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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738540/regulatory-players-of-dna-damage-repair-mechanisms-role-in-cancer-chemoresistance
#1
REVIEW
Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel, Sreedharan Hariharan
DNA damaging agents are most common in chemotherapeutic molecules that act against cancer. However, cancer cells possess inherent biological features to overcome DNA damages by activating various distinct repair mechanisms and pathways. Importantly, various oncogenes, cancer stem cells (CSCs), hypoxic environment, transcription factors and bystander signaling that are activated in the cancer cells influence DNA repair, thereby effectively repairing the DNA damage. Repaired cancer cells often become more resistance to further therapy and results in disease recurrence...
July 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738535/role-of-gab1-pi3k-akt-signaling-high-glucose-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis
#2
Dongmei Su, Yunjun Zhou, Shanshan Hu, Lina Guan, Cuige Shi, Qi Wang, Yingyu Chen, Cailing Lu, Qian Li, Xu Ma
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for abnormal heart development. Previous work showed that a decrease of myocardial cells and an increase of apoptotic cells leading to heart defects under hyperglycemia, and many genes and protein have been found to play important roles in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are still many blind nodes in HG-induced cardiac apoptosis. Our study showed that down-regulation of GAB1 occurred concurrently with HG-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and in the heart tissues of offspring of diabetic rats in vitro and in vivo...
July 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738528/molecular-basis-for-oxidative-stress-induced-by-simulated-microgravity-in-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Li Zhao, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
Caenorhabditis elegans is an important in vivo assay system for toxicological studies. Herein, we investigated the role of oxidative stress and the underlying molecular mechanism for induced adverse effects of simulated microgravity. In nematodes, simulated microgravity treatment induced a significant induction of oxidative stress. Genes (mev-1, gas-1, and isp-1) encoding a molecular machinery for the control of oxidative stress were found to be dysregulated in simulated microgravity treated nematodes. Meanwhile, genes (sod-2, sod-3, sod-4, sod-5, aak-2, skn-1, and gst-4) encoding certain antioxidant defense systems were increased in simulated microgravity treated nematodes...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738323/the-role-of-exogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-in-free-fatty-acids-induced-inflammation-in-macrophages
#4
Zhu-Lin Luo, Jian-Dong Ren, Zhu Huang, Tao Wang, Ke Xiang, Long Cheng, Li-Jun Tang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can protect the RAW264.7 macrophages against the inflammation induced by free fatty acids (FFA) by blunting NLRP3 inflammasome activation via a specific TLR4/NF-κB pathway. METHODS: RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to increasing concentrations of FFA for up to 3 days to induce FFA-induced inflammation. The cells were pretreated with NaHS (a donor of H2S) before exposure to FFA...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738286/emodin-suppresses-cadmium-induced-osteoporosis-by-inhibiting-osteoclast-formation
#5
Xiao Chen, Shuai Ren, Guoying Zhu, Zhongqiu Wang, Xiaolin Wen
Environmental level of cadmium (Cd) exposure can induce bone loss. Emodin, a naturally compound found in Asian herbal medicines, could influence osteoblast/osteoclast differentiation. However, the effects of emodin on Cd-induced bone damage are not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of emodin on Cd-induced osteoporosis. Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups which were given 0mg/L, 50mg Cd/L and 50mg Cd/L plus emodin (50mg/kg body weight). Bone histological investigation, microCT analysis, metabolic biomarker determination and immunohistochemical staining were performed at the 12th week...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738272/evolution-of-corresponding-resistance-genes-in-the-water-of-fish-tanks-with-multiple-stresses-of-antibiotics-and-heavy-metals
#6
Xiaolin He, Yanbin Xu, Jinliang Chen, Jiayin Ling, Yafei Li, Lu Huang, Xiao Zhou, Li Zheng, Guangyan Xie
Abuse of antibiotics and heavy metals in aquaculture has been widely concerned and might aggravate the spread of resistance genes in environment. To investigate the occurrence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs), three commonly used antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfanilamide, cefotaxime) and two heavy metals (Zn and Cu) were designed to add individually or jointly in nine fish tanks including five individual exposure tanks of tetracycline (tet), sulfanilamide (sul), cefotaxime (cef), Cu, Zn and four combination exposure tanks of tetracycline + sulfanilamide (tet + sul), tetracycline + sulfanilamide + cefotaxime (tet + sul + cef), tetracycline + sulfanilamide + Cu (tet + sul + Cu), tetracycline + sulfanilamide + Zn (tet + sul + Zn) as well as the control during the experiment period of 180 days...
