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Cleverson Carlos Matiolli, Maeli Melotto
Yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) cDNA library screening is a valuable tool to uncover protein-protein interactions and represents a widely used method to investigate protein function. However, cDNA libraries with low transcript representation limits the depth of the screening. We have developed a Y2H library with cDNA made from Arabidopsis leaves exposed to several stressors as well as untreated leaves. The library was built using pooled mRNA extracted from plants challenged with plant and human bacterial pathogens, the flg22 elicitor, the phytotoxin coronatine, and several hormones associated with environmental stress responses...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Audrey Kelner, Nuno Leitão, Mireille Chabaud, Myriam Charpentier, Fernanda de Carvalho-Niebel
Spatiotemporal changes in cellular calcium (Ca2+ ) concentrations are essential for signal transduction in a wide range of plant cellular processes. In legumes, nuclear and perinuclear-localized Ca2+ oscillations have emerged as key signatures preceding downstream symbiotic signaling responses. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) yellow-based Ca2+ cameleon probes have been successfully exploited to measure the spatiotemporal dynamics of symbiotic Ca2+ signaling in legumes. Although providing cellular resolution, these sensors were restricted to measuring Ca2+ changes in single subcellular compartments...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mrunal I Warhade, Rupesh S Badere
We started a cell suspension culture from magenta coloured calli of cockscomb to study the effect of biotic and abiotic elicitors on the biosynthesis of betalain pigments. The cultures were grown in a flask containing 30 ml MS media fortified with 13.5 μM 2,4-D and 0.44 μM BAP. These cultures were elicited during its log-phase of growth using fungal elicitors (prepared from mycelia of Fusarium oxysporum) , yeast extract, copper sulphate and cobalt chloride. The elicitation reduced the cell count, cell viability and percent pigmented cell in the suspension culture...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Tomonori Shinya, Shigetaka Yasuda, Kiwamu Hyodo, Rena Tani, Yuko Hojo, Yuka Fujiwara, Kei Hiruma, Takuma Ishizaki, Yasunari Fujita, Yusuke Saijo, Ivan Galis
Plant defense against herbivores is modulated by herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) from oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva of insects. Furthermore, feeding wounds initiate plant's self-damage responses modulated by danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) such as immune defense-promoting plant elicitor peptides (Peps). While temporal and spatial co-existence of both patterns during herbivory implies a possibility of their close interactions, molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. Here, we report that exogenous application of rice (Oryza sativa) peptides (OsPeps) can elicit multiple defense responses in rice cell cultures...
March 7, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Danila Merino, Andrea Yamila Mansilla, Claudia A Casalongué, Vera Alejandra Alvarez
Clay based nanocomposites (nano-clays) are interesting systems to hold a wide type of active substances with a wide field of industrial applications. Bentonite-Chitosan nano-clay was obtained via cationic exchange of natural bentonite (Bent) with an aqueous solution of chitosan (CS). Their physicochemical and morphological properties were discussed under the light of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis and Scanning electron microscopy. Bent-CS characterization indicated that CS was intercalated in a 10% w/w...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Víctor M Vergara Martínez, Samuel E Estrada-Soto, José de Jesús Arellano-García, Julio C Rivera-Leyva, Patricia Castillo-España, Angélica Flores Flores, Alexandre T Cardoso-Taketa, Irene Perea-Arango
Background: The production of triterpenes from plants for pharmacological purposes varies in concentration, due to genetic and environmental factors. In vitro culture enables the control and increase of these bioactive molecules. Objective: To evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators and elicitors in the induction of calli and the production of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in Lepechinia caulescens . Materials and Methods: Leaf explants were exposed for the induction of calli at different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Daehyun Jung, Sunhae Sul, Minwoo Lee, Hackjin Kim
Although it is now well documented that observation by others can be a powerful elicitor of prosocial behaviour, the underlying neural mechanism is yet to be explored. In the present fMRI study, we replicated the previously reported observer effect in ethical consumption, in that participants were more likely to purchase social products that are sold to support people in need than non-social products when being observed by others. fMRI data revealed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) encoded subject-specific value parameters of purchase decisions for social and non-social products, respectively, under social observation...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Man Zhou, Peipei Wu, Qian Hu, Liangjiang Wang, Venugopal Mendu, Hong Luo
Protein kinases play fundamental roles in plant development and environmental stress responses. Here, we identified the STRESS INDUCED FACTOR (SIF) gene family, which encodes four leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases (LRR-RLKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The four genes, SIF1-4, are clustered in the genome and highly conserved, but have temporally and spatially distinct expression patterns. We employed Arabidopsis SIF knockout mutants and overexpression transgenics to examine SIF involvement during plant pathogen defense...
