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Jinxin Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Dahui Liu, Jianli Li, Wenyuan Gao
In this work, we selected three fungi strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae) as elicitors prepared from mycelium or fermentation broth to improve ginsenosides production in adventitious roots culture. The results showed that ginsenosides production (29.90±4.67mg·g(-1)) was significantly enhanced upon elicitation with 200 mg· L(-1)A. niger elicitor prepared from mycelium, which was 3.52-fold of untreated group. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis was performed, showing that ginsenoside Rb3 was present after treatment with the A...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Nilanjan Chakraborty, Sudeepa Ghosh, Swarnendu Chandra, Sarban Sengupta, Krishnendu Acharya
Improvement of the host resistance by using hazard free chemical elicitors is emerging as an alternative approach in the field of plant disease management. In our present work, we have screened the efficacy and possible mechanism of abiogenic elicitors like Dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate (K2HPO4), Oxalic acid (OA), Isonicotinic acid (INA), Salicylic acid (SA), Acetylsalicylate (AS), Arachidonic acid (AA) and Calcium chloride (CaCl2) to stimulate innate immune responses in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Marimuthu Maruthi Kalaiselvi, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars 'IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46' under greenhouse condition...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dorit Lubitz, Volker F Wendisch
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum is a well-studied bacterium which naturally overproduces glutamate when induced by an elicitor. Glutamate production is accompanied by decreased 2-oxoglutatate dehydrogenase activity. Elicitors of glutamate production by C. glutamicum analyzed to molecular detail target the cell envelope. RESULTS: Ciprofloxacin, an inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, was shown to inhibit growth of C. glutamicum wild type with concomitant excretion of glutamate...
October 7, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Mukesh Meena, Andleeb Zehra, Manish K Dubey, Mohd Aamir, Vijai K Gupta, Ram S Upadhyay
In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fei Chen, Cheng-Gang Ren, Tong Zhou, Yu-Jia Wei, Chuan-Chao Dai
Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26-42. Differential membrane proteomics of A...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yuntong Jiao, Weirong Xu, Dong Duan, Yuejin Wang, Peter Nick
Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. 'Carigane' (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Chen Chen, Yuan Zhang, Kuliman Qiakefu, Xuan Zhang, Limin Han, Wenping Hua, Yaping Yan, Zhezhi Wang
Tanshinones are a group of active diterpenes with pharmacological properties, are widely used in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Jasmonate (JA) acts as an elicitor to enhance tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza. However, due to high labor costs and undesirable chemical characteristics, the use of JA elicitation is still in the experimental stage. In our experiments, overexpression of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) Prosystemin (LePS) in transgenic plants of S. miltiorrhiza increased their JA concentrations, significantly enhanced productions of tanshinone, as well as activated the expression of key genes in the tanshinone biosynthesis pathway...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mijoon Lee, Supurna Dhar, Stefania De Benedetti, Dusan Hesek, Bill Boggess, Blas Blázquez, Kalai Mathee, Shahriar Mobashery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Emily E Helliwell, Qin Wang, Yinong Yang
Recent studies have suggested that ethylene enhances host resistance to fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. Among the six ACS genes in rice, OsACS1 and OsACS2 are induced within 24 hours of inoculation by M. oryzae. This induction occurs simultaneously with an increase in ethylene production that is noticeable 12 hours post inoculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the dynamics of ethylene production and signaling in wild type and RNAi-mediated suppression lines deficient in ethylene production (acs2) or signaling (eil1) after challenge with M...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Pavla Satková, Tomáš Starý, Veronika Plešková, Martina Zapletalová, Tomáš Kašparovský, Lucie Činčalová-Kubienová, Lenka Luhová, Barbora Mieslerová, Jaromír Mikulík, Jan Lochman, Marek Petřivalský
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current strategies for increased crop protection of susceptible tomato plants against pathogen infections include treatment with synthetic chemicals, application of natural pathogen-derived compounds or transfer of resistance genes from wild tomato species within breeding programmes. In this study, a series of 45 genes potentially involved in defence mechanisms was retrieved from the genome sequence of inbred reference tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum 'Heinz 1706'...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Botany
José P da Graça, Tatiana E Ueda, Tatiani Janegitz, Simone S Vieira, Mariana C Salvador, Maria C N de Oliveira, Sonia M Zingaretti, Stephen J Powers, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett, Clara B Hoffmann-Campo
To test the hypothesis that the plant stress related elicitor cis-jasmone (cJ) provides protection in soybean pods against the seed-sucking stink bug pest, Euschistus heros, the growth of E. heros on cJ-treated pods was investigated using three soybean cultivars differing in insect susceptibility, i.e. BRS 134 (susceptible), IAC 100 (resistant) and Dowling (resistant). E. heros showed reduced weight gain when fed cJ-treated Dowling, whereas no effect on weight gain was observed when fed other treated cultivars...
