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Translational stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550098/contralesional-brain-computer-interface-control-of-a-powered-exoskeleton-for-motor-recovery-in-chronic-stroke-survivors
#1
David T Bundy, Lauren Souders, Kelly Baranyai, Laura Leonard, Gerwin Schalk, Robert Coker, Daniel W Moran, Thy Huskey, Eric C Leuthardt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are few effective therapies to achieve functional recovery from motor-related disabilities affecting the upper limb after stroke. This feasibility study tested whether a powered exoskeleton driven by a brain-computer interface (BCI), using neural activity from the unaffected cortical hemisphere, could affect motor recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors. This novel system was designed and configured for a home-based setting to test the feasibility of BCI-driven neurorehabilitation in outpatient environments...
May 26, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538984/accuracy-of-medical-claims-for-identifying-cardiovascular-and-bleeding-events-after-myocardial-infarction-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-translate-acs-study
#2
Patricia O Guimarães, Arun Krishnamoorthy, Lisa A Kaltenbach, Kevin J Anstrom, Mark B Effron, Daniel B Mark, Patrick L McCollam, Linda Davidson-Ray, Eric D Peterson, Tracy Y Wang
Importance: Pragmatic clinical trial designs have proposed the use of medical claims data to ascertain clinical events; however, the accuracy of billed diagnoses in identifying potential events is unclear. Objectives: To compare the 1-year cumulative incidences of events when events were identified by medical claims vs by physician adjudication and to assess the accuracy of bill-identified events using physician adjudication as the criterion standard. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of a clinical trial assessed the medical claims forms and records for all rehospitalizations at 233 US hospitals within 1 year of the index acute myocardial infarction (MI) of 12 365 patients enrolled in the Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRANSLATE-ACS) study between April 1, 2010, and October 31, 2012...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536888/meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-research-on-facilitators-and-barriers-of-return-to-work-after-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Betje Schwarz, Dolores Claros-Salinas, Marco Streibelt
Purpose Despite existing rehabilitation services, return to work (RTW) rates among stroke survivors are quite low. An increased number of qualitative studies have been conducted to identify facilitators and barriers to RTW after stroke and to derive recommendations for future interventions. The aim of our study was to carry out a meta-synthesis of those studies and thus strengthen evidence in the field. Methods To identify relevant studies (qualitative studies focusing on RTW after stroke, published in English or German between 2000 and 2015), we conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, OVID, and Web of Science...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536207/impaired-cerebral-autoregulation-measurement-and-application-to-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Li Xiong, Xiuyun Liu, Ty Shang, Peter Smielewski, Joseph Donnelly, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yi Yang, