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Qi-Zhang Li, Yu-Zhou Chang, Kai-Qi Su, Xiao-Lei Wang, Xiao-Hui Bai, Xuan-Wei Zhou
Ganoderma mushrooms for medicinal use contain various bioactive compounds, but the genetic elements available for these medicinal mushrooms are still limited. In this study we cloned and analyzed the promoters of fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) genes from G. lucidum and G. atrum. FIP gene expression was induced by different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA), and messenger RNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results provided 5' upstream sequences of FIP genes from G...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Dongbo Xu, Linna Han, Chunhui Li, Qi Cao, Duolong Zhu, Nolan H Barrett, Dedra Harmody, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Peter J McCarthy, Xingmin Sun, Guojun Wang
The global prevalence of drug resistance has created an urgent need for the discovery of novel anti-infective drugs. The major source of antibiotics in current clinical practice is terrestrial actinobacteria; the less-exploited deep-sea actinobacteria may serve as an unprecedented source of novel natural products. In this study, we evaluated 50 actinobacteria strains derived from diverse deep water sponges and environmental niches for their anti-microbial activities against a panel of pathogens including Candida albicans , Clostridium difficile , Staphylococcus aureus , and methicillin-resistant S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kentaro Nakaminami, Masanori Okamoto, Mieko Higuchi-Takeuchi, Takeshi Yoshizumi, Yube Yamaguchi, Yoichiro Fukao, Minami Shimizu, Chihiro Ohashi, Maho Tanaka, Minami Matsui, Kazuo Shinozaki, Motoaki Seki, Kousuke Hanada
Peptides encoded by small coding genes play an important role in plant development, acting in a similar manner as phytohormones. Few hormone-like peptides, however, have been shown to play a role in abiotic stress tolerance. In the current study, 17 Arabidopsis genes coding for small peptides were found to be up-regulated in response to salinity stress. To identify peptides leading salinity stress tolerance, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing these small coding genes and assessed survivability and root growth under salinity stress conditions...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Victor M Rodriguez, Guillermo Padilla, Rosa A Malvar, Mario Kallenbach, Rogelio Santiago, Ana Butrón
Plants defend themselves against herbivores by activating a plethora of genetic and biochemical mechanisms aimed at reducing plant damage and insect survival. The short-term plant response to insect attack is well understood, but less is known about the maintenance of this response over time. We performed transcriptomic and metabolomics analyses in order to identify genes and metabolites involved in the long-term response of maize to attack by the corn borer Sesamina nonagrioides . To determine the role of elicitors present in caterpillar secretions, we also evaluated the response of maize stem challenged with insect regurgitates...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aikaterini Anagnostou
Anaphylaxis is defined as a serious, generalized or systemic allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. It is unpredictable and can be the result of various allergic triggers including food, insect venom and medication. The European Anaphylaxis Registry confirmed food as the major elicitor of anaphylaxis in children, specifically hen's egg, cow's milk and nuts. It has been reported that the incidence of anaphylaxis is on the rise. In the US, there is a continued trend of increasing food-induced anaphylaxis hospitalizations among children, which is supported by nationally representative data...
May 6, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
Fanlu Meng, Yao Xiao, Lihua Guo, Hongmei Zeng, Xiufen Yang, Dewen Qiu
PeaT1 is a proteinaceous elicitor from fungal pathogen Alternaria tenuissima. Our previous research revealed that this elicitor could induce defense response and enhance disease resistance in various plants including Nicotiana plants. However, immune activation mechanisms whereby PeaT1 elicits defense response remain unclear. In this study, the association between elicitor protein PeaT1 and the plasma membrane was assessed using the FITC (Fluorescein isothiocyanate) labeling method. A PeaT1-interacting protein was isolated via 125 I-PeaT1 cross-linking and Far Western blot analyses, and designated PtBP1 (PeaT1 Binding Protein 1)...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Huma Ali, Mubarak Ali Khan, Nazif Ullah, Raham Sher Khan
Light is an important physical factor necessary for the growth, morphogenesis and production of bioactive compounds in plants. In this study, effects of different photoperiod regimes and hormonal elicitors were investigated on the accumulation of biomass, antioxidant potential and biosynthesis of secondary volatiles in the cell cultures of Ajuga bracteosa. Maximum accumulation of biomass (13.2 g/L) was recorded in cell cultures established at 1.0 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BA) in exposure to continuous dark...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Xiaojiang Zheng, Seock Kang, Yanping Jing, Zhijie Ren, Legong Li, Jian-Min Zhou, Gerald Berkowitz, Jisen Shi, Aigen Fu, Wenzhi Lan, Fugeng Zhao, Sheng Luan
The plant elicitor peptides (Peps), a family of damage/danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are perceived by two receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, and contribute to plant defense against pathogen attack and abiotic stress. Here we show that the Peps-PEPR signaling pathway functions in stomatal immunity by activating guard cell anion channels in Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutant plants lacking both PEPR1 and PEPR2 (pepr1 pepr2) displayed enhanced bacterial growth after being sprayed with Pseudomonas syringae pv...
April 30, 2018: Plant Cell
Ching-Wen Tan, Michelle Peiffer, Kelli Hoover, Cristina Rosa, Flor E Acevedo, Gary W Felton
Obligate symbioses occur when organisms require symbiotic relationships to survive. Some parasitic wasps of caterpillars possess obligate mutualistic viruses called "polydnaviruses." Along with eggs, wasps inject polydnavirus inside their caterpillar hosts where the hatching larvae develop inside the caterpillar. Polydnaviruses suppress the immune systems of their caterpillar hosts, which enables egg hatch and wasp larval development. It is unknown whether polydnaviruses also manipulate the salivary proteins of the caterpillar, which may affect the elicitation of plant defenses during feeding by the caterpillar...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Feng Zhu, Antonino Cusumano, Janneke Bloem, Berhane T Weldegergis, Alexandre Villela, Nina E Fatouros, Joop J A van Loon, Marcel Dicke, Jeffrey A Harvey, Heiko Vogel, Erik H Poelman
Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasitoid's progeny to survive. Here we show that symbiotic polydnaviruses also have a downside to the parasitoid's progeny by initiating a multitrophic chain of interactions that reveals the parasitoid larvae to their enemies...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chao Du, Gilles P van Wezel
Natural products (NPs) are a major source of compounds for the medical, agricultural and biotechnological industry. Many of these compounds are of microbial origin, and in particular from Actinobacteria or filamentous fungi. To successfully identify novel compounds that correlate to a bioactivity of interest, or discover new enzymes with desired functions, systematic multi-omics approaches have been developed over the years. Bioinformatics tools harness the rapidly expanding wealth of genome sequence information, revealing previously unsuspected biosynthetic diversity...
April 30, 2018: Proteomics
Ryu Nakata, Naoko Yoshinaga, Masayoshi Teraishi, Yutaka Okumoto, Alisa Huffaker, Eric A Schmelz, Naoki Mori
To aid in the identification and quantification of biologically and agriculturally significant natural products, tandem mass spectrometry can provide accurate structural information with high selectivity and sensitivity. In this study, diagnostic fragmentation patterns of isoflavonoids were examined by liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS). The fragmentation scheme for [M+H-2CO]+ ions derived from isoflavones and [M+H-B-ring-CO]+ ions derived from 5-hydroxyisoflavones, were investigated using different isotopically labeled isoflavones, specifically [1',2',3',4',5',6',2,3,4-13 C9 ] and [2',3',5',6',2-D5 ] isoflavones...
April 26, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Pengyong Zhou, Xiaochang Mo, Wanwan Wang, Xia Chen, Yonggen Lou
Chemical elicitors that enhance plant resistance to pathogens have been extensively studied, however, chemical elicitors that induce plant defenses against insect pests have received little attention. Here, we found that the exogenous application of a commonly used bactericide, bismerthiazol, on rice induced the biosynthesis of constitutive and/or elicited jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile), ethylene and H₂O₂ but not salicylic acid. These activated signaling pathways altered the volatile profile of rice plants...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrea Balažová, Júlia Urdová, František Bilka, Ivana Holková, Branislav Horváth, Vladimír Forman, Pavel Mučaji
The basal production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants is limited. One of the effective approaches that encourages plants to produce a remarkable amount of precious compounds is an application of elicitors. Our work was focused on the elicitation of Eschscholzia californica Cham. suspension cultures using various concentrations of MnCl₂ (5; 10; 15 mg/L) with the aim of evaluating its effect on sanguinarine, chelerythrine, and macarpine production and gene expression of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of mentioned secondary metabolites (BBE, 4′-OMT, CYP80B1) or in defense processes (LOX)...
