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Autoimmune liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207511/autoimmune-hepatitis-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-case-reports-of-a-rare-but-important-diagnosis-with-therapeutic-implications
#1
Leila Kia, Adam Beattie, Richard M Green
RATIONALE: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203580/unusual-presentation-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-splenic-infarcts
#2
Vivek Kumar, Parita Soni, Vishangi Dave, Jonathan Harris
A 67-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of abdominal pain, fever, and significant weight loss over 2 months. Physical examination revealed left upper quadrant tenderness, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and bilateral pitting edema but peripheral lymphadenopathy was absent. Laboratory tests showed anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). PTT was corrected completely in mixing study. Further workup for the cause of coagulopathy revealed decreased levels of all clotting factors except factor VIII and increase fibrinogen levels, which ruled out disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199778/a-national-retrospective-study-of-peld-as-a-predictor-of-change-to-second-line-therapy-in-children-with-autoimmune-hepatitis
#3
Andréanne N Zizzo, Carolina Jimenez-Rivera, Joseph Kim, Richard A Schreiber, Simon C Ling, Jason Yap, Jeff Critch, Najma Ahmed, Fernando Alvarez, Binita M Kamath
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult studies of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) have shown that the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) is associated with resistance to first-line treatment. Using a multi-centre retrospective database, we sought to determine if the pediatric end-stage liver disease (PELD) score would similarly predict treatment resistance in pediatric AIH. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-one children from 13 Canadian centres who fulfilled the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) criteria were included and assessed for change to second-line therapy within 24 months of primary treatment onset...
February 15, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197333/a-case-of-primary-biliary-cirrhosis-mimicking-acute-hepatitis-b-in-the-clinic-republic-of-korea
#4
Woo Hyuk Kwon, Hong Min Park, Jeong Jun Park, Sung Hoon Lee, Yong Kyu Lee
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a slowly progressive cholestatic autoimmune liver disease characterized by progressive bile duct injury. The most common symptoms of this disease include fatigue and pruritus. The diagnosis of PBC is based on cholestatic biochemical liver tests, presence of antimitochondrial antibodies, and characteristic histological biopsy findings. We report a case of a patient with PBS, who was initially suspected to be in the window period of hepatitis B by a private doctor in a local clinic based on the detection of isolated immunoglobulin M antibody against hepatitis B core antigen...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192452/increased-risk-of-dementia-in-patients-hospitalized-with-acute-kidney-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Hsin-Hsi Tsai, Ruoh-Fang Yen, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
PURPOSE: To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for dementia. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2000-2011. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in 207788 patients hospitalized for AKI. The comparison control was selected using the propensity score based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities. RESULTS: During the 12-year follow-up, patients with AKI had a significantly higher incidence for developing dementia than did the controls (8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192189/mir-425-regulates-inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-cd4-t-cells-via-n-ras-upregulation-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#6
Ryo Nakagawa, Ryosuke Muroyama, Chisato Saeki, Kaku Goto, Yoshimi Kaise, Kazuhiko Koike, Masanori Nakano, Yasuo Matsubara, Keiko Takano, Sayaka Ito, Masayuki Saruta, Naoya Kato, Mikio Zeniya
BACKGROUND & AIM: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease of unknown pathogenesis. Consequently, therapeutic targets for PBC have yet to be identified. Because CD4(+) T cells play a pivotal role in immunological dysfunction observed in PBC, we analysed microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression in CD4(+) T cells to investigate PBC pathogenesis and identify novel therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed integral miRNA and mRNA analysis of 14 PBC patients and 10 healthy controls using microarray and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with gene set enrichment analysis...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191014/extrahepatic-autoimmune-diseases-in-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-diseases-a-phenomenon-neglected-by-gastroenterologists
#7
REVIEW
Liping Guo, Lu Zhou, Na Zhang, Baoru Deng, Bangmao Wang
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) often coexist with other extrahepatic autoimmune diseases (EHAIDs). The spectrum of EHAIDs in patients with AILDs is similar, whereas the incidence is different. Notably, autoimmune thyroid disease and Sjogren's syndrome are the most common EHAIDs. Associated extrahepatic diseases may predate the appearance of AILDs or coincide with their onset. More frequently, they may appear during the course and even occur years after the diagnosis of AILDs. Importantly, associated EHAIDs may influence the natural course and prognosis of AILDs...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184367/novel-immunotherapies-for-autoimmune-hepatitis
#8
REVIEW
Shamir Cassim, Marc Bilodeau, Catherine Vincent, Pascal Lapierre
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by a loss of immunological tolerance against liver autoantigens resulting in the progressive destruction of the hepatic parenchyma. Current treatments are based on non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. Although tremendous progress has been made using specific biological agents in other inflammatory diseases, progress has been slow to come for AIH patients. While current treatments are successful in the majority of patients, treatment discontinuation is difficult to achieve, and relapses are frequent...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178440/comorbidities-in-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis
#9
REVIEW
Amir Haddad, Devy Zisman
Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are often affected by numerous comorbidities that carry significant morbidity and mortality. Reported comorbidities include diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune eye disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, depression, and fibromyalgia. All health care providers for patients with PsA should recognize and monitor those comorbidities, as well as understand their effect on patient management to ensure an optimal clinical outcome...
