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Autoimmune liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028357/folate-peg-nota-al18f-a-new-folate-based-radiotracer-for-pet-imaging-of-folate-receptor-positive-tumors
#1
Qingshou Chen, Xiangjun Meng, Paul McQuade, Daniel Rubins, Shu-An Lin, Zhizhen Zeng, Hyking Haley, Patricia Miller, Dinko Gonzalez Trotter, Philip S Low
The folate receptor (FR) has been established as a promising target for imaging and therapy of cancer (FR-α), inflammation, and autoimmune diseases (FR-β). Several folate-based PET radiotracers have been reported in the literature, but an 18F- labeled folate-PET imaging agent with optimal properties for clinical translation is still lacking. In the present study, we report the design and preclinical evaluation of folate-PEG12-NOTA-Al18F (1), a new folate-PET agent with improved potential for clinical applications...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026064/the-effect-of-recipient-body-mass-index-and-its-extremes-on-survival-and-graft-vascular-and-biliary-complications-after-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#2
Emmanouil Giorgakis, Michele Tedeschi, Eliano Bonaccorsi-Riani, Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Krishna Menon, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Wayel Jassem, Parthi Srinivasan, Andreas Prachalias, Nigel Heaton
BACKGROUND This is the largest UK-based study on the effect of recipient body mass index (BMI) and its extremes (BMI <18.5 and BMI ≥35 kg/m²) on liver transplant (LT) outcomes. Its purpose was to analyze the BMI effect on post-LT mortality, graft loss, primary non-function (PNF), and graft vascular and biliary complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were retrieved from a single-center LT database of 2,115 consecutive patients receiving first LT during period February 2004 to September 2015. Survivals were compared across the BMI groups; the effects of recipient BMI on survival, PNF, and graft vascular and biliary complications were analyzed via regression...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022092/unique-manifestations-of-biliary-atresia-provide-new-immunological-insight-into-its-etiopathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Toshihiro Muraji, Haruo Ohtani, Satoshi Ieiri
Biliary atresia (BA) is a unique cholestatic disease of newborns with a background of exaggerated immune response in the liver of unknown mechanism. Three hypotheses have been proposed; autoimmune type of cholangiopathy triggered by virus infection, graft-versus-host disease type of immune-mediated disease associated with maternal microchimerism and ductal plate malformation theory. Researchers on virus infection theory have experimentally explored immune process causing cholangiopathy on murine models of this disease, while in maternal microchimerism hypothesis were detected maternal cells in the BA patients' liver, of which roles are yet to be determined...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018539/clinical-characteristics-of-antimitochondrial-antibody-positive-patients-at-a-safety-net-health-care-system-in-arizona
#4
Susanna Tan, Napatkamon Ayutyanont, Bikash Bhattarai, Zohreh Movahedi, Lakshmi Jayaram, Robert Gish, Abdul Nadir
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To assess whether aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels can predict the diagnosis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) or any other diagnoses and whether PBC occurs either simultaneously or independently of other liver diseases among antimitochondrial antibody (AMA)-positive patients. METHODS: Demographic and clinical variables were assessed in 90 AMA-positive patients with and without liver biopsies...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018448/ifn-%C3%AE-stat1-inos-induces-myeloid-progenitors-to-acquire-immunosuppressive-activity
#5
Shu-Han Yang, Liang Li, Yu-Qing Xie, Yuan Yao, Cai-Yue Gao, Liang-Huan Liao, Hong-Di Ma, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Autoimmune diseases often induce dysregulated hematopoiesis with altered number and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, there are limited studies on the direct regulation of HSPCs on T cells, which are often detrimental to autoimmunity. Here, we found that in a murine model of Concanavalin A-induced autoimmune hepatitis, LSK (Lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+))-like cells accumulated in liver, spleen, and bone marrow (BM), which were myeloid progenitors (Lineage(-)Sca-1(-)c-Kit(+)) that upregulated Sca-1 expression upon T cell-derived IFN-γ stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993983/skin-manifestations-associated-with-autoimmune-liver-diseases-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Pietro Invernizzi, M Eric Gershwin, Carlo Mainetti
Autoimmune liver diseases, which include mainly autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and the variant syndromes, are often associated with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases. However, the association with cutaneous diseases is less well described. In the present article, we provide a systematic literature review on skin manifestations linked to each of these four autoimmune liver diseases, excluding skin manifestations of systemic diseases. The association of autoimmune hepatitis with vitiligo is well known, with a particular striking association with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, a condition occurring almost entirely in children and adolescents, much rarer and more aggressive than type 1 autoimmune hepatitis; probable associations are also identified with alopecia areata, psoriasis, and pyoderma gangrenosum...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993775/il-27-induced-type-1-regulatory-t-cells-produce-oxysterols-that-constrain-il-10-production
