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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919647/the-functions-of-serpin-3-a-negative-regulator-involved-in-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-antimicrobial-peptides-expression-of-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#1
Xialu Wang, Kailin Wang, Yuanyuan He, Xinrui Lu, Daihua Wen, Chunfu Wu, Jinghai Zhang, Rong Zhang
Serpins are a superfamily of proteins engaged in various physiological processes in all kingdoms of life. To date, many striking results have demonstrated serpins are involved in the invertebrate immune system by regulating the proteolytic cascades. However, in most insect species, the immune functions of serpins in response against pathogen invasion remain obscure. In this study, we identified a full-length cDNA sequence of serpin, named serpin-3, from the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi. Sequence alignments have indicated that Apserpin-3 might regulate the melanization reaction via inhibiting prophenoloxidases-activating protease(s) in plasma...
December 2, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914524/the-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-gene-family-in-isatis-indigotica-fort-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis
#2
Rui-Fang Ma, Qian-Zi Liu, Ying Xiao, Lei Zhang, Qing Li, Jun Yin, Wan-Sheng Chen
Phenolic compounds, metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway, play an important role in the growth and environmental adaptation of many plants. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a multi-gene family in I. Indigotic and, if so, to characterize their properties. We conducted a comprehensive survey on the transcription profiling database by using tBLASTn analysis. Several bioinformatics methods were employed to perform the prediction of composition and physicochemical characters...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909045/a-subset-of-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzymes-are-essential-for-plant-immunity
#3
Bangjun Zhou, Ravi V Mural, Xuanyang Chen, Matt E Oates, Richard A Connor, Gregory B Martin, Julian Gough, Lirong Zeng
Of the three classes of enzymes involved in ubiquitination, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) have been often incorrectly considered to play merely an auxiliary role in the process and few E2 enzymes have been investigated in plants. To reveal the role of E2 in plant innate immunity we identified and cloned forty tomato genes encoding E2 proteins. Thioester assays indicated the majority of the genes encode enzymatically active E2. Phylogenetic analysis classified the forty tomato E2 into thirteen groups, of which members of group III were found to interact and act specifically with AvrPtoB, a Pseudomonas syringae pv...
December 1, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901067/a-chitin-deacetylase-from-the-endophytic-fungus-pestalotiopsis-sp-efficiently-inactivates-the-elicitor-activity-of-chitin-oligomers-in-rice-cells
#4
Stefan Cord-Landwehr, Rebecca L J Melcher, Stephan Kolkenbrock, Bruno M Moerschbacher
To successfully survive in plants, endophytes need strategies to avoid being detected by the plant immune system, as the cell walls of endophytes contain easily detectible chitin. It is possible that endophytes "hide" this chitin from the plant immune system by modifying it, or oligomers derived from it, using chitin deacetylases (CDA). To explore this hypothesis, we identified and expressed a CDA from Pestalotiopsis sp. (PesCDA), an endophytic fungus, in E. coli and characterized this enzyme and its chitosan oligomer products...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897983/effects-of-polysaccharide-elicitors-from-endophytic-fusarium-oxysporum-fat9-on-the-growth-flavonoid-accumulation-and-antioxidant-property-of-fagopyrum-tataricum-sprout-cultures
#5
Lingyun Zhong, Bei Niu, Lin Tang, Fang Chen, Gang Zhao, Jianglin Zhao
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896555/methyl-jasmonate-induced-monoterpenes-in-scots-pine-and-norway-spruce-tissues-affect-pine-weevil-orientation
#6
Lina Lundborg, Göran Nordlander, Niklas Björklund, Henrik Nordenhem, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson
In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895647/exogenous-trehalose-treatment-enhances-the-activities-of-defense-related-enzymes-and-triggers-resistance-against-downy-mildew-disease-of-pearl-millet
#7
Sharathchandra R Govind, Sudisha Jogaiah, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Hunthrike S Shetty, Lam-Son P Tran
In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888535/chitin-receptor-cerk1-links-salt-stress-and-chitin-triggered-innate-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#8
Catherine Espinoza, Yan Liang, Gary Stacey
