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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428873/a-maize-landrace-that-emits-defense-volatiles-in-response-to%C3%A2-herbivore-eggs-possesses-a-strongly-inducible-terpene-synthase-gene
#1
Amanuel Tamiru, Toby J A Bruce, Annett Richter, Christine M Woodcock, Charles A O Midega, Jörg Degenhardt, Segenet Kelemu, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
Maize (Zea mays) emits volatile terpenes in response to insect feeding and egg deposition to defend itself against harmful pests. However, maize cultivars differ strongly in their ability to produce the defense signal. To further understand the agroecological role and underlying genetic mechanisms for variation in terpene emission among maize cultivars, we studied the production of an important signaling component (E)-caryophyllene in a South American maize landrace Braz1006 possessing stemborer Chilo partellus egg inducible defense trait, in comparison with the European maize line Delprim and North American inbred line B73...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#2
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420446/immune-resistance-and-tolerance-strategies-in-malaria-vector-and-non-vector-mosquitoes
#3
Tibebu Habtewold, Zoe Groom, George K Christophides
BACKGROUND: The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of species that vary greatly in their capacity to transmit malaria. The mosquito immune system has been identified as a key factor that can influence whether Plasmodium infection establishes within the mosquito vector. This study was designed to investigate the immune responses of An. coluzzii, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus mosquitoes. The first two mosquito species are major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, while the third is thought to be a non-vector...
April 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419172/enhanced-disease-resistance-and-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-rice-plants-overexpressing-protein-elicitors-from-magnaporthe-oryzae
#4
Zhenzhen Wang, Qiang Han, Qian Zi, Shun Lv, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng
Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416116/activation-of-a-plant-nlr-complex-through-heteromeric-association-with-an-autoimmune-risk-variant-of-another-nlr
#5
Diep T N Tran, Eui-Hwan Chung, Anette Habring-Müller, Monika Demar, Rebecca Schwab, Jeffery L Dangl, Detlef Weigel, Eunyoung Chae
When independently evolved immune receptor variants meet in hybrid plants, they can activate immune signaling in the absence of non-self recognition. Such autoimmune risk alleles have recurrently evolved at the DANGEROUS MIX2 (DM2) nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-encoding locus in A. thaliana. One of these activates signaling in the presence of a particular variant encoded at another NLR locus, DM1. We show that the risk variants of DM1 and DM2d NLRs signal through the same pathway that is activated when plant NLRs recognize non-self elicitors...
April 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406987/arabidopsis-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-like-kinase-nilr1-is-required-for-induction-of-innate-immunity-to-parasitic-nematodes
#6
Badou Mendy, Mary Wanjiku Wang'ombe, Zoran S Radakovic, Julia Holbein, Muhammad Ilyas, Divykriti Chopra, Nick Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Florian M W Grundler, Shahid Siddique
Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive pests causing losses of billions of dollars annually. An effective plant defence against pathogens relies on the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised receptors leading to the activation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Extensive studies have been conducted to characterise the role of PTI in various models of plant-pathogen interactions. However, far less is known about the role of PTI in roots in general and in plant-nematode interactions in particular...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402161/ein2-mediated-signaling-is-involved-in-pre-invasion-defense-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-against-potato-late-blight-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans
#7
Soriya Rin, Yuri Mizuno, Yusuke Shibata, Mayuka Fushimi, Shinpei Katou, Ikuo Sato, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuhito Kawakita, Daigo Takemoto
Nicotiana benthamiana ABCG1 and ABCG2 are ABC transporters which are probably involved in the export of capsidiol, the major phytoalexin of Nicotiana species. While capsidiol export by these transporters plays an essential role in post-invasion defense against Phytophthora infestans, they also export unidentified antimicrobial compound(s) involved in pre-invasion defense. In this study, promoter activity of NbABCG2 (Pabcg2a) was analyzed using a GFP marker. Expression of GFP under the control of Pabcg2a was significantly increased by co-expression with the INF1 elicitor from P...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401360/the-effects-of-multiphasic-prepulses-on-automatic-and-attention-modulated-prepulse-inhibition
#8
Albert B Poje, Diane L Filion
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is widely viewed as an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous research has shown that sensorimotor gating can occur automatically and also can be influenced by selective attention. The present research investigated the relationship of the transient detection response (TDR) with automatic and attention-modulated PPI using a novel "multiphasic" prepulse stimulus. Experiment 1 compared discrete versus multiphasic prepulse types in a no-task PPI protocol to validate multiphasic prepulses as effective elicitors of automatic sensorimotor gating...