July 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738256/p53-and-mitf-bcl-2-identified-as-key-pathways-in-the-acquired-resistance-of-nras-mutant-melanoma-to-mek-inhibition
#7
Ahmad Najem, Mohammad Krayem, François Salès, Nader Hussein, Bassam Badran, Caroline Robert, Ahmad Awada, Fabrice Journe, Ghanem E Ghanem
Activating mutations in Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) are found in 15-30% of melanomas and are associated with a poor prognosis. Although MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors used as single agents showed a limited clinical benefit in patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma due to their rather cytostatic effect and high toxicity, their combination with other inhibitors of pathways known to cooperate with MEK inhibition may maximise their antitumour activity. Similarly, in a context where p53 is largely inactivated in melanoma, hyperexpression of Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) and its downstream anti-apoptotic targets may be the cause of the restraint cytotoxic effects of MEK inhibitors...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738223/engineering-resistance-against-viroids
#8
REVIEW
Ricardo Flores, Beatriz Navarro, Natalia Kovalskaya, Rosemarie W Hammond, Francesco Di Serio
Viroids, the smallest infectious agents endowed with autonomous replication, are tiny single-stranded circular RNAs (∼250 to 400nt) without protein-coding ability that, despite their simplicity, infect and often cause disease in herbaceous and woody plants of economic relevance. To mitigate the resulting losses, several strategies have been developed, the most effective of which include: firstly, search for naturally resistant cultivars and breeding for resistance, secondly, induced resistance by pre-infection with mild strains, thirdly, ribonucleases targeting double-stranded RNAs and catalytic antibodies endowed with intrinsic ribonuclease activity, fourthly, antisense, and sense, RNAs, fifthly, catalytic antisense RNAs derived from hammerhead ribozymes, and sixthly, hairpin RNAs and artificial small RNAs for RNA interference...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738021/commensal-bacteria-ab-use-cd8-t-cells-to-induce-insulin-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Chi Ma, Tim F Greten
Type I interferon-dependent expansion of intrahepatic CD8(+) T cells promotes systemic insulin resistance in obesity.
April 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738006/effect-of-lidocaine-on-inflammation-in-equine-jejunum-subjected-to-manipulation-only-and-remote-to-intestinal-segments-subjected-to-ischemia
#10
Anje G Bauck, Astrid Grosche, Alison J Morton, A Sarah Graham, Thomas W Vickroy, David E Freeman
OBJECTIVE To examine effects of continuous rate infusion of lidocaine on transmural neutrophil infiltration in equine intestine subjected to manipulation only and remote to ischemic intestine. ANIMALS 14 healthy horses. PROCEDURES Ventral midline celiotomy was performed (time 0). Mild ischemia was induced in segments of jejunum and large colon. A 1-m segment of jejunum was manipulated by massaging the jejunal wall 10 times. Horses received lidocaine (n = 7) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (7) throughout anesthesia...
August 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737825/combination-of-rapamycin-and-garlic-derived-s-allylmercaptocysteine-induces-colon-cancer-cell-apoptosis-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-xenograft-nude-mice-through-autophagy-p62-nrf2-pathway
#11
Siying Li, Guang Yang, Xiaosong Zhu, Lin Cheng, Yueyue Sun, Zhongxi Zhao
The natural plant-derived product S-allylmercapto-cysteine (SAMC) has been studied in cancer therapy as a single and combination chemotherapeutic agent. The present study was employed to verify the combination use of SAMC and rapamycin that is the mTOR inhibitor with anticancer ability but has limited efficacy due to drug resistance, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We combined rapamycin and SAMC for colorectal cancer treatment in the HCT‑116 cancer cells and a xenograft murine model. The in vivo study was established by xenografting HCT‑116 cells in BALB/c nude mice...
July 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737782/ferrocene-cinchona-hybrids-with-triazolyl-chalcone-linkers-act-as-pro-oxidants-and-sensitize-human-cancer-cell-lines-to-paclitaxel
#12
Ana Podolski-Renić, Szilvia Bősze, Jelena Dinić, László Kocsis, Ferenc Hudecz, Antal Csámpai, Milica Pešić
Recently, we demonstrated that ferrocene-containing compounds with a cinchona moiety displayed marked anticancer activity. Here we report on the effects of the most promising isomers encompassing quinine- (compounds 4 and 5) and quinidine-epimers (compounds 6 and 7) - synthesized using improved methods providing controlled diastereoselectivity - in three different human multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines and their sensitive counterparts (non-small cell lung carcinoma NCI-H460/R/NCI-H460, colorectal carcinoma DLD1-TxR/DLD1 and glioblastoma U87-TxR/U87)...
July 24, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737489/nfatc2-enhances-tumor-initiating-phenotypes-through-the-nfatc2-sox2-aldh-axis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#13
Zhi-Jie Xiao, Jing Liu, Si-Qi Wang, Yun Zhu, Xu-Yuan Gao, Vicky Pui-Chi Tin, Jing Qin, Jun-Wen Wang, Maria Pik Wong
Tumor initiating cells (TIC) are dynamic cancer cell subsets that display enhanced tumor functions and resilience to treatment but the mechanism of TIC induction or maintenance in lung cancer is not fully understood. In this study, we show the calcium pathway transcription factor NFATc2 is a novel regulator of lung TIC phenotypes, including tumorspheres, cell motility, tumorigenesis, as well as in vitro and in vivo responses to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. In human lung cancers, high NFATc2 expression predicted poor tumor differentiation, adverse recurrence-free and cancer-specific overall survivals...