In nature, plants need to respond to multiple environmental stresses that require involvement and fine-tuning of different stress signaling pathways. Cross-tolerance in which plants pre-treated with chitin (a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern) have improved salt tolerance was observed in Arabidopsis but is not well understood. Here, we show a unique link between chitin and salt signaling mediated by the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1). Transcriptome analysis revealed that salt stress-induced genes are highly correlated with chitin-induced genes, while this was not observed with other microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) or with other abiotic stresses...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877181/plant-metabolic-engineering-strategies-for-the-production-of-pharmaceutical-terpenoids
#9
REVIEW
Xu Lu, Kexuan Tang, Ping Li
Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer's disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies hold great promise to regulate the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoids...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876840/transcriptome-profiling-shows-gene-regulation-patterns-in-ginsenoside-pathway-in-response-to-methyl-jasmonate-in-panax-quinquefolium-adventitious-root
#10
Juan Wang, Jinxin Li, Jianli Li, Shujie Liu, Xiaolei Wu, Jing Li, Wenyuan Gao
Here, we combine elicitors and transcriptomics to investigate the inducible biosynthesis of the ginsenoside from the Panax quinquefolium. Treatment of P. quinquefolium adventitious root with methyl jasmonate (MJ) results in an increase in ginsenoside content (43.66 mg/g compared to 8.32 mg/g in control group). Therefore, we sequenced the transcriptome of native and MJ treated adventitious root in order to elucidate the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Through DEG analysis, we found that 5,759 unigenes were up-regulated and 6,389 unigenes down-regulated in response to MJ treatment...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876628/blocking-antibodies-induced-by-immunization-with-a-hypoallergenic-parvalbumin-mutant-reduce-allergic-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-fish-allergy
#11
Raphaela Freidl, Antonia Gstoettner, Ulrike Baranyi, Ines Swoboda, Frank Stolz, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, Thomas Wekerle, Ronald van Ree, Rudolf Valenta, Birgit Linhart
BACKGROUND: Fish is a frequent elicitor of severe IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Beside avoidance, there is currently no allergen-specific therapy available. Hypoallergenic variants of the major fish allergen, parvalbumin, for specific immunotherapy based on mutation of the two calcium-binding sites have been developed. OBJECTIVE: To establish a mouse model of fish allergy resembling human disease and to investigate whether mouse and rabbit IgG antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic mutant of the major carp allergen, mCyp c 1, protect against allergic symptoms in sensitized mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875995/high-throughput-gene-expression-quantification-of-grapevine-defense-responses-in-the-field-using-microfluidic-dynamic-arrays
#12
Marie-Cécile Dufour, Noël Magnin, Bernard Dumas, Sophie Vergnes, Marie-France Corio-Costet
BACKGROUND: The fight against grapevine diseases due to biotrophic pathogens usually requires the massive use of chemical fungicides with harmful environmental effects. An alternative strategy could be the use of compounds able to stimulate plant immune responses which significantly limit the development of pathogens in laboratory conditions. However, the efficiency of this strategy in natura is still insufficient to be included in pest management programs. To understand and to improve the mode of action of plant defense stimulators in the field, it is essential to develop reliable tools that describe the resistance status of the plant upon treatment...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870557/visual-cue-specific-craving-is-diminished-in-stressed-smokers
#13
Justinn R Cochran, Nathan S Consedine, John M J Lee, Chinmay Pandit, John J Sollers Iii, Robert R Kydd
BACKGROUND: Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. METHOD: Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854330/enhanced-production-of-anthraquinones-and-phenolic-compounds-and-biological-activities-in-the-cell-suspension-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#14
Muthu Thiruvengadam, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Taek-Jun Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ill-Min Chung
Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853836/increasing-the-synthesis-of-bioactive-abietane-diterpenes-in-salvia-sclarea-hairy-roots-by-elicited-transcriptional-reprogramming
#15
M C Vaccaro, M E Alfieri, N Malafronte, N De Tommasi, A Leone
Transcriptional activation of genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway by elicitation with methyl jasmonate and coronatine enhanced the content of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots. We have shown that aethiopinone, an abietane diterpene synthesized in Salvia sclarea roots is cytotoxic and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. To develop a production platform for this compound and other abietane diterpenes, hairy root technology was combined with the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the phytotoxin coronatine (Cor)...
