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Michael Martin, Heiner Fangerau, Axel Karenberg
BACKGROUND: This paper summarizes the current state of research into the role of German neurology during National Socialism (NS) on the basis of extensive secondary literature and key original sources. SUMMARY: As early as 1933, many neurologists and neuroscientists who had been branded as 'non-Aryan' and/or politically persecuted had to leave Germany, were driven to suicide or killed in concentration camps. Two years later, the regulatory merger with the Psychiatrists' Association caused the cautious attempts of the institutionally hampered discipline for autonomy to end in complete failure...
October 16, 2016: European Neurology
Dawn M Klein, Kassi Pham, Leila Samy, Adam Bluth, Kim M Nazi, Matthew Witry, J Stacey Klutts, Kathleen M Grant, Adi V Gundlapalli, Gary Kochersberger, Laurie Pfeiffer, Sergio Romero, Brian Vetter, Carolyn L Turvey
INTRODUCTION: Information continuity is critical to person-centered care when patients receive care from multiple healthcare systems. Patients can access their electronic health record data through patient portals to facilitate information exchange. This pilot was developed to improve care continuity for rural Veterans by (1) promoting the use of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patient portal to share health information with non-VA providers, and (2) evaluating the impact of health information sharing at a community appointment...
October 11, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Jolie N Haun, Margeaux Chavez, Kim M Nazi, Nicole Antinori
BACKGROUND: The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed various health information technology (HIT) resources to provide accessible veteran-centered health care. Currently, the VA is undergoing a major reorganization of VA HIT to develop a fully integrated system to meet consumer needs. Although extensive system documentation exists for various VA HIT systems, a more centralized and integrated perspective with clear documentation is needed in order to support effective analysis, strategy, planning, and use...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Eelco F M Wijdicks, Axel Karenberg
The history of Neurocinema includes neuroethics, and this theme was first used in 2 films released in the 1940s in both Germany and the United States. Ich Klage An (I Accuse) is about "terminal" multiple sclerosis in a young woman and the decision to determine one's own fate. The protagonist anticipates becoming "deaf, blind, and idiotic" and asks her husband to administer a toxic drug dose, which he does. The film disturbingly suggests that the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is tantamount to a death sentence...
September 20, 2016: Neurology
Ferenc Erős
One of the most important phenomena in the intellectual history of the 20th century was the exodus of the European mind, the emigration of persons, ideas, techniques, and institutions in the vast areas of social, human, and natural sciences, as well as in literature and the visual arts. Among these exiled intellectuals, psychoanalysts formed a special group. This paper examines the major lines of the emigration of psychoanalysts from the countries of issue to the countries of reception. It focuses, in particular on Hungarian analysts and analytic candidates who left their country of birth in two waves, first after the failure of revolutions in 1918/19 for Berlin, and then after 1938, to escape the Nazis...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Leila Khojastepour, Shirin Kolahi, Nazi Panahi, Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar
OBJECTIVES: Differential diagnosis of bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is important, since it may play a role in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctions and joint symptoms. In addition, radiographic appearance of BMC may mimic tumors and/or fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and orientation of BMC based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on CBCT scans of paranasal sinuses of 425 patients...
December 2015: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
A Wincewicz, A Szepietowska, S Sulkowski
This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others...
June 2016: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
William Schoenl, Linda Schoenl
This article first considers Jung's response to the coming to power of the Nazis in Germany. It brings forth evidence that, besides wanting to preserve psychotherapy in Germany and maintain the international connection between the German and other communities of psychotherapists, he wanted to advance Jungian psychology - his psychology - in Germany. It also presents evidence that, although he occasionally made some anti-Semitic statements during this early period, he was not anti-Semitic in the way the Nazis were...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Paul-Emile Labeyrie, Benjamin Gory, Udi Sadeh-Gonike, Nazyed Huguet, Rotem Sivan-Hoffmann, Roberto Riva, Patrick Courthéoux, Francis Turjman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow-diverter stents (FDS) are new devices for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) promoting progressive aneurysmal thrombosis. To date, the delay of aneurysmal exclusion remains unclear. We evaluated the correlation between angiographic changes in the first 24 hours and 12-month occlusion in aneurysms treated with FDS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the intra-aneurysmal flow by evaluating the in-flow and out-flow delays on preoperative, immediate postoperative, 24-hour and 12-month follow-up angiography...
August 10, 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
Lital Keinan-Boker, Uri Goldbourt
Previous studies, often using proxy exposure assessment and not controlling for individual risk factors, suggested higher cancer risk in Holocaust survivors. We have used individual-level data from a male cohort of Israeli civil servants recruited in 1963 to investigate cancer incidence in Holocaust survivors, controlling for potential confounders. The analysis included 4,669 Europe-born subjects; 689 exposed = E (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of being in Nazi camps during World War II); 2,307 potentially exposed = PE (immigrated to Israel after 1939 and reported of not being in Nazi camps); and 1,673 non-exposed = NE (immigrated to Israel prior to 1939)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Alexander Morgan Capron
The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Carolyn L Turvey, Dawn M Klein, Matthew Witry, J Stacey Klutts, Elaine L Hill, Bruce Alexander, Kim M Nazi
OBJECTIVES: Consumer-mediated health information exchange (HIE) is one of the three types of HIE designated by the Office of the National Coordinator. HIE is intended to improve the quality of care while reducing cost, yet empirical support for this claim is mixed. Future research should identify the contexts whereby HIE is most effective. METHODS: This study was conducted as a pilot two-arm randomized controlled trial. In the intervention arm, 27 veterans were taught how to generate a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) within the Blue Button feature of their VA patient portal and were then asked to share it with their community non-VA provider...
2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Esteban González-López, Rosa Ríos-Cortés
During the Nazi period numerous doctors and nurses played a nefarious role. In Germany they were responsible for the sterilization and killing of disabled persons. Furthermore, the Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments for military or racial purposes. A study of the collaboration of doctors with National Socialism exemplifies behavior that must be avoided. Combining medical teaching with lessons from the Holocaust could be a way to transmit Medical Ethics to doctors, nurses and students...
May 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Stephen Z Levine, Itzhak Levav, Inna Pugachova, Rinat Yoffe, Yifat Becher
BACKGROUND: Hypotheses about the sequel of parental genocide exposures on the offspring's risk and course of schizophrenia remain untested. AIMS: To test hypotheses related to the transgenerational transmission of parental genocide exposure on the risk and course of schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were extracted from the National Population Register on all offspring (N=51.233; born: 1948-1989) whose parents were born (1922 to 1945) in Nazi- dominated European nations...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Aleksandra Loewenau
This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s...
July 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Stephen Pow, Frank W Stahnisch
Biological psychiatry in the early twentieth century was based on interrelated disciplines, such as neurology and experimental biology. Neuropsychiatrist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) was a product of this interdisciplinary background who showed an ability to adapt to different scientific contexts, first in the field of neuromorphology in Berlin, and later in New York. Nonetheless, having innovative ideas, as Kallmann did, could be an ambiguous advantage, since they could lead to incommensurable scientific views and marginalization in existing research programs...
July 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
M Martin, A Karenberg, H Fangerau
The connection between systematic killing of the mentally ill and disabled, euphemistically called "euthanasia" in the National Socialism ideology, and German brain research has been thoroughly investigated and in detail; however, the impact of this criminal nexus on the image and self-perception of German neurologists as well as the status of neurology as a medical discipline is still the subject of controversial debates.Between 1939 and 1945 the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (KWI) in Berlin along with other research centres were insofar enmeshed in the "euthanasia" program as brains of killed patients were dissected in the guise of "concomitant research" in order to generate medical knowledge...
August 2016: Der Nervenarzt
M Martin, H Fangerau, A Karenberg
The article discusses the consequences for neurology as a discipline which resulted from neurologists' participation in the crimes committed under National Socialism (NS). Chronologically, the current literature distinguishes mainly four overlapping stages: (1) a first phase was characterized by legal persecution and "denazification", which was also the time of the Nuremberg doctors' trial in which no neurologists were on trial. A detailed documentation of the trial for the German medical profession was published by Alexander Mitscherlich...
August 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Elizabeth Ann Danto
Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers...
June 17, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
J S Weiss
PURPOSE: The first Oskar Fehr lecture is given in honour of Professor Fehr, a well respected ophthalmologist, who was head physician of the Department of Eye Diseases at the Rudolf Virchow Hospital from 1918. He practiced there until 1938, when he was forbidden to enter the clinic because he was Jewish and subject to the anti-Semitic laws that were instituted after the rise of the Nazi party. Dr. Fehr escaped to Great Britain, where he practiced ophthalmology into his eighties. He was the first to distinguish between granular corneal dystrophy, lattice corneal dystrophy and macular corneal dystrophy...
June 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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