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Autoimmune liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675689/natural-killer-cells-in-liver-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Meijuan Zheng, Haoyu Sun, Zhigang Tian
The liver has been characterized as a frontline lymphoid organ with complex immunological features such as liver immunity and liver tolerance. Liver tolerance plays an important role in liver diseases including acute inflammation, chronic infection, autoimmune disease, and tumors. The liver contains a large proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, which exhibit heterogeneity in phenotypic and functional characteristics. NK cell activation, well known for its role in the immune surveillance against tumor and pathogen-infected cells, depends on the balance between numerous activating and inhibitory signals...
April 19, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672295/comparison-of-concanavalin-a-induced-murine-autoimmune-hepatitis-models
#2
Tinghong Ye, Tingting Wang, Xiaoxue Yang, Xiaoli Fan, Maoyao Wen, Yi Shen, Xiaotan Xi, Ruoting Men, Li Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic necroinflammatory disease of the liver whose pathogenic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Moreover, the current treatment used for the vast majority of AIH patients is largely dependent on immunosuppressant administration and liver transplantation. However, research on the pathogenesis of AIH and effective new treatments for AIH have been hampered by a lack of animal models that accurately reproduce the human condition. METHODS: AIH models created by concanavalin A (ConA) injections at different times and doses...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671161/under-evaluated-or-unassessed-pathogenic-pathways-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-and-implications-for-future-management
#3
REVIEW
Albert J Czaja
Autoimmune hepatitis is a consequence of perturbations in homeostatic mechanisms that maintain self-tolerance but are incompletely understood. The goals of this review are to describe key pathogenic pathways that have been under-evaluated or unassessed in autoimmune hepatitis, describe insights that may shape future therapies, and encourage investigational efforts. The T cell immunoglobulin mucin proteins constitute a family that modulates immune tolerance by limiting the survival of immune effector cells, clearing apoptotic bodies, and expanding the population of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells...
April 18, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669247/a-hen-in-the-wolf-den-a-pathobiont-tale
#4
Matteo M Guerrini, Alexis Vogelzang, Sidonia Fagarasan
Disruption of the gut microbiota is thought to contribute to disease onset in individuals with a genetic predisposition to autoimmunity. In a recent issue of Science, Manfredo Vieira et al. (2018) identify translocation of the gut commensal Enterococcus gallinarum into the liver as a trigger for the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematous.
April 17, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669109/opposing-actions-of-developmental-trichloroethylene-and-high-fat-diet-co-exposure-on-markers-of-lipogenesis-and-inflammation-in-autoimmune-prone-mice
#5
Sarah J Blossom, Lorenzo Fernandes, Shasha Bai, Sangeeta Khare, Kuppan Gokulan, Youzhong Yuan, Michael Dewall, Frank A Simmen, Kathleen M Gilbert
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread environmental pollutant associated with immunotoxicity and autoimmune disease. Previous studies showed that mice exposed from gestation through early life demonstrated CD4+ T cell alterations and autoimmune hepatitis. Determining the role of one environmental risk factor for any disease is complicated by the presence of other stressors. Based on its known effects, we hypothesized that developmental overnutrition in the form of a moderately high fat diet (HFD) consisting of 40% kcal fat would exacerbate the immunotoxicity and autoimmune-promoting effects of low-level (<10 μg/kg/day) TCE in autoimmune-prone MRL+/+ mice over either stressor alone...
April 12, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665800/mda-5-associated-rapidly-progressive-interstitial-lung-disease-with-recurrent-pneumothoraces-a-case-report
#6
Safi Alqatari, Peter Riddell, Sinead Harney, Michael Henry, Grainne Murphy
BACKGROUND: Clinically hypomyopathic dermatomyositis is a rare disease that is important to recognize, investigate and treat early as it is associated with poor prognosis. In a proportion of patients, myositis specific antibodies could be negative, but with high clinical suspicion, myositis associated antibodies should be ordered. Anti-MDA-5 antibodies was reported in literature to be associated with severe and rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease, with few case reports of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum...