November 16, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853298/structured-plant-metabolomics-for-the-simultaneous-exploration-of-multiple-factors
#16
Nikolay Vasilev, Julien Boccard, Gerhard Lang, Ulrike Grömping, Rainer Fischer, Simon Goepfert, Serge Rudaz, Stefan Schillberg
Multiple factors act simultaneously on plants to establish complex interaction networks involving nutrients, elicitors and metabolites. Metabolomics offers a better understanding of complex biological systems, but evaluating the simultaneous impact of different parameters on metabolic pathways that have many components is a challenging task. We therefore developed a novel approach that combines experimental design, untargeted metabolic profiling based on multiple chromatography systems and ionization modes, and multiblock data analysis, facilitating the systematic analysis of metabolic changes in plants caused by different factors acting at the same time...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852424/hypersensitivity-to-beta-lactam-antibiotics-a-three-year-study
#17
I Mota, Â Gaspar, M Chambel, S Piedade, M Morais-Almeida
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactams antibiotics (BL) are the most frequent elicitors of allergic drug reactions. The aim of our study was to characterize the patients referred with suspected hypersensitivity (HS) to BL. METHODS: Over a three-year period (2011-2013), a total of 234 adult and paediatric patients (pts) with suspected HS to BL were investigated according to the European Network for Drug Allergy guidelines. RESULTS: HS to BL was confirmed in 43 pts (18%), without differences between adult and paediatric pts; anaphylaxis was reported by 20 pts...
November 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851826/transcriptional-responses-and-gentiopicroside-biosynthesis-in-methyl-jasmonate-treated-gentiana-macrophylla-seedlings
#18
Xiaoyan Cao, Xiaorong Guo, Xinbing Yang, Huaiqin Wang, Wenping Hua, Yihan He, Jiefang Kang, Zhezhi Wang
Gentiana macrophylla, a medicinal plant with significant pharmacological properties, contains the bioactive compound gentiopicroside. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an effective elicitor for enhancing the production of such compounds. However, little is known about MeJA-mediated biosynthesis of gentiopicroside. We investigated this phenomenon as well as gene expression profiles to determine the molecular mechanisms for MeJA-mediated gentiopicroside biosynthesis and regulation in G. macrophylla. Our HPLC results showed that Gentiana macrophylla seedlings exposed to MeJA had significantly higher concentrations of gentiopicroside when compared with control plants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844244/metabolo-transcriptome-profiling-of-barley-reveals-induction-of-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase-gene-hvcerk1-conferring-resistance-against-fusarium-graminearum
#19
Shailesh Karre, Arun Kumar, Dhananjay Dhokane, Ajjamada C Kushalappa
We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant...
November 14, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826811/inducible-de-novo-biosynthesis-of-isoflavonoids-in-soybean-leaves-by-spodoptera-litura-derived-elicitors-tracer-techniques-aided-by-high-resolution-lcms
#20
Ryu Nakata, Yuki Kimura, Kenta Aoki, Naoko Yoshinaga, Masayoshi Teraishi, Yutaka Okumoto, Alisa Huffaker, Eric A Schmelz, Naoki Mori
Isoflavonoids are a characteristic family of natural products in legumes known to mediate a range of plant-biotic interactions. For example, in soybean (Glycine max: Fabaceae) multiple isoflavones are induced and accumulate in leaves following attack by Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. To quantitatively examine patterns of activated de novo biosynthesis, soybean (Var. Enrei) leaves were treated with a combination of plant defense elicitors present in S. litura gut content extracts and L-α-[(13)C9, (15)N]phenylalanine as a traceable isoflavonoid precursor...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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