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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349493/biotic-elicitation-of-ginsenoside-metabolism-of-mutant-adventitious-root-culture-in-panax-ginseng
#1
Kim-Cuong Le, Wan-Taek Im, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
Biotic elicitation is an important biotechnological strategy for triggering the accumulation of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. These biotic elicitors can be obtained from safe, economically important strains of bacteria found in the rhizosphere and fermented foods. Here, we assayed the effects of filtered cultures of five nitrogen-fixing bacteria and four types of fermentation bacteria on mutant adventitious Panax ginseng root cultures induced in a previous study by colchicine treatment...
January 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343665/molecular-characterization-of-gliadins-of-chinese-spring-wheat-in-relation-to-celiac-disease-elicitors
#2
Kanako Kawaura, Mayuko Miura, Yoko Kamei, Tatsuya M Ikeda, Yasunari Ogihara
The wheat seed storage proteins gliadin and glutenin are encoded by multigenes. Gliadins are further classified into α-, γ-, δ- and ω-gliadins. Genes encoding α-gliadins belong to a large multigene family, whose members are located on the homoeologous group 6 chromosomes at the Gli-2 loci. Genes encoding other gliadins are located on the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes at the Gli-1 loci. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to characterize and profile the gliadins. The gliadins in aneuploid Chinese Spring wheat lines were then compared in this study...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340758/plants-eavesdrop-on-cues-produced-by-snails-and-induce-costly-defenses-that-affect-insect-herbivores
#3
John L Orrock, Brian M Connolly, Won-Gyu Choi, Peter W Guiden, Sarah J Swanson, Simon Gilroy
Although induced defenses are widespread in plants, the degree to which plants respond to herbivore kairomones (incidental chemicals that herbivores produce independent of herbivory), the costs and benefits of responding to cues of herbivory risk, and the ecological consequences of induced defenses remain unclear. We demonstrate that undamaged tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum, induce defenses in response to a kairomone (locomotion mucus) of snail herbivores (Helix aspersa). Induced defense had significant costs and benefits for plants: plants exposed to snail mucus or a standard defense elicitor (methyl jasmonate, MeJA) exhibited slower growth, but also experienced less herbivory by an insect herbivore (Spodoptera exigua)...
January 16, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332318/intraspecific-differences-in-plant-defense-induction-by-fall-armyworm-strains
#4
Flor E Acevedo, Michelle Peiffer, Swayamjit Ray, Robert Meagher, Dawn S Luthe, Gary W Felton
The underlying adaptive mechanisms by which insect strains are associated with specific plants are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of herbivore-induced defenses in the host plant association of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) strains. We tested the expression of herbivore-induced defense-related genes and the activity of plant-defensive proteins in maize and Bermuda grass upon feeding by fall armyworm strains. The rice strain caterpillars induced greater accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in maize than the corn strain caterpillars...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332285/immunity-associated-programmed-cell-death-as-a-tool-for-the-identification-of-genes-essential-for-plant-innate-immunity
#5
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
Plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immune system to contend with potential infection by various pathogens. Understanding and manipulation of key molecular mechanisms that plants use to defend against various pathogens are critical for developing novel strategies in plant disease control. In plants, resistance to attempted pathogen infection is often associated with hypersensitive response (HR), a form of rapid programmed cell death (PCD) at the site of attempted pathogen invasion. In this chapter, we describe a method for rapid identification of genes that are essential for plant innate immunity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332281/programmed-cell-death-in-plants-an-overview
#6
Vittoria Locato, Laura De Gara
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a controlled mechanism that eliminates specific cells under developmental or environmental stimuli. All organisms-from bacteria to multicellular eukaryotes-have the ability to induce PCD in selected cells. Although this process was first identified in plants, the interest in deciphering the signaling pathways leading to PCD strongly increased when evidence came to light that PCD may be involved in several human diseases. In plants, PCD activation ensures the correct occurrence of growth and developmental processes, among which embryogenesis and differentiation of tracheary elements...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318637/factors-increasing-the-risk-for-a-severe-reaction-in-anaphylaxis-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-european-anaphylaxis-registry
#7
Margitta Worm, Wojciech Francuzik, Jean-Marie Renaudin, Maria Beatrice Bilo, Victòria Cardona, Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier, Alice Köhli, Andrea Bauer, George Christoff, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Thomas Hawranek, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Lars Lange, Vera Mahler, Antonella Muraro, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Claudia Pföhler, Iwona Poziomkowska-Gęsicka, Franziska Ruëff, Thomas Spindler, Regina Treudler, Montserrat Fernandez-Rivas, Sabine Dölle
BACKGROUND: Preventive measures to decrease the frequency and intensity of anaphylactic events are essential to provide optimal care for allergic patients. Aggravating factors may trigger or increase the severity of anaphylaxis and therefore need to be recognized and avoided. OBJECTIVE: To identify and prioritize factors associated with an increased risk of developing severe anaphylaxis. METHODS: Data from the Anaphylaxis Registry (122 centers in 11 European countries) was used in logistic regression models considering existing severity grading systems, elicitors, and symptoms to identify the relative risk of factors on the severity of anaphylaxis...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311497/the-effects-of-abscisic-acid-salicylic-acid-and-jasmonic-acid-on-lipid-accumulation-in-two-freshwater-chlorella-strains
#8
Guanxun Wu, Zhengquan Gao, Huanmin Du, Bin Lin, Yuchen Yan, Guoqiang Li, Yanyun Guo, Shenggui Fu, Gongxiang Wei, Miaomiao Wang, Meng Cui, Chunxiao Meng
Sustainable renewable energy is being hotly debated globally because the continued use of finite fossil fuels is now widely recognized as being unsustainable. Microalgae potentially offer great opportunities for resolving this challenge. Abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are involved in regulating many physiological properties and have been widely used in higher plants. To test if phytohormones have an impact on accumulating lipid for microalgae, ABA, JA and SA were used to induce two Chlorella strains in the present study...
December 30, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301045/ozone-triggered-surface-uptake-and-stress-volatile-emissions-in-nicotiana-tabacum-wisconsin
#9
Arooran Kanagendran, Leila Pazouki, Shuai Li, Bin Liu, Astrid Kännaste, Ülo Niinemets
Ozone is a strong oxidant and a key stress elicitor. The immediate and longer term impacts of ozone are poorly understood in species with emission of both de novo synthesized and stored volatiles, such a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which has terpene-containing glandular trichomes on the leaf surface. In this study, we exposed N. tabacum 'Wisconsin' leaves to acute ozone doses of 0 (control), 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppb for 30 min and studied the effects of ozone exposure on ozone uptake, gas-exchange characteristics, and emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301018/herbivore-derived-fatty-acid-amides-elicit-reactive-oxygen-species-burst-in-plants
#10
Anna Block, Shawn A Christensen, Charles T Hunter, Hans T Alborn
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be elicited by many forms of stress, including pathogen attack, abiotic stress, damage and insect infestation. Perception of microbe- or damage-associated elicitors triggers an ROS burst in many plant species; however, the impact of herbivore fatty-acid amides on ROS elicitation remains largely unexplored. In this study we show that the lepidopteran-derived fatty-acid amide elicitor N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (GLN18:3) can induce a ROS burst in multiple plant species. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis this ROS burst is partially dependent on the plasma membrane localized NADPH oxidases RBOHD and RBOHF, and an Arabidopsis rbohD/F double mutant produces enhanced GLN18:3-induced jasmonic acid...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298355/functional-regions-of-hpaxm-as-elicitors-with-specific-heat-tolerance-induce-the-hypersensitive-response-or-plant-growth-promotion-in-nonhost-plants
#11
Yue Liu, Xiaoyun Zhou, Wenbo Liu, Xiaohui Xiong, Chuyang Lv, Xiang Zhou, Weiguo Miao
HpaXm produced by the cotton leaf blight bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum is a novel harpin elicitor of the induced hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. We investigated whether fragments of HpaXm, compared with fragments of Hpa1Xoo, are sufficient for HR or plant growth promotion (PGP) elicitation using four synthetic peptides (HpaXm35-51, HpaXm10-39, Hpa1Xoo36-52 and Hpa1Xoo10-40). We also heated the fragments to determine the heat tolerance of the functional fragments. HpaXm35-51 and Hpa1Xoo36-52 induced hypersensitive response (HR)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291090/avoidance-of-biological-contaminants-through-sight-smell-and-touch-in-chimpanzees
#12
Cecile Sarabian, Barthelemy Ngoubangoye, Andrew J J MacIntosh
Avoiding biological contaminants is a well-known manifestation of the adaptive system of disgust. In theory, animals evolved with such a system to prevent pathogen and parasite infection. Bodily products are human-universal disgust elicitors, but whether they also elicit avoidance behaviour in non-human primates has yet to be tested. Here, we report experimental evidence that potential exposure to biological contaminants (faeces, blood, semen), as perceived via multiple sensory modalities (visual, olfactory, tactile), might influence feeding decisions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes)-our closest phylogenetic relatives...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275209/barley-adh-1-modulates-susceptibility-to-bgh-and-is-involved-in-chitin-induced-systemic-resistance
#13
Christoph L Käsbauer, Indira Priyadarshini Pathuri, Götz Hensel, Jochen Kumlehn, Ralph Hückelhoven, Reinhard K Proels
The plant primary energy metabolism is profoundly reorganized under biotic stress conditions and there is increasing evidence for a role of the fermentative pathway in biotic interactions. Previously we showed via transient gene silencing or overexpression a function of barley alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (HvADH-1) in the interaction of barley with the parasitic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). Here we extend our studies on stable transgenic barley events over- or under-expressing HvADH-1 to analyse ADH-1 functions at the level of whole plants...