April 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sheo Shankar Pandey, Pradeep Kumar Patnana, Yasobanta Padhi, Subhadeep Chatterjee
Expression of hrp (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity) genes inside the host is crucial for virulence of phytopathogenic bacteria. The hrp genes encode components of type3 secretion system (T3SS), HR elicitors and several regulators, which are involved in the co-ordinated expression of hrp genes in the host environment and in hrp inducing chemically defined medium. However, little is known about specific host or environmental factors which may play a role in the induction of hrp gene expression. In this study, we show that iron-limiting condition elicits induced expression of hrp genes, including type3 secretion system (T3SS) and effectors (T3E)...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Yanan Zhang, Xia Yan, Hongmei Guo, Feiyang Zhao, Lili Huang
Previously, we reported the biocontrol effects of Saccharothrix yanglingensis strain Hhs.015 on Valsa mali . Here, we report a novel protein elicitor BAR11 from the biocontrol strain Hhs.015 and its functions in plant defense responses. Functional analysis showed that the elicitor BAR11 significantly stimulated plant systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. In addition, systemic tissues accumulated reactive oxygen species and deposited callose in a short period post-treatment compared with the control...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Lorena Almagro, María Angeles Pedreño, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara
Terbinafine induced a significant increase of squalene production. Terbinafine increased the expression levels of squalene synthase. Cyclodextrins did not work as elicitors due to the gene expression levels obtained. Plant sterols are essential components of membrane lipids, which contributing to their fluidity and permeability. Besides their cholesterol-lowering properties, they also have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer activities. Squalene, which is phytosterol precursor, is widely used in medicine, foods and cosmetics due to its anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-aging activities...
April 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ghasem Asgari-Targhi, Alireza Iranbakhsh, Zahra Oraghi Ardebili
Concerning environmental issues of metal based-nanomaterials and increasing demand for nano-based products; various strategies have been employed to find eco-friendly natural nano-compounds, among which nano-polymer chitosan is mostly considered. Herein, the various aspects of the way in which bulk or nano-chitosan may modify growth, morphogenesis, micropropagation, and physiology of Capsicum annuum L. were considered. Culture medium was manipulated with different concentrations of bulk chitosan or synthesized chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nano-particle...
April 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Reiofeli A Salas-Perez, Christopher A Saski, Rooksana E Noorai, Subodh K Srivastava, Amy L Lawton-Rauh, Robert L Nichols, Nilda Roma-Burgos
Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranthaceae) is a noxious weed in several agroecosystems and in some cases seriously threatens the sustainability of crop production in North America. Glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus species are widespread, prompting the use of alternatives to glyphosate such as glufosinate, in conjunction with glufosinate-resistant crop cultivars, to help control glyphosate-resistant weeds. An experiment was conducted to analyze the transcriptome of A. palmeri plants that survived exposure to 0.55 kg ha-1 glufosinate...
2018: PloS One
Qing Peng, Mimin Zhang, Long Gao, Ojokoh Eromosele, Yu Qiao, Bo Shi
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs) are linear oligosaccharides with alternating sequences of mannuronic acid (M) and guluronic acid (G) residues. AOs can be used as a safe elicitor to induce glyceollins, which have many human health benefits, in soybean seeds. In this research, four AO fractions with different chemical structures and molecular weights were separated, purified, and then characterized by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. With a 4,5-unsaturated hexuronic acid residue (△) at the non-reducing terminus, the structures of these four AO fractions were △G, △MG, △GMG and △MGGG, which exhibited glyceollin-inducing activities of 1...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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