April 11, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396898/-allergic-contact-dermatitis-of-the-scalp
#9
REVIEW
L Koch, W Aberer
Contact allergy represents an important differential diagnosis to other skin diseases of the scalp. The typical efflorescences, spreading in the periphery, pruritus, and the clinical history support the differential diagnosis. Since the scalp is particularly resistant to contact dermatitis, allergens applied to this area often produce dermatitis of the eyelids, ears and neck. Nevertheless, potent allergens such as para-phenylendiamine can also cause severe reactions of the scalp. The most important allergens eliciting contact allergy of the scalp are found in bleaches and dyes, shampoos and conditioners, products for perm waves and straighteners as well as topical drugs...
April 10, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387602/nucleoporin-nup88-mos7-is-required-for-manifestation-of-phenotypes-associated-with-the-arabidopsis-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase1-mutant-cerk1-4
#10
Bianca Genenncher, Volker Lipka, Elena K Petutschnig, Marcel Wiermer
Arabidopsis nucleoporin MOS7/NUP88 was identified in a forward-genetic screen for components that contribute to auto-immunity of the deregulated Resistance (R) gene mutant snc1, and is required for immunity to biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. In a recent study, we showed that MOS7 is also essential to mount a full defense response against the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, suggesting that MOS7 modulates plant defense responses to different types of pathogenic microbes. Here, we extend our analyses of MOS7-dependent plant immune responses and report the genetic requirement of MOS7 for manifestation of phenotypes associated with the CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1) mutant cerk1-4...
April 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383668/copper-amine-oxidase-8-regulates-arginine-dependent-nitric-oxide-production-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Felicitas Groß, Eva-Esther Rudolf, Björn Thiele, Jörg Durner, Jeremy Astier
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plants, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. However, its origin in plants remains unclear. It can be generated from nitrite through a reductive pathway, notably via the action of the nitrate reductase (NR), and evidence suggests an additional oxidative pathway, involving arginine. From an initial screen of potential Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in NO production, we identified copper amine oxidase 8 (CuAO8). Two cuao8 mutant lines displayed a decreased NO production in seedlings after elicitor treatment and salt stress...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381824/metabolomics-reveals-biotic-and-abiotic-elicitor-effects-on-the-soft-coral-sarcophyton-ehrenbergi-terpenoid-content
#12
Mohamed A Farag, Dalia A Al-Mahdy, Achim Meyer, Hildegard Westphal, Ludger A Wessjohann
The effects of six biotic and abiotic elicitors, i.e. MeJA (methyl jasmonate), SA (salicylic acid), ZnCl2, glutathione and β-glucan BG (fungal elicitor), and wounding, on the secondary metabolite accumulation in the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi were assessed. Upon elicitation, metabolites were extracted and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Except for MeJA, no differences in photosynthetic efficiency were observed after treatments, suggesting the absence of a remarkable stress on primary production...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376712/foliar-applied-ethephon-enhances-the-content-of-anthocyanin-of-black-carrot-roots-daucus-carota-ssp-sativus-var-atrorubens-alef
#13
Gregorio Barba-Espín, Stephan Glied, Christoph Crocoll, Tsaneta Dzhanfezova, Bjarne Joernsgaard, Finn Okkels, Henrik Lütken, Renate Müller
BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors, which act as molecular signals in plant stress responses. In the present study, ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound was explored as enhancer of anthocyanin and phenolic contents during growth of 'Deep Purple' black carrots...
April 4, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370092/expression-of-lima-bean-terpene-synthases-in-rice-enhances-recruitment-of-a-beneficial-enemy-of-a-major-rice-pest
#14
Feng-Qi Li, Wei Li, Yong-Jun Lin, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett, Kongming Wu, Guirong Wang, Jing-Jiang Zhou
Volatile terpenoids play a key role in plant defence against herbivory by attracting parasitic wasps. We identified seven terpene synthase genes from lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L. following treatment with either the elicitor alamethicin or spider mites, Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Four of which (Pltps2, Pltps3, Pltps4 and Pltps5) were upregulated, and their derived proteins are phylogenetically clustered in the TPS-g subfamily, with PlTPS3 positioned at the base of this cluster. Recombinant PlTPS3 was able to convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate to linalool and (E)-nerolidol, the latter being precursor of the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT)...
