 1254 only (n=10) and the group given both Aroclor 1254 and curcumin (n=10) and the control group (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Yuki Yoshimura, Miyuki Ida-Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Hiramaki, Motohito Goto, Tsutomu Kamisako, Tomoo Eto, Mika Yagoto, Kenji Kawai, Takeshi Takahashi, Manabu Nakayama, Mamoru Ito
DNA site-specific recombination by Cre/loxP is a powerful tool for gene manipulation in experimental animals. VCre/VloxP and SCre/SloxP are novel site-specific recombination systems, consisting of a recombinase and its specific recognition sequences, which function in a manner similar to Cre/loxP. Previous reports using Escherichia coli and Oryzias latipes demonstrated the existence of stringent specificity between each recombinase and its target sites; VCre/VloxP, SCre/SloxP, and Cre/loxP have no cross-reactivity with each other...
March 15, 2018: Transgenic Research
Guang-Zhe Huang, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jing-Ji Zhang, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
The formation of mate recognition memory in mice is associated with neural changes at the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses between glutamatergic mitral cell (MC) projection neurons and GABAergic granule cell (GC) interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Although noradrenaline (NA) plays a critical role in the formation of the memory, the mechanism by which it exerts this effect remains unclear. Here we used extracellular field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to assess the actions of bath-applied NA (10 µM) on the glutamatergic transmission and its plasticity at the MC-to-GC synapse in the AOB...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ya-Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Hong-Chun Cui, Lei Zhao, Ji-Zhong Yu, Hong-Liang Li
As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids) can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene, EoblGOBP2 , was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Francesca Mossa, Daniela Bebbere, Antonello Ledda, Giovanni P Burrai, Imane Chebli, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Sergio Ledda, Antonello Cannas, Francesco Fancello, Alberto S Atzori
Maternal nutrition during critical gestation periods impacts on offspring in later life; effects of high-starch maternal diet on testicular development in lambs were addressed. Dairy ewes were fed diets providing either 27% (Starch, S) or 11% (Fiber, F) of starch from mating to lambing (∼147 days; S147, F147) or for the last 75 days of gestation (S75, F75). Testes of single male lambs were measured and then sampled for histological and gene expression analyses at selected ages. Testicular dimensions and weight were similar among groups, but the total area of seminiferous tubules increased with age and tended to be higher (P = 0...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Masatoshi Matsunami, Daiji Endo, Naruya Saitou, Hitoshi Suzuki, Manabu Onuma
The wood mouse (genus Apodemus ) is one of the most common rodents in broad-leaf forests in the temperate zone of the Palaearctic region. Molecular studies of wood mice have critically enhanced the understanding of their evolution and ancestral biogeographic events. However, their molecular data are currently only limited to partial mitochondrial sequences and a few genes. Therefore, we sequenced the wood mouse genome to facilitate the acquisition of useful resources for inferring their molecular evolution...
February 2018: Data in Brief
José F Muñoz, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Christina A Cuomo
Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roberta Pastorino, Anna Puggina, Robert Carreras-Torres, Pagona Lagiou, Ivana Holcátová, Lorenzo Richiardi, Kristina Kjaerheim, Antonio Agudo, Xavier Castellsagué, Tatiana V Macfarlane, Luigi Barzan, Cristina Canova, Nalin S Thakker, David I Conway, Ariana Znaor, Claire M Healy, Wolfgang Ahrens, David Zaridze, Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Eleonora Fabianova, Ioan Nicolae Mates, Vladimir Bencko, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Paul Brennan, Valérie Gaborieau, James D McKay, Stefania Boccia
With the aim to dissect the effect of adult height on head and neck cancer (HNC), we use the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to test the association between genetic instruments for height and the risk of HNC. 599 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as genetic instruments for height, accounting for 16% of the phenotypic variation. Genetic data concerning HNC cases and controls were obtained from a genome-wide association study. Summary statistics for genetic association were used in complementary MR approaches: the weighted genetic risk score (GRS) and the inverse-variance weighted (IVW)...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yvonne Gräser, Michel Monod, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Karolina Dukik, Pietro Nenoff, Alexandra Kargl, Christiane Kupsch, Ping Zhan, Ann Packeu, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Sybren de Hoog