#7
Solenne Vigne, Fanny Chalmin, Donovan Duc, Aurélie S Clottu, Lionel Apetoh, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro, Isabelle Christen, Juan Zhang, Caroline Pot
The behaviors of lymphocytes, including CD4(+) T helper cells, are controlled on many levels by internal metabolic properties. Lipid metabolites have recently been ascribed a novel function as immune response modulators and perturbation of steroids pathways modulates inflammation and potentially promotes a variety of diseases. However, the impact of lipid metabolism on autoimmune disease development and lymphocyte biology is still largely unraveled. In this line, oxysterols, oxidized forms of cholesterol, have pleiotropic roles on the immune response aside from their involvements in lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993258/twenty-year-comparative-analysis-of-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-diseases-on-transplant-waitlists
#8
G J Webb, A Rana, J Hodson, M Z Akhtar, J W Ferguson, J M Neuberger, J M Vierling, G M Hirschfield
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The rarity of autoimmune liver disease poses challenges to epidemiology studies. However, waitlists for liver transplantation can be used to study patients with end-stage liver diseases. We used these waitlists to assess trends in numbers and demographics patients awaiting liver transplant for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). METHODS: We collected data from United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) national registries for all adults on liver transplant waitlists, from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2014...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987478/clinical-impact-of-intrapulmonary-vascular-dilatation-in-liver-transplant-candidates
#9
Hilary M DuBrock, Michael J Krowka, Kimberly A Forde, Karen Krok, Mamta Patel, Tiffany Sharkoski, Michael Sprys, Grace Lin, Jae K Oh, Carl D Mottram, Paul D Scanlon, Michael B Fallon, Steven M Kawut
BACKGROUND: Intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVD) are frequently detected in patients with liver disease by the delayed appearance of microbubbles on contrast-enhanced echocardiography. IPVD with an elevated alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient define hepatopulmonary syndrome, however the importance of IPVD in the absence of abnormal gas exchange is unknown. We aimed to determine the clinical impact of IPVD in patients with liver disease. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study within the Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease (PVCLD2) Study, a multicenter prospective cohort study of patients being evaluated for liver transplantation...
October 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987258/an-update-on-the-treatment-and-follow-up-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#10
REVIEW
Blaire E Burman, Manan A Jhaveri, Kris V Kowdley
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by chronic granulomatous lymphocytic cholangitis of the small bile ducts. PBC was a leading indication for liver transplant in the United States; with early diagnosis and treatment, the majority of patients with PBC have a normal life expectancy. Pathogenesis involves inflammatory damage of bile duct epithelium secondary to innate and adaptive immune responses, and toxicity from accumulated bile acids. Cholestasis and disease progression can lead to cirrhosis...
November 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987257/the-liver-in-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Renu Dhanasekaran, Paul Y Kwo
Gastroenterologists and hepatologists will encounter oncology patients who develop abnormal liver tests, patients with hepatic malignancies, and patients with acute and chronic liver disease who require chemotherapy or immediate evaluation. Chemotherapy can cause liver injury owing to toxic effects or idiosyncratic reactions. Immune checkpoint inhibitors may be associated with autoimmune-mediated liver toxicities. Venoocclusive disease requires immediate evaluation. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a chronic progressive disorder...
November 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975833/the-role-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-underlying-liver-disease-for-the-prognosis-of-primary-liver-cancer
#12
Ashok Shiani, Shreya Narayanan, Luis Pena, Mark Friedman
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Underlying chronic liver disease has been associated with an increased risk of developing HCC. This study is a review of the current literature regarding the diagnosis, prognostic significance, and role of treating underlying liver disease in patients who are at risk of primary liver cancer. Relevant peer review of the English literature between 1980 and 2017 within PubMed and the Cochrane library was conducted for scientific content on current advances in managing chronic liver diseases and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma...