November 2016: Phytochemistry
Praveen Awasthi, Vidushi Mahajan, Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Nitika Kapoor, Shafaq Rasool, Yashbir S Bedi, Sumit G Gandhi
Flavonoids are an important class of secondary metabolites that play various roles in plants such as mediating defense, floral pigmentation and plant-microbe interaction. Flavonoids are also known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) is an important medicinal herb with a diverse metabolic profile, including production of a flavonoid, genkwanin. However, components of the flavonoid pathway have not yet been studied in this plant. Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyses the first committed step of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Fausto Andres Ortiz-Morea, Daniel V Savatin, Wim Dejonghe, Rahul Kumar, Yu Luo, Maciej Adamowski, Jos Van den Begin, Keini Dressano, Guilherme Pereira de Oliveira, Xiuyang Zhao, Qing Lu, Annemieke Madder, Jiří Friml, Daniel Scherer de Moura, Eugenia Russinova
The Arabidopsis thaliana endogenous elicitor peptides (AtPeps) are released into the apoplast after cellular damage caused by pathogens or wounding to induce innate immunity by direct binding to the membrane-localized leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, PEP RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) and PEPR2. Although the PEPR-mediated signaling components and responses have been studied extensively, the contributions of the subcellular localization and dynamics of the active PEPRs remain largely unknown. We used live-cell imaging of the fluorescently labeled and bioactive pep1 to visualize the intracellular behavior of the PEPRs in the Arabidopsis root meristem...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Huajian Zhang, Tongyao Zhao, Peitong Zhuang, Zhiqiang Song, Hui Du, Zhaozhao Tang, Zhimou Gao
SsCut, which functions as an elicitor, can induce plant immunity. In this study, we utilized Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing to individually decrease the expression of over 2,500 genes. Using this forward genetics approach, several genes were identified that, when silenced, compromised SsCut-triggered cell death based on a cell death assay. A C2H2-type zinc finger gene was isolated from N. benthamiana Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 27-kDa protein with 253 amino acids containing two typical C2H2-type zinc finger domains; this gene was named NbCZF1 We found that SsCut-induced cell death could be inhibited by virus-induced gene silencing of NbCZF1 in N...
September 20, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jianli Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Jinxin Li, Wenyuan Gao
This study reports the best culture conditions for roots growth and accumulation of active components by optimizing the parameters. Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious roots metabolites were significantly increased after adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Meyerozyma guilliermondii. The highest contents of polysaccharide, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid and total flavonoids were obtained in Meyerozyma guilliermondii group, the content of glycyrrhizic acid was 5.3-fold higher than the control. In control and treatment groups, twelve compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS),among which, some new compounds have been detected in elicitor groups including 5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone, glycyrrhisoflavanone, licorice saponin J2, uralsaponin B, (3R)-vestitol, uralenol...
September 20, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Garrett P League, Julián F Hillyer
BACKGROUND: As both larvae and adults, mosquitoes encounter a barrage of immune insults, ranging from microbe-rich communities in larval habitats to ingested blood-borne pathogens in adult blood meals. Given that mosquito adults have evolved an efficient means of eliminating infections in their hemocoel (body cavity) via the coordinated action of their immune and circulatory systems, the goal of the present study was to determine whether such functional integration is also present in larvae...
2016: BMC Biology
Ralph Kissen, Anders Øverby, Per Winge, Atle M Bones
BACKGROUND: Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are degradation products of the plant secondary metabolites glucosinolates (GSLs) and are known to affect human health as well as plant herbivores and pathogens. To investigate the processes engaged in plants upon exposure to isothiocyanate we performed a genome scale transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana at different time points in response to an exogenous treatment with allyl-isothiocyanate. RESULTS: The treatment triggered a substantial response with the expression of 431 genes affected (P < 0...
2016: BMC Genomics
Zhenyu Cheng
Recently, we found that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II secreted protease IV functions as a unique Arabidopsis innate immunity elicitor. The protease IV-activated pathway involves G protein signaling and raises the question of how protease elicitation leads to the activation of G protein-mediated signaling, because plants do not appear to have metazoan-like G protein-coupled receptors. Importantly, our data suggest that Arabidopsis has evolved a mechanism to detect the proteolytic activity of a pathogen-encoded protease, supporting the host-pathogen arms race model...
September 16, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Nino A Espinas, Koichi Kobayashi, Yasushi Sato, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Kaori Takahashi, Ryouichi Tanaka, Tatsuru Masuda
Heme is involved in various biological processes as a cofactor of hemoproteins located in various organelles. In plant cells, heme is synthesized by two isoforms of plastid-localized ferrochelatase, FC1 and FC2. In this study, by characterizing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants, we showed that the allocation of heme is differentially regulated by ferrochelatase isoforms in plant cells. Analyses of weak (fc1-1) and null (fc1-2) mutants suggest that FC1-producing heme is required for initial growth of seedling development...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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