Dermatophyte research has renewed interest because of changing human floras with changing socioeconomic conditions, and because of severe chronic infections in patients with congenital immune disorders. Main taxonomic traits at the generic level have changed considerably, and now fine-tuning at the species level with state-of-the-art technology has become urgent. Research on virulence factors focuses on secreted proteases now has support in genome data. It is speculated that most protease families are used for degrading hard keratin during nitrogen recycling in the environment, while others, such as Sub6 may have emerged as a result of ancestral gene duplication, and are likely to have specific roles during infection...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Scott A Thomson, Richard L Pyle, Shane T Ahyong, Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga, Joe Ammirati, Juan Francisco Araya, John S Ascher, Tracy Lynn Audisio, Valter M Azevedo-Santos, Nicolas Bailly, William J Baker, Michael Balke, Maxwell V L Barclay, Russell L Barrett, Ricardo C Benine, James R M Bickerstaff, Patrice Bouchard, Roger Bour, Thierry Bourgoin, Christopher B Boyko, Abraham S H Breure, Denis J Brothers, James W Byng, David Campbell, Luis M P Ceríaco, István Cernák, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Chih-Han Chang, Soowon Cho, Joshua M Copus, Mark J Costello, Andras Cseh, Csaba Csuzdi, Alastair Culham, Guillermo D'Elía, Cédric d'Udekem d'Acoz, Mikhail E Daneliya, René Dekker, Edward C Dickinson, Timothy A Dickinson, Peter Paul van Dijk, Klaas-Douwe B Dijkstra, Bálint Dima, Dmitry A Dmitriev, Leni Duistermaat, John P Dumbacher, Wolf L Eiserhardt, Torbjørn Ekrem, Neal L Evenhuis, Arnaud Faille, José L Fernández-Triana, Emile Fiesler, Mark Fishbein, Barry G Fordham, André V L Freitas, Natália R Friol, Uwe Fritz, Tobias Frøslev, Vicki A Funk, Stephen D Gaimari, Guilherme S T Garbino, André R S Garraffoni, József Geml, Anthony C Gill, Alan Gray, Felipe G Grazziotin, Penelope Greenslade, Eliécer E Gutiérrez, Mark S Harvey, Cornelis J Hazevoet, Kai He, Xiaolan He, Stephan Helfer, Kristofer M Helgen, Anneke H van Heteren, Francisco Hita Garcia, Norbert Holstein, Margit K Horváth, Peter H Hovenkamp, Wei Song Hwang, Jaakko Hyvönen, Melissa B Islam, John B Iverson, Michael A Ivie, Zeehan Jaafar, Morgan D Jackson, J Pablo Jayat, Norman F Johnson, Hinrich Kaiser, Bente B Klitgård, Dániel G Knapp, Jun-Ichi Kojima, Urmas Kõljalg, Jenő Kontschán, Frank-Thorsten Krell, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Sven Kullander, Leonardo Latella, John E Lattke, Valeria Lencioni, Gwilym P Lewis, Marcos G Lhano, Nathan K Lujan, Jolanda A Luksenburg, Jean Mariaux, Jader Marinho-Filho, Christopher J Marshall, Jason F Mate, Molly M McDonough, Ellinor Michel, Vitor F O Miranda, Mircea-Dan Mitroiu, Jesús Molinari, Scott Monks, Abigail J Moore, Ricardo Moratelli, Dávid Murányi, Takafumi Nakano, Svetlana Nikolaeva, John Noyes, Michael Ohl, Nora H Oleas, Thomas Orrell, Barna Páll-Gergely, Thomas Pape, Viktor Papp, Lynne R Parenti, David Patterson, Igor Ya Pavlinov, Ronald H Pine, Péter Poczai, Jefferson Prado, Divakaran Prathapan, Richard K Rabeler, John E Randall, Frank E Rheindt, Anders G J Rhodin, Sara M Rodríguez, D Christopher Rogers, Fabio de O Roque, Kevin C Rowe, Luis A Ruedas, Jorge Salazar-Bravo, Rodrigo B Salvador, George Sangster, Carlos E Sarmiento, Dmitry S Schigel, Stefan Schmidt, Frederick W Schueler, Hendrik Segers, Neil Snow, Pedro G B Souza-Dias, Riaan Stals, Soili Stenroos, R Douglas Stone, Charles F Sturm, Pavel Štys, Pablo Teta, Daniel C Thomas, Robert M Timm, Brian J Tindall, Jonathan A Todd, Dagmar Triebel, Antonio G Valdecasas, Alfredo Vizzini, Maria S Vorontsova, Jurriaan M de Vos, Philipp Wagner, Les Watling, Alan Weakley, Francisco Welter-Schultes, Daniel Whitmore, Nicholas Wilding, Kipling Will, Jason Williams, Karen Wilson, Judith E Winston, Wolfgang Wüster, Douglas Yanega, David K Yeates, Hussam Zaher, Guanyang Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Hong-Zhang Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Kirsty S Lee, Heather Brittain, Tracy Vaillancourt
We investigated the longitudinal associations between self-reported aggression, self-perceived social status, and dating in adolescence using an intrasexual competition theoretical framework. Participants consisted of 536 students in Grade 9 (age 15), recruited from a community sample, who were assessed on a yearly basis until they were in Grade 11 (age 17). Adolescents self-reported their use of direct and indirect aggression, social status, and number of dating partners. A cross-lagged panel model that controlled for within-time covariance and across-time stability while examining cross-lagged pathways was used to analyze the data...