December 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249134/galactose-%C3%AE-1-3-galactose-syndrome-an-italian-survey
#14
D Villalta, L Cecchi, A Farsi, F Chiarini, P Minale, S Voltolini, E Scala, O Quercia, L Muratore, V Pravettoni, A M Calamari, G Cortellini, R Asero
Background. The term of α-Gal syndrome, which includes the delayed allergy to red meat and the allergic reactions following the administration of cetuximab, is associated to the presence of specific IgE to α-Gal. In Italy, only anecdotal cases were reported so far. The Association of Italian Allergists (AAITO) carried out a survey with the aim of evaluating presence, characteristics, clinical features, and distribution of the syndrome in Italy. Methods. A web structured questionnaire was made available on the website of AAIITO from July 2016 to January 2017...
November 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247889/salicylaldehyde-synthase-activity-from-venturia-inaequalis-elicitor-treated-cell-culture-of-apple
#15
Amol Sarkate, Shashank Sagar Saini, Pranav Kumar, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Debabrata Sircar
Salicylic acid (SA) is known to trigger a number of plant defense responses upon pathogen attack. It is well known that apple (Malus domestica) plants respond to pathogen invasion by synthesizing SA, but its biosynthesis is not well understood. In this study, we report salicylaldehyde synthase (SAS) activity from Venturia inaequalis elicitor (VIE)-treated cell suspension cultures of apple (Malus domestica 'Florina'). SAS catalyzes non-oxidative C2-side chain cleavage of 2-coumaric acid to form salicylaldehyde (SALD) in the presence of a reducing agent such as cysteine...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241316/effect-of-jasmonic-acid-and-yeast-extract-elicitation-on-low-molecular-antioxidants-and-antioxidant-activity-of-marjoram-origanum-majorana-l
#16
Urszula Złotek
BACKGROUND: Elicitation, which is a way of inducing plant secondary metabolism, may be an effective method for improving the quality of plant food. The aim of this study was to determine how the application of jasmonic acid (as an abiotic elicitor) and yeast extract (as a biotic elicitor) influences the production of some bioactive compounds in marjoram and the antioxidant activity of this herb. METHODS: Elicitation with 0.01 µM and 1 µM jasmonic acid as well as 0...
October 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241147/combined-enzymatic-and-metabolic-analysis-of-grapevine-cell-responses-to-elicitors
#17
Yuko Krzyzaniak, Jonathan Negrel, Christelle Lemaitre-Guillier, Gilles Clément, Grégory Mouille, Agnès Klinguer, Sophie Trouvelot, Marie-Claire Héloir, Marielle Adrian
Elicitors trigger plant defense responses, including phytoalexin production and cell-wall reinforcement. Primary metabolism plays an important role in these responses as it fuels the associated energetic costs and provides precursors for the synthesis of the numerous secondary metabolites involved in defenses against pathogens. In this context, we aimed to determine whether oligosaccharidic elicitors differing in their capacity to activate defense-associated secondary metabolism in grapevine would differently impact primary metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232862/effect-of-oxylipins-terpenoid-precursors-and-wounding-on-soft-corals-secondary-metabolism-as-analyzed-via-uplc-ms-and-chemometrics
#18
Mohamed A Farag, Hildegard Westphal, Tarek F Eissa, Ludger A Wessjohann, Achim Meyer
The effect of three oxylipin analogues, a terpenoid intermediate and wounding on the secondary metabolism of the soft corals Sarcophyton glaucum and Lobophyton pauciflorum was assessed. Examined oxylipins included prostaglandin (PG-E1), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and arachidonic acid (AA) in addition to the diterpene precursor geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGP). Post-elicitation, metabolites were extracted from coral heads and analyzed via UPLC-MS followed by multivariate data analyses. Both supervised and unsupervised data analyses were used for sample classification...
December 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229616/glutamine-elicited-secretion-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-is-governed-by-an-activated-glutamate-dehydrogenase
#19
Lotta E Andersson, Liliya Shcherbina, Mahmoud Al-Majdoub, Neelanjan Vishnu, Claudia Balderas Arroyo, Jonathan Aste Carrara, Claes B Wollheim, Malin Fex, Hindrik Mulder, Nils Wierup, Peter Spégel
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from intestinal L-cells, glucose-dependently stimulates insulin secretion from beta-cells. This glucose-dependence prevents hypoglycemia, rendering GLP-1 analogues a useful and safe treatment modality in type-2 diabetes. While the amino acid glutamine is a potent elicitor of GLP-1 secretion, the responsible mechanism remains unclear.We investigated how GLP-1 secretion is metabolically coupled in L-cells (GLUTag) and in vivo in mice, using the insulin-secreting cell-line INS-1 832/13 as reference...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223336/association-of-candidate-genes-with-heading-date-in-a-diverse-dactylis-glomerata-population
#20
Xinxin Zhao, B Shaun Bushman, Xinquan Zhang, Matthew D Robbins, Steven R Larson, Joseph G Robins, Aaron Thomas
Flowering occurs in response to cues from both temperature and photoperiod elicitors in cool-season, long-day forage grasses, and genes involved in sensing the elicitors and inducing downstream flowering responses have been associated with heading date and flowering time in perennial forage grasses as well as cereal grasses. In this study we test for association between orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) heading date and polymorphisms in the CONSTANS (DgCO1), FLOWERING TIME (DgFT1), a VRN1 like MADS-box (DgMADS), and PHOTOPERIOD (DgPPD1-like) containing genes...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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