April 17, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661431/stratifying-mortality-in-a-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-waiting-list-a-brazilian-single-center-study
#7
R B Martino, D R Waisberg, A P M Dias, V B S Inoue, R M Arantes, L B P Haddad, W Andraus, L D Lopes, F H F Galvão, A T W Song, L A C D'Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) system reliably predicts mortality in cirrhotic patients. However, the etiology of liver disease and presence of portal vein thrombosis are not directly taken into account in MELD score. Its impact on the outcomes of patients on the waiting list is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and access to transplantation regarding etiology of liver disease and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). METHODS: A total of 465 adult patients on the liver waiting list from August 2015 to August 2016 were followed up until August 2017...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656147/liver-fibrosis-direct-antifibrotic-agents-and-targeted-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Detlef Schuppan, Muhammad Ashfaq-Khan, Ai Ting Yang, Yong Ook Kim
Liver fibrosis and in particular cirrhosis are the major causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic liver disease. Their prevention or reversal have become major endpoints in clinical trials with novel liver specific drugs. Remarkable progress has been made with therapies that efficiently address the cause of the underlying liver disease, as in chronic hepatitis B and C. Highly effective antiviral therapy can prevent progression or even induce reversal in the majority of patients, but such treatment remains elusive for the majority of liver patients with advanced alcoholic or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, genetic or autoimmune liver diseases...
April 12, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644994/autoimmune-hepatitis
#9
REVIEW
Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Albert J Czaja, Michael P Manns, Edward L Krawitt, John M Vierling, Ansgar W Lohse, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe liver disease that affects children and adults worldwide. The diagnosis of AIH relies on increased serum transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis on liver histology. AIH arises in genetically predisposed individuals when a trigger, such as exposure to a virus, leads to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed against liver autoantigens; this immune response is permitted by inadequate regulatory immune control leading to a loss of tolerance...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627896/clinical-connection-between-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-liver-damage
#10
REVIEW
Biljana Radovanović-Dinić, Snežana Tešić-Rajković, Valentina Zivkovic, Saša Grgov
When liver damage is present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether it is a hepatic manifestation of RA, associated primary liver disease or hepatotoxic liver disease which developed during the treatment of RA. Liver damage during RA is most common in the form of asymptomatic abnormal liver tests. Occasionally, liver damage may progress to cirrhosis. Patients with RA are more susceptible to an associated autoimmune liver disease. Medications used in rheumatology are often hepatotoxic and it is difficult to differentiate between hepatic manifestations of the primary disease and potential hepatotoxicity of the administered medications...
April 7, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627063/high-fiber-dietary-and-sodium-butyrate-attenuate-experimental-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-immune-regulatory-cells-and-intestinal-barrier
#11
En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Jin-Lu Wu, Feng-Bin Lu, Lu Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Ji Li, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Lan-Man Xu, Yong-Ping Chen
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is chronic autoimmune liver disease accompanied with the imbalance of Treg/Th17 and increased intestinal permeability. We investigated the effects of a high fiber diet and sodium butyrate on the Treg/Th17 and intestinal barrier function in an experimental autoimmune hepatitis. Intraperitoneal injection of hepatic antigen (S100) was used to induce experimental autoimmune hepatitis mice model and mice were divided into normal control, S100 model control, S100 plus high fiber diet and S100 plus sodium butyrate...
March 22, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623561/nkt-cells-in-liver-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Shasha Zhu, Huimin Zhang, Li Bai
Natural killer T cells are innate-like and tissue-resident lymphocytes, which recognize lipid antigens and are enriched in the liver. Natural killer T cells play important roles in infections, tumors, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic diseases. In this study, we summarize recent findings on biology of natural killer T cells and their roles in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, autoimmune liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
April 6, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623264/bacterial-infection-and-predictors-of-mortality-in-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-disease-associated-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#13
Xuan Zhang, Ping Chen, Hainv Gao, Shaorui Hao, Meifang Yang, Hong Zhao, Jianhua Hu, Weihang Ma, Lanjuan Li
Objective: To date, few studies are available on autoimmune liver disease-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The aim of this study is to investigate bacterial infection and predictors of mortality in these patients. Methods: We retrospectively studied patients with autoimmune liver disease from August 2012 to August 2017. Clinical data of the patients were retrieved for analysis. Results: There were 53 ACLF patients and 53 patients without ACLF in this study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623226/acute-isolated-hyperbilirubinemia-as-a-presentation-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Muhammad Rajib Hossain, Ramesh Kumar Pandey, Mohammad Faridul Islam, Praveen Datar, Vijay Gayam, Pradeep Puri, Thwin Malar