March 14, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
M J Schulze, R Henriques, K A Feldheim, R C K Bowie, S von der Heyden
Fishes belonging to the family Clinidae in South Africa display super-embryonation, a rare reproductive mode were females gestate broods at different gestational stages, but little is known regarding the mating systems of this family. Here we tested the hypothesis that multiple males would contribute not only to the offspring of each female, but that several males would contribute to each brood, by sampling Muraenoclinus dorsalis from three sampling locations along the west and south-west coast of South Africa...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Ammaly Phengvilaysouk, Jan Erik Lindberg, Viengsamai Sisongkham, Phonpaseuth Phengsavanh, Anna Jansson
This study investigated the effect of providing extra water and nesting material to Moo Lath sows on piglet survival and growth. Three treatments were evaluated in a randomized block design with six sows/treatment. In the Control treatment, sows were not provided with nesting material or extra water apart from that included in the feed (conventional smallholder practice). In treatment NM, nesting material was provided 1-2 days before expected farrowing. In treatment NMW, nesting material as in NM and extra water were provided ad libitum throughout the study...
March 13, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Christine Lembke, Daniel Stettin, Franziska Speck, Nico Ueberschaar, Sam De Decker, Wim Vyverman, Georg Pohnert
Recently the first pheromone of a marine diatom was identified to be the diketopiperazine (S,S)-diproline. This compound facilitates attraction between mating partners in the benthic diatom Seminavis robusta. Interestingly, sexualized S. robusta cells are attracted to both the natural pheromone (S,S)-diproline as well as to its enantiomer (R,R)-diproline. Usually stereospecificity is a prerequisite for successful substrate-receptor interactions, and especially pheromone perception is often highly enantioselective...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Gráinne I McNamara, Rosalind M John, Anthony R Isles
Genomic imprinting, the epigenetic process by which transcription occurs from a single parental allele, is believed to influence social behaviors in mammals. An important social behavior is group living, which is enriched in Eutherian mammals relative to monotremes and marsupials. Group living facilitates resource acquisition, defense of territory and co-care of young, but requires a stable social group with complex inter-individual relationships. Co-occurring with increased group living in Eutherians is an increase in the number of imprinted loci, including that spanning the maternally expressed Cdkn1c ...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Steven Arnocky
Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon
Offspring of female rats fed either a casein (CAS) diet or a low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) diet were compared in an animal model of chronic ethanol consumption to investigate whether maternal diet regulates the adaptive responses of offspring to postnatal ethanol exposure and potentially affects the development of liver disease in later life. Female rats were fed either a CAS or an SPI diet before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring from the same litter were pair-fed either a control or ethanol diet for six weeks (CAS/CON, CAS/EtOH, SPI/CON, and SPI/EtOH groups)...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
E E Connor, Y Zhou, G E Liu
Olfactory receptors are G-protein coupled chemoreceptors expressed on millions of olfactory sensory neurons within the nasal cavity. These receptors detect environmental odorants and signal the brain regarding the location of feed, potential mates, and the presence of possible threats (e.g., predators or chemical toxins). Olfactory receptors also are present in organs outside of the nasal cavity where they bind to molecules such as nutrients and metabolites from the animal's internal environment to elicit physiological responses, including changes in gut motility, ventilation rate, and cellular migration...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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