February 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Tanya Biswas, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Deepamala Maji, Vikrant Gupta, Alok Kalra, Manju Singh, Archana Mathur, A K Mathur
Dual metabolite, i.e., ginsenoside and anthocyanin, co-accumulating cell suspensions of Panax sikkimensis were subjected to elicitation with culture filtrates of Serratia marcescens (SD 21), Bacillus subtilis (FL11), Trichoderma atroviridae (TA), and T. harzianum (TH) at 1.25% and 2.5% v/v for 1- and 3-week duration. The fungal-derived elicitors (TA and TH) did not significantly affect biomass accumulation; however, bacterial elicitors (SD 21 and FL11), especially SD 21, led to comparable loss in biomass growth...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
S Jisha, P R Gouri, K N Anith, K K Sabu
Vascular plants synthesise a multitude of organic molecules or phytochemicals, referred to as "secondary metabolites". These molecules are involved in a variety of roles in the life span of plants, ranging from structural ones to protection. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has probably been used since prehistoric times and has been reported to have been used for various medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The plant contains several active constituents, of which the most important is asiaticoside, a triterpenoid. Asiaticoside content in C...
February 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chi-Hua Cheng, Bing-Nan Shen, Qian-Wen Shang, Li-Yu Liu, Kou-Cheng Peng, Yan-Huey Chen, Fang-Fang Chen, Sin-Fen Hu, Yu-Tai Wang, Hao-Ching Wang, Hsin-Yi Wu, Chaur-Tsuen Lo, Shih-Shun Lin
A new clade, Trichoderma formosa, secretes eliciting plant response-like 1 (Epl1), a small peptide elicitor that stimulates plant immunity. Nicotiana benthamiana pretreated with Epl1 for three days developed immunity against tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) infection. The transcriptome profiles of T. formosa and N. benthamiana were obtained by deep sequencing; the transcript of Epl1 is 736 nt in length and encodes a 12 kDa peptide. Identifying critical genes in Epl1-mediated immunity was challenging due to the high similarity between the transcriptome expression profiles of Epl1-treated and ToMV-infected N...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
M K Akitha Devi, Sandopu Sravan Kumar, Parvatam Giridhar
Soybean (Indian variety, JS 335) callus growth and its folate content was sustained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with optimized levels of auxins and cytokinins. Callus cultures exhibited moderate production of total folate. Callus growth was stimulated with highest biomass content of 21.3 g/L DW (24 days culture) on medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.1 mg/L Kinetin (Kn). Total folate production was enhanced by an increase in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from 0...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Zahra Shakeran, Mehrnaz Keyhanfar, Mustafa Ghanadian
The (-)-hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine (hyoscine) are three valuable tropane alkaloids while scopolamine is the most important member of this group for the pharmaceutical industry due to its higher demand compared to hyoscyamine and atropine. Scopolamine is an anticholinergic reagent with several therapeutic applications. In the current study, the hairy roots culture of Daturametel was used as an advantageous method for production of scopolamine. The hairy roots are formed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and have genetic stability, high growth rate and lateral branching...
December 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
Andrea Pitzschke
Aims: The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant robustness. Methods: MAPK activities were monitored in water- and NaCl-imbibed seeds over a 4-h-period using an immunoblot-based approach...