Isolated hyperbilirubinemia as a manifestation of alcoholic liver disease without significant liver abnormalities is seen very rarely. We report such a case where a patient with chronic alcoholism presented to the ER with acute jaundice with bilirubin of 24.8 mg/dl, predominantly conjugated in nature along with mild elevation of AST (76 IU/L). There were no other abnormalities of the liver function. The patient underwent extensive laboratory and imaging tests that excluded extrahepatic cholestasis, viral and autoimmune hepatitis, ischemic hepatitis, and so forth...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619420/changes-in-natural-killer-cells-and-exhausted-memory-regulatory-t-cells-with-corticosteroid-therapy-in-acute-autoimmune-hepatitis
#15
Hannah C Jeffery, Manjit K Braitch, Chris Bagnall, James Hodson, Louisa E Jeffery, Rebecca E Wawman, Lin Lee Wong, Jane Birtwistle, Helen Bartlett, Ansgar W Lohse, Gideon M Hirschfield, Jessica Dyson, David Jones, Stefan G Hubscher, Paul Klenerman, David H Adams, Ye H Oo
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated liver disease currently treated by immunosuppressive medications with significant side effects. Thus, novel mechanistic treatments are greatly needed. We performed prospective deep immunophenotyping of blood immune cells in patients with acute AIH before and after corticosteroid therapy. Blood samples from 26 patients with acute AIH (United Kingdom-AIH Consortium) were phenotyped by flow cytometry at baseline and 4 months after starting corticosteroids. Pretreatment liver tissues were stained for forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3POS ) regulatory T cells (Tregs), clusters of differentiation (CD)56POS natural killer (NK) cells, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10...
April 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615102/a-case-report-of-nifedipine-induced-hepatitis-with-jaundice
#16
Dimas Yusuf, Joanna Christy, David Owen, Meghan Ho, David Li, Martin J Fishman
BACKGROUND: Nifedipine is a generic, well-known and commonly-prescribed dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and Prinzmetal's angina. A known but very rare and serious adverse effect of nifedipine is clinically-apparent hepatitis which can take months to resolve. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a case of nifedipine-induced hepatitis in a 78-year-old Caucasian female with no prior history of liver or autoimmune disease...
April 3, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610041/fumarate-hydratase-specific-t-cell-response-in-chinese-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis
#17
Yan Zhao, Yanli Li, Dantong Zhao, Haiping Zhang, Yanmin Liu, Huiyu Liao, Yonghong Zhang, Huiping Yan
PURPOSE: Fumarate hydratase (FH) is expressed in the serum of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The specific involvement of FH-specific T cell response is currently unknown. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and clinical significance of FH-specific T cell response in AIH. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 42 consecutive patients admitted to the clinical study center of autoimmune liver disease of our Hospital, Capital Medical University (China) between January 2011 and December 2014...
March 30, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608451/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-is-contributing-to-the-increase-in-cases-of-liver-disease-in-us-emergency-departments
#18
Haley Bush, Pegah Golabi, Munkhzul Otgonsuren, Nila Rafiq, Chapy Venkatesan, Zobair M Younossi
GOALS/BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess temporal changes in the different types of liver disease (LD) cases and outcomes from emergency departments (EDs) across the United States. STUDY: We used data from the National Inpatient Survey database from 2005 to 2011. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) clinical modification codes identified hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and other LDs including autoimmune hepatitis...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607530/systematic-review-drug-induced-liver-injury-alternative-causes-in-case-series-as-confounding-variables
#19
REVIEW
Rolf Teschke, Gaby Danan
AIMS: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare as compared to the worldwide frequent acute or chronic liver diseases. Therefore, patients included in series of suspected DILI are at high risk of not having DILI, whereby alternative causes may confound the DILI diagnosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate published case series of DILI for alternative causes. METHODS: Pertinent studies were identified using a computerized search of the Medline database for publications from 1993 through 30 October 2017...
April 1, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607305/gastric-antral-vascular-ectasia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Abdulrahman M Alkhormi, Muhammed Yousuf Memon, Abdullah Alqarawi
Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is a rare but an important cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and commonly presents as occult bleeding that manifests as iron deficiency anemia (IDA). GAVE is commonly associated with chronic illnesses, most frequently liver cirrhosis and connective tissue diseases. The pathogenesis of GAVE is still obscure, and many hypotheses such as mechanical stress, hormonal factors, and autoimmune factors, have been proposed. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of GAVE...
March 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
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