January 30, 2017: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176894/autoimmune-hepatitis-current-challenges-and-future-prospects
#10
REVIEW
Yoshio Aizawa, Atsushi Hokari
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic progressive liver disease characterized by high levels of aminotransferases and autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and interface hepatitis. AIH affects all races and all ages worldwide, regardless of sex, although a preponderance of females is a constant finding. The etiology of AIH has not been completely elucidated, but immunogenetic background and environmental parameters may contribute to its development. The most important genetic factor is human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), especially HLA-DR, whereas the role of environmental factors is not completely understood...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176332/low-dose-interleukin-2-promotes-stat5-phosphorylation-treg-survival-and-ctla-4-dependent-function-in-autoimmune-liver-diseases
#11
Hannah C Jeffery, Louisa E Jeffery, Philipp Lutz, Margaret Corrigan, Gwilym J Webb, Gideon M Hirschfield, David H Adams, Ye Htun Oo
CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(low) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) are essential for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Impaired Treg function and an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We recently reported that the hepatic microenvironment is deficient in IL-2, a cytokine essential for Treg survival and function. Consequently, few liver-infiltrating Treg demonstrate STAT5 phosphorylation. To establish the potential of IL-2 to enhance Treg therapy, we investigated the effects of very low dose Proleukin (VLDP) on the phosphorylation of STAT5 and the subsequent survival and function of Treg and T effector cells from the blood and livers of patients with autoimmune liver diseases...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154343/surgical-outcome-of-cerebral-aneurysm-clipping-treated-with-immunosuppressants-report-of-11-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Masaaki Hokari, Naoki Nakayama, Ken Kazumata, Toshiya Osanai, Hideo Shichinohe, Takeo Abumiya, Kiyohiro Houkin
There are no reports on the outcomes of clippings in patients who receive immunosuppressants, for example, due to connective tissue diseases or following organ transplantation. We thoroughly reviewed these cases focusing on the perioperative management phase. The study included 11 patients with intracranial aneurysms who were taking immunosuppressants; between 2007 and 2014. We performed 12 clipping surgeries. Their clinical records were reviewed for age and gender, aneurysms' location and size, perioperative management of the immunosuppressive drugs, and surgical complications...
January 31, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152393/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-tim-3-and-galectin-9-in-the-woodchuck-model
#13
Yanan Liu, Junzhong Wang, Lu Wang, Baoju Wang, Shangqing Yang, Qin Wang, Jinzhuo Luo, Xuemei Feng, Xuecheng Yang, Yinping Lu, Michael Roggendorf, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang, Jia Liu
In recent years, a critical role for T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) and its ligand Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has emerged in infectious disease, autoimmunity and cancer. Manipulating this immune checkpoint may have immunotherapeutic potential and could represent an alternative approach for improving immune responses to viral infections and cancer. The woodchuck (Marmot monax) infected by woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) represents an informative animal model to study HBV infection and HCC. In the current study, the cDNA sequences of woodchuck Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned, sequenced and characterized...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149645/new-insights-into-hcv-related-rheumatologic-disorders-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Patrice Cacoub, Cloé Comarmond
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients are known to be exposed to major liver complications i.e. cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, many extrahepatic manifestations including rheumatologic disorders have been reported in up to two-third of HCV infected patients. These manifestations include frank auto-immune and rheumatic diseases (such as arthralgia, myalgia, arthritis, sicca syndrome and vasculitis) which may dominate the course of infection. Until recently, the standard of care of HCV has been the use of interferon-alpha based regimens, which not only had limited effectiveness in HCV cure but were poorly tolerated...