January 2018: Plant and Soil
Ankita Shrestha, Ahamed Khan, Dipti Ranjan Mishra, Kashyap Bhuyan, Bhabani Sahoo, Indu B Maiti, Nrisingha Dey
Caulimoviral promoters have become excellent tools for efficient transgene expression in plants. However, the transcriptional framework controlling their systematic regulation is poorly understood. To understand this regulatory mechanism, we extensively studied a novel caulimoviral promoter, PV8 (-163 to +138, 301 bp), isolated from Petunia vein-clearing virus (PVCV). PVCV was found to be Salicylic acid (SA)-inducible and 2.5-3.0 times stronger than the widely used CaMV35S promoter. In silico analysis of the PV8 sequence revealed a unique clustering of two stress-responsive cis-elements, namely, as-11 and W-box1-2, located within a span of 31 bp (-74 to -47) that bound to the TGA1a and WRKY71 plant transcription factors (TFs), respectively...
January 31, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Manuel Benedetti, Ilaria Verrascina, Daniela Pontiggia, Federica Locci, Benedetta Mattei, Giulia De Lorenzo, Felice Cervone
Recognition of endogenous molecules acting as "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) is a key feature of immunity in both animals and plants. Oligogalacturonides (OGs), i.e. fragments derived from the hydrolysis of homogalacturonan, a major component of pectin are a well-known class of DAMPs that activate immunity and protect plants against several microbes. However, hyper-accumulation of OGs severely affects growth, eventually leading to cell death and clearly pointing to OGs as players in the growth-defence trade-off...
February 3, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jun Liu, Bing Liu, Sufen Chen, Ben-Qiang Gong, Lijuan Chen, Qi Zhou, Feng Xiong, Menglong Wang, Dongru Feng, Jian-Feng Li, Hong-Bin Wang, Jinfa Wang
Plants initiate immunity by cell-surface pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which perceive non-self molecules. PRRs are predominantly receptor serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinases that are evolutionarily related to animal interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)/Pelle-soluble kinases. However, how the activity of these receptor kinases is modulated remains poorly understood. We report that the Arabidopsis PRR chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 (CERK1) is autophosphorylated in unstimulated cells at tyrosine 428 (Tyr 428 ), a modification that is required for CERK1 activation upon binding to the fungal cell wall component chitin...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Roshan Kumar, Naveen C Bisht
G-alpha (Gα) and 'Regulator of G-protein Signaling (RGS)' proteins are the two key components primarily involved in regulation of heterotrimeric G-proteins signaling across phyla. Unlike Arabidopsis thaliana, our knowledge about G-protein regulation in polyploid Brassica species is sparse. In this study, we identified one Gα and two RGS genes each from three species of Brassica 'U' triangle and assessed the effects of whole genome triplication on the divergence of gene sequence and structure, protein-protein interaction, biochemical activities, and gene expression...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mahsa Khorramdelazad, Ido Bar, Paul Whatmore, Gabrielle Smetham, Vijay Bhaaskaria, Yuedong Yang, Shahla Hosseini Bai, Nitin Mantri, Yaoqi Zhou, Rebecca Ford
BACKGROUND: Ascochyta blight, caused by the fungus Ascochyta lentis, is one of the most destructive lentil diseases worldwide, resulting in over $16 million AUD annual loss in Australia alone. The use of resistant cultivars is currently considered the most effective and environmentally sustainable strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying lentil resistance against A. lentis. RESULTS: To uncover the genetic basis of lentil resistance to A...
January 31, 2018: BMC Genomics
Stefan Koelsch, Stavros Skouras, Gabriele Lohmann
Sound is a potent elicitor of emotions. Auditory core, belt and parabelt regions have anatomical connections to a large array of limbic and paralimbic structures which are involved in the generation of affective activity. However, little is known about the functional role of auditory cortical regions in emotion processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and music stimuli that evoke joy or fear, our study reveals that anterior and posterior regions of auditory association cortex have emotion-characteristic functional connectivity with limbic/paralimbic (insula, cingulate cortex, and striatum), somatosensory, visual, motor-related, and attentional structures...
2018: PloS One
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