July 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737450/initial-characterization-of-the-growth-stimulation-and-heat-shock-induced-adaptive-response-in-developing-lake-whitefish-embryos-after-ionizing-radiation-exposure
#14
Christopher Thome, Charles Mitz, Emily N Hulley, Christopher M Somers, Richard G Manzon, Joanna Y Wilson, Douglas R Boreham
Ionizing radiation is known to effect development during early life stages. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) represent a unique model organism for examining such effects. The purpose of this study was to examine how ionizing radiation affects development in lake whitefish embryos and to investigate the presence of an adaptive response induced by heat shock. Acute exposure to (137)Cs gamma rays was administered at five time points corresponding to major developmental stages, with doses ranging from 0...
July 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736993/molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-particularly-serotype19a-st320-that-emerged-in-krasnoyarsk-russia
#15
Irina N Protasova, Tsai-Wen Wan, Natalya V Bakhareva, Wei-Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A Yelistratova, Natalya A Ilyenkova, Yelena S Sokolovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Ivan V Reva, Galina V Reva, Sergey V Sidorenko, Lee-Jene Teng, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Tatsuo Yamamoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence-related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy...
July 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736992/microbiota-metabolome-and-immune-alterations-in-obese-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-containing-type-2-resistant-starch
#16
Javad Barouei, Zach Bendiks, Alice Martinic, Darya Mishchuk, Dustin Heeney, Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Dorothy Kieffer, Jose Zaragoza, Roy Martin, Carolyn Slupsky, Maria L Marco
SCOPE: We examined the intestinal and systemic responses to incorporating a type 2 resistant starch (RS) into a high fat diet fed to obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese, C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet without or with 20% (by weight) high-amylose maize resistant starch (HF-RS) for six weeks. Serum adiponectin levels were higher with RS consumption, but there were no differences in weight gain and adiposity. With HF-RS, the expression levels of ileal TLR2 and Reg3g and cecal occludin, TLR2, TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 were induced; whereas colonic concentrations of the inflammatory cytokine IL-17A declined...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736919/a-g326e-substitution-in-the-glutamate-gated-chloride-channel-3-glucl3-of-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-abolishes-the-agonistic-activity-of-macrocyclic-lactones
#17
Catherine Mermans, Wannes Dermauw, Sven Geibel, Thomas Van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: The macrocyclic lactones abamectin and milbemectin are frequently used to control phytophagous mites such as Tetranychus urticae. Consequently, resistance has developed and was genetically linked with substitutions in the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) subunits TuGluCl1 and TuGluCl3. Here, we functionally validated a G326E substitution in TuGluCl3 by functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. RESULTS: Homomeric wild-type and mutated GluCl3 were successfully expressed...
July 24, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736549/cloning-expression-isotope-labeling-and-purification-of-transmembrane-protein-merf-from-mercury-resistant-enterobacter-sp-az-15-for-nmr-studies
#18
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R)) Enterobacter sp. AZ-15 was isolated from heavy metal polluted industrial wastewater samples near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. 16S rDNA ribotyping and phylogentic analysis showed 98% homology with already reported Enterobacter species. The merF gene encoding transmembrane protein-MerF was amplified from genomic DNA and ligated into pET31b+ vector using restriction endonucleases, SphI and XhoI. The genetic codons of merF gene encoding cysteine residues were mutated into codons, translating into serine residues by site-directed mutagenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736522/gliotoxin-targets-nuclear-notch2-in-human-solid-tumor-derived-cell-lines-in-vitro-and-inhibits-melanoma-growth-in-xenograft-mouse-model
#19
Rainer Hubmann, Wolfgang Sieghart, Susanne Schnabl, Mohammad Araghi, Martin Hilgarth, Marlies Reiter, Dita Demirtas, Peter Valent, Christoph Zielinski, Ulrich Jäger, Medhat Shehata
Deregulation of NOTCH2 signaling is implicated in a wide variety of human neoplasias. The current concept of targeting NOTCH is based on using gamma secretase inhibitors (GSI) to regulate the release of the active NOTCH intracellular domain. However, the clinical outcome of GSI remains unsatisfactory. Therefore we analyzed human solid tumor derived cell lines for their nuclear NOTCH activity and evaluated the therapeutic potential of the NOTCH2 transactivation inhibitor gliotoxin in comparison to the representative GSI DAPT...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736362/-small-interfering-rna-mediated-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-silencing-enhances-sensitivity-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-hne1-ddp-cells-to-cisplatin-induced-apoptosis
#20
Pei Zhang, Fang Liu, Jiao Gao, Lin-Yan Ma, Xiao-Jin Sun, Hai-Lun Zheng, Hao Liu, Su-Rong Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) on the sensitivity of drug-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma HNE1/DDP cells to cisplatin (DDP)-induced apoptosis and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: The expression of MCT1 was analyzed in HNE1 and HNE1/DDP cells and in HNE1/DDP cells transfected with siRNA using Western blot. MTT assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of DDP alone or in combination with MCT1 siRNA on the proliferation of HNE1/DDP cells...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
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