July 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970719/autoimmune-hepatitis-standard-treatment-and-systematic-review-of-alternative-treatments
#13
REVIEW
Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani
Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare chronic inflammatory liver disease, affecting all ages, characterised by elevated transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, positive autoantibodies, interface hepatitis at liver histology and good response to immunosuppressive treatment. If untreated, it has a poor prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence for standard treatment and to provide a systematic review on alternative treatments for adults and children. Standard treatment is based on steroids and azathioprine, and leads to disease remission in 80%-90% of patients...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970716/autoimmune-hepatitis-diagnostic-dilemma-when-it-is-disguised-as-iron-overload-syndrome
#14
Gyanendra K Acharya, Hung-I Liao, Simona Frunza-Stefan, Ronakkumar Patel, Moe Khaing
Elevated serum ferritin level is a common finding in iron overload syndrome, autoimmune and viral hepatitis, alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. High transferrin saturation is not a common finding in above diseases except for iron overload syndrome. We encountered a challenging case of 73-year-old female who presented with yellowish discoloration of skin, dark color urine and dull abdominal pain. Initial laboratory tests reported mild anemia; elevated bilirubin, liver enzymes, and transferrin saturation...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970297/coeliac-disease-and-the-liver-spectrum-of-liver-histology-serology-and-treatment-response-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#15
Kaushik Majumdar, Puja Sakhuja, Amarender Singh Puri, Kavita Gaur, Aiman Haider, Ranjana Gondal
BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy diagnosed on the basis of ESPGHAN criteria and clinical response to gluten-free diet (GFD). Histological abnormalities on liver biopsy have been noted in CD but have seldom been described. AIMS: To assess the histological spectrum of 'coeliac hepatitis' and possibility of reversal of such features after a GFD. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with concomitant CD and hepatic derangement were analysed for clinical profile, laboratory investigations and duodenal and liver biopsy...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968354/marked-decrease-in-urgent-listing-for-liver-transplantation-over-time-evolution-of-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-status-1-liver-transplantation
#16
Linda L Wong, Hung P Truong, Todd Seto, Lea Lacar, Willscott E Naugler
BACKGROUND: Approximately 5% of liver transplants annually are performed urgently with "status-1" designation. This study aims to determine if the demand, characteristics and outcome for status-1 liver transplantation has changed over time. METHODS: We utilized the Scientific Registry of Transplant Patients (2003-2015) to characterize 2352 adult patients who underwent 2408 status-1 liver transplants and compared them between Era1 (2003-6/2009) and Era2 (7/2009 -2015)...
September 29, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967642/comparison-of-various-tissue-and-cell-therapy-approaches-when-restoring-ovarian-hepatic-and-kidney-s-function-after-chemotherapy-induced-ovarian-failure
#17
M M Kozub, V Y Prokopiuk, K P Skibina, O V Prokopiuk, N I Kozub
About 1% of women suffer from premature ovarian failure, which leads to a significant deterioration in the life quality. Most often this condition is caused by performed chemotherapy, autoimmune diseases, surgery performed on ovaries, uterus, or fallopian tubes. The aim of this study was to compare different approaches of tissue and cell therapy in restoring the sexual function in case of ovarian failure induced by chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in BALB/c mice with the modeled ovarian failure, induced by cyclophosphamide and busulfan...
September 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964257/the-contribution-of-the-acute-phase-response-to-the-pathogenesis-of-relapse-in-chronic-relapsing-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Silvy Mardiguian, Emma Ladds, Roberta Turner, Hazel Shepherd, Sandra J Campbell, Daniel C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Increased relapse rates in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a consequence of peripheral immune system activation, owing to infection for example, have been widely reported, but the mechanism remains unclear. Acute brain injury models can be exacerbated by augmenting the hepatic acute phase response (APR). Here, we explored the contribution of the hepatic APR to relapse in two rodent models of MS. METHODS: Mice with MOG-CFA-induced chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis (CR-EAE) were killed before, during and after the first phase of disease, and the brain and liver chemokine, cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) mRNA expression profile was determined...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953529/anti-tnf%C3%AE-treatment-in-children-and-adolescents-with-combined-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-autoimmune-liver-disease
#19
Natalia Nedelkopoulou, Babu Vadamalayan, Diego Vergani, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and autoimmune liver disease (AILD) are closely associated, the former often dictating progression of the latter. Antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti- TNFα) are effective in the management of IBD, but may cause liver injury. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of patients with juvenile AILD who received anti-TNFα for IBD to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anti-TNFα. RESULTS: Eleven patients (6 males), aged 9-15y (median 13y) were identified...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953449/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-lung-and-heart-and-antiviral-therapy-related-cardiopulmonary-toxicity
#20
Syeda Zainab Ilyas, Rabia Tabassum, Haroon Hamed, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ishtiaq Qadri
Besides liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). HCV exhibits lymphotropism that is responsible for various EHM. An important characteristic of HCV is escape from the immune system, which enables it to produce chronic infections and autoimmune disorders along with accumulation of circulating immune complexes. These EHMs have large spectrum, because they affect many organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, brain, thyroid, and skin...
September 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
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