March 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146070/decreased-expression-of-vitamin-d-receptor-affects-an-immune-response-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-via-the-vdr-mirna155-socs1-pathway
#15
Agnieszka Kempinska-Podhorodecka, Malgorzata Milkiewicz, Urszula Wasik, Joanna Ligocka, Michał Zawadzki, Marek Krawczyk, Piotr Milkiewicz
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an immune-mediated cholestatic disease. Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent signaling constrains an inflammatory response by targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 1) axis. The VDR-miRNA155-SOCS1 pathway was investigated in the context of the autoimmune response associated with PBC. Human liver tissues from non-cirrhotic PBC (n = 22), cirrhotic PBC (n = 22), cirrhotic primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, n=13), controls (n = 23), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from PBC (n = 16) and PSC (n = 10) patients and healthy subjects (n = 11) were used for molecular analyses...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145671/evaluation-of-jaundice-in-adults
#16
Matthew V Fargo, Scott P Grogan, Aaron Saguil
Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include fractionated bilirubin, a complete blood count, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, prothrombin time and/or international normalized ratio, albumin, and protein. Imaging with ultrasonography or computed tomography can differentiate between extrahepatic obstructive and intrahepatic parenchymal disorders...
February 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144999/risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-among-individuals-with-different-aetiologies-of-cirrhosis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#17
J West, T R Card, G P Aithal, K M Fleming
BACKGROUND: Among patients with cirrhosis, only those determined to be at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) should undergo surveillance. However, little is known about how different aetiologies of cirrhosis affect risk for HCC. AIM: To quantify the cumulative incidence of HCC among a representative population of people with cirrhosis of the liver of varying aetiology. METHODS: We identified subjects with hepatic cirrhosis from the UK's General Practice Research Database (1987-2006)...
February 1, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144390/predictors-for-advanced-fibrosis-in-morbidly-obese-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-patients
#18
Shira Zelber-Sagi, Dafna Shoham, Isabel Zvibel, Subhi Abu-Abeid, Oren Shibolet, Sigal Fishman
AIM: To investigate predictors for fibrosis specifically in a high risk population of morbidly obese patients, including detailed evaluation of lifestyle. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among morbidly obese patients attending the bariatric clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center between the years 2013-2014 with body mass index (BMI) above 40 or above 35 with co-morbidity. Patients with serum hepatitis B surface antigen or anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies, genetic liver diseases, autoimmune disease or high alcohol intake (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) were excluded from the study...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133978/recent-progression-in-the-utilization-of-autophagy-regulating-nature-compound-as-anti-liver-fibrosis-agents
#19
Mao-Xu Ge, Hong-Wei He, Rong-Guang Shao, Hong Liu
Hepatic fibrosis is a wound-healing response to chronic liver injury caused by various pathogenesis, such as hepatitis virus infection, drugs toxicity and autoimmune imbalances. Autophagy, a cellular process degrading damaged organelles or aggregative proteins, participates in multiple human diseases including hepatic fibrosis. However, the precise role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis is yet to be elucidated. Accumulated evidences indicate that several nature compounds exhibit anti-fibrotic potential through modulating autophagy activity...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130920/interdisciplinary-risk-management-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Joachim Havla, Clemens Warnke, Tobias Derfuss, Ludwig Kappos, Hans-Peter Hartung, Reinhard Hohlfeld
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. There are at least 150 000 persons with MS in Germany. Recent years have seen the approval of new drugs against. METHODS: This article is based on pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search in PubMed as well as on documentation of relevant risks and adverse effects in "red hand letters" (information bulletins from pharmaceutical companies to physicians about adverse drug effects) and elsewhere, along with data provided by the German Multiple Sclerosis Competence Network...
December 26, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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