March 30, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369864/the-rice-lysm-receptor-like-kinase-oscerk1-is-required-for-the-perception-of-short-chain-chitin-oligomers-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-signaling
#15
Gennaro Carotenuto, Mireille Chabaud, Kana Miyata, Martina Capozzi, Naoya Takeda, Hanae Kaku, Naoto Shibuya, Tomomi Nakagawa, David G Barker, Andrea Genre
The rice lysin-motif (LysM) receptor-like kinase OsCERK1 is now known to have a dual role in both pathogenic and symbiotic interactions. Following the recent discovery that the Oscerk1 mutant is unable to host arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we have examined whether OsCERK1 is directly involved in the perception of the short-chain chitin oligomers (Myc-COs) identified in AM fungal exudates and shown to activate nuclear calcium (Ca(2+) ) spiking in the rice root epidermis. An Oscerk1 knockout mutant expressing the cameleon NLS-YC2...
March 29, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365771/elicitors-of-host-plant-defenses-partially-suppress-cacopsylla-pyricola-hemiptera-psyllidae-populations-under-field-conditions
#16
W Rodney Cooper, David R Horton
Defense elicitors are products that activate acquired defense responses in plants, thus rendering the plants less susceptible to attack by a broad range of pests. We demonstrated previously under laboratory conditions that foliar applications of the defense elicitors Actigard (acibenzolar-S-methyl), Employ (harpin protein), or ODC (chitosan) to potted pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) each caused an increase in mortality of Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) nymphs and altered the settling and oviposition behavior of the adults...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365519/tissue-specific-gene-expression-patterns-of-genes-associated-with-thymol-carvacrol-biosynthesis-in-thyme-thymus-vulgaris-l-and-their-differential-changes-upon-treatment-with-abiotic-elicitors
#17
Mohammad Majdi, Atefe Malekzadeh-Mashhady, Asad Maroufi, Christoph Crocoll
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is known to produce a variety of phenolic monoterpenes such as thymol and carvacrol. Thymol and carvacrol are health-promoting, biocide and antitoxin compounds and have been considered as the main constituents of essential oils in T. vulgaris. To improve our understanding of the regulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in thyme, the expression of genes related to thymol and carvacrol biosynthesis in different tissues and in response to abiotic elicitors was analyzed. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) and UV-C irradiation were applied to T...
March 25, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331586/how-to-induce-defense-responses-in-wild-plant-populations-using-bilberry-vaccinium-myrtillus-as-example
#18
Tarald Seldal, Stein Joar Hegland, Knut Rydgren, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Joachim Paul Töpper
Inducible plant defense is a beneficial strategy for plants, which imply that plants should allocate resources from growth and reproduction to defense when herbivores attack. Plant ecologist has often studied defense responses in wild populations by biomass clipping experiments, whereas laboratory and greenhouse experiments in addition apply chemical elicitors to induce defense responses. To investigate whether field ecologists could benefit from methods used in laboratory and greenhouse studies, we established a randomized block-design in a pine-bilberry forest in Western Norway...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330304/elicitation-of-gymnemic-acid-production-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-gymnema-sylvestre-r-br-through-endophytic-fungi
#19
Vasudeva Reddy Netala, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi, Susmila Aparna Gaddam, Sukhendu Bikash Ghosh, Vijaya Tartte
The enhancement of plant secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures through biotic or abiotic elicitation has become a potential biotechnological approach for commercialization or large-scale production of bioactive compounds. Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. is an important medicinal plant, rich in a group of oleanane triterpenoid saponins called gymnemic acid, well known for its anti-diabetic activity. Two endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the leaves of G. sylvestre and identified as Polyancora globosa and Xylaria sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330189/defense-response-enhancement-in-strawberry-via-elicitors
#20
Gihan M H Hussein, Tahany M A Abdel-Rahman, A H Alwan
In this study, cell-suspension culture of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), cultivars Camarosa, and Sweet Charlie has been established. Embryogenic callus was induced by incubating the in vitro juvenile leaf explants on medium, containing 2-mg/l picloram at dark. Suspension culture was initiated from 4-week-old embryogenic calli in the liquid MS medium with 1-mg/l 2,4-D and 2-mg/l picloram. Suspension culture was maintained by sub-culturing each 3 weeks into a fresh medium. At week 9 after third sub-cultures, torpedo and cotyledonary embryo stages were observed...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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