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W-M Hao, S-F Sun, H-P Tang
OBJECTIVE: Mucus production and hypersecretion are important pathophysiological features of asthma. Airway mucus secretion is more serious in obese asthma. Therefore, it is of great significance to elucidate the mechanism of asthma airway mucus high secretion in improving the control of asthma and the prognosis of obese asthmatic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obese asthmatic mice model was established to test the airway resistance and mucin secretion by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X-G Liu, J Xu, F Li, M-J Li, T Hu
OBJECTIVE: Chemoresistance is one of the obstacles for effective treatment of cancers, and recent evidence has shown that microRNAs play critical roles in drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-377 on cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissues from chemoresistant and control OS patients were subjected to Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess miR-377 expression. The effect and mechanism of miR-377 on cisplatin resistance were assessed using Cell Counting Kit (CCK) 8, flow cytometry, Western blot, and luciferase assays in cisplatin-resistant OS cells lines...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Linlin Wang, Fang Zhang, Jian-Ying Cui, Liang Chen, Yue-Ting Chen, Bo-Wen Liu
Carcinoma‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major components of mesenchymal cells in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. They are involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemotherapy resistance by directly contacting with cancer cells or secretory cytokines. In the present study, we examined the role of CAFs in the induction of EMT in ovarian cancer. Primary ovarian cancer cells, CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated from fresh cancer tissue and cultured for immunohistochemistry studies...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
Qiang Shi, Zheng Meng, Jun-Feng Xiang, Chuan-Feng Chen
The movement of three pairs of different non-photoresponsive rotaxanes can be efficiently controlled by visible light through a photo-induced proton-transfer (PIPT) strategy in the presence of the photoacid 1-MEH. Moreover, the PIPT strategy also provides systems with a good fatigue resistance after more than 50 cycles.
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
M S Eng, J Kaur, L Prasmickaite, B Ø Engesæter, A Weyergang, E Skarpen, K Berg, M G Rosenblum, G M Mælandsmo, A Høgset, S Ferrone, P K Selbo
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and malignant melanoma are highly aggressive cancers that widely express the cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4/NG2). CSPG4 plays an important role in tumor cell growth and survival and promotes chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, suggesting that CSPG4 is an attractive target in cancer therapy. In the present work, we applied the drug delivery technology photochemical internalization (PCI) in combination with the novel CSPG4-targeting immunotoxin 225...
March 22, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Junjian Chen, Meng Gao, Lin Wang, Shiwu Li, Jingcai He, Anjun Qin, Li Ren, Yingjun Wang, Ben Zhong Tang
Multi-drug resistant bacterial infection has become one of the most serious threats to human health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as potential alternatives to antibiotics owing to their excellent bactericidal activity. However, the complicated bactericidal mechanism of AMPs is still poorly understood. Fluorescence imaging has many advantages in terms of dynamic monitoring, easy operation, and high sensitivity. In this study, we developed an aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active probe AMP-2HBT by decorating of the antimicrobial peptide HHC36 (KRWWKWWRR) with an AIEgen of 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT)...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrea Becerra-Calixto, Rafael Posada-Duque, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Astrocytes play metabolic and structural support roles and contribute to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), linking communication between neurons and the endothelium. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) likely exerts a dual effect on the endothelium and astrocytes due to its involvement in migration and angiogenesis; the overactivation of CDK5 is associated with dysfunction in glutamate recapture and hypoxia. Recently, we proposed that CDK5-targeted astrocytes facilitate the recovery of neurological and motor function in transplanted ischemic rats...
March 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Yuanli Luo, Daiwen Dong, Yu Su, Xuyi Wang, Yumei Peng, Jiang Peng, Changyong Zhou
Mustard clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious disease that affects Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen, a mustard plant that is the raw material for a traditional fermented food manufactured in Chongqing, China. In our laboratory, we screened the antagonistic bacteria Zhihengliuella aestuarii against P. brassicae. To better understand the biocontrol mechanism, three transcriptome analyses of B. juncea var. tumida Tsen were conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000, one from B. juncea only inoculated with P...
March 22, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Zarizal Suhaili, Putri 'Amira Rafee, Norhidayah Mat Azis, Chew Chieng Yeo, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Abdul Rachman Abdul Rahim, Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa
Introduction: This study aims to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from university students and to determine the prevalence of constitutive and inducible clindamycin resistance, the latter being able to cause therapeutic failure due to false in vitro clindamycin susceptibility. Methods: S. aureus strains were isolated from the nasal swabs of 200 health sciences students of a Malaysian university. Twelve classes of antibiotics were used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles with the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB ) phenotype for inducible clindamycin resistance determined by the double-diffusion test (D-test)...
March 2018: Germs
Emiko Niiro, Sachiko Morioka, Kana Iwai, Yuki Yamada, Kenji Ogawa, Naoki Kawahara, Hiroshi Kobayashi
Cases of mucinous ovarian cancer are predominantly resistant to chemotherapies. The present review summarizes current knowledge of the therapeutic potential of targeting the Wingless (WNT) pathway, with particular emphasis on preclinical and clinical studies, for improving the chemoresistance and treatment of mucinous ovarian cancer. A review was conducted of English language literature published between January 2000 and October 2017 that concerned potential signaling pathways associated with the chemoresistance of mucinous ovarian cancer...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Kristina Shilnikova, Mei Jing Piao, Kyoung Ah Kang, Yea Seong Ryu, Jeong Eon Park, Yu Jae Hyun, Ao Xuan Zhen, Yong Joo Jeong, Uhee Jung, In Gyu Kim, Jin Won Hyun
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy often results in the development of chemoresistance when used to treat ovarian cancer, which is difficult to overcome. The present study investigated the cytotoxic and anti-migratory effects of shikonin, a naphthoquinone compound, on cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer A2780 cells (A2780-CR). Shikonin had a potent dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on A2780-CR cells, with 9 µM shikonin treatment reducing A2780-CR cell viability by 50%, validate using an MTT assay. Shikonin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased number of apoptotic bodies, following staining with Hoechst 33342, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl cell transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells following treatment...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jia Liu, Li-Li Hou, Cui-Ying Zhao
The herbal medicine Yin Huang Mixture (YHHJ; patent no. 200910031240.7) is an aqueous extract composed from various herbs, including Artemisia capillaries Thunb, Hypericum japonicum Thunb, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver, Rheum officinale Baill, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Poria cocos Wolf and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. Previous studies have indicated that YHHJ treatment has a beneficial effect on ameliorating itching and reducing serum bile acid levels in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jiang Wei, Yang Wenjie, Liu Ping, Wang Na, Ren Haixia, Zhao Xuequn
Overuse and misuse of antibiotics leads to rapid evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. Klebsiella pneumoniae has become the most common pathogenic bacterium accountable for nosocomial infections due to its high virulence factor and general occurrence of resistance to most antibiotics. The β-lactamase signaling pathway has been suggested to be involved in antibiotic resistance against β-lactams in Klebsiella pneumoniae . In the present study, the molecular mechanism of the antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae was investigated and the results indicated involvement of the β-arrestin recruitment-induced β-lactamase signaling pathway...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yingbo Liang, Shichun Cui, Xiaoli Tang, Yi Zhang, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng, Lihua Guo, Jingjing Yuan, Xiufen Yang
PevD1 is a fungal protein secreted by Verticillium dahliae . Our previous researches showed that this protein could induce hypersensitive responses-like necrosis and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in cotton and tobacco. To understand immune activation mechanisms whereby PevD1 elicits defense response, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay was performed to explore interacting protein of PevD1 in Arabidopsis thaliana , and a partner AtNRP (At5g42050) was identified. Here, AtNRP homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana was identified and designated as Nbnrp1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hozeifa M Hassan, Bashir A Yousef, Hongli Guo, Liu Xiaoxin, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infectious diseases that affected humankind and remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases that could be considered as global emergency, but the discovery and development of isoniazid (INH) in the 1950s paved the way to an effective single and/or combined first-line anti-TB therapy. However, administration of INH induces severe hepatic toxicity in some patients. Previously, we establish a rat model of INH hepatotoxicity utilizing the inflammatory stress theory, in which bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potentially enhanced INH toxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yang Q Xia, Ren J Hua, Chen Juan, Zhou H Zhong, Cheng S Tao, Ren Fang, He Lin, Gong Rui, Chen Yong
Multidrug resistance (MDR) due to overexpression of MDR1 is a major obstacle that hinders the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we explored the function and underlying molecular mechanism of SIRT6 in MDR of HCC. Chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin, cisplatin, and sorafenib) treatment increased SIRT6 mRNA and protein level in two HCC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. SIRT6 depletion resulted in decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in HCC cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fang Bai, You Yin, Ting Chen, Jihui Chen, Meixin Ge, Yunshu Lu, Fangyuan Xie, Jian Zhang, Kejin Wu, Yan Liu
Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Pemetrexed, a new generation antifolate drug, is one of the primary treatments for breast cancer. However, multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer greatly hampers the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapies such as pemetrexed. Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising alternative technique to overcome cancer MDR. Thus, pemetrexed-loaded d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS) liposomes (liposomal pemetrexed) were developed as a strategy to overcome MDR to pemetrexed in breast cancer...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Shakuntala Santosh Chopade, Suneela Sunil Dhaneshwar
AIM: To design colon-targeted codrugs of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and aminosugars as a safer option to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Codrugs were synthesized by coupling MPA with aminosugars (D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine) using EDCI coupling. The structures were confirmed by infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The release profile of codrugs was extensively studied in aqueous buffers, upper gastrointestinal homogenates, faecal matter and caecal homogenates ( in vitro ) and rat blood ( in vitro )...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Isabel Frost, William P J Smith, Sara Mitri, Alvaro San Millan, Yohan Davit, James M Osborne, Joe M Pitt-Francis, R Craig MacLean, Kevin R Foster
Bacteria commonly live in dense and genetically diverse communities associated with surfaces. In these communities, competition for resources and space is intense, and yet we understand little of how this affects the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains. Here, we study interactions between antibiotic-resistant and susceptible strains using in vitro competition experiments in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in silico simulations. Selection for intracellular resistance to streptomycin is very strong in colonies, such that resistance is favoured at very low antibiotic doses...
March 21, 2018: ISME Journal
Ji-Hye Ahn, Hyun-Sung Lee, Ju-Seog Lee, Yeon-Su Lee, Jong-Lyul Park, Seon-Young Kim, Jung-Ah Hwang, Nawapol Kunkeaw, Sung Yun Jung, Tae Jin Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee, Sung Ho Jeon, Inhan Lee, Betty H Johnson, Jung-Hye Choi, Yong Sun Lee
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and microRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulatory components in cancer. Usually in advanced malignant stages, TGF-β signaling is elevated but global miRNA expression is suppressed. Such a gene expression signature is well illustrated in a fibrosis (or mesenchymal) subtype of ovarian cancer (OC) that is of poor prognosis. However, the interplay between the two pathways in the OC subtype has not yet been elucidated. nc886 is a recently identified non-coding RNA implicated in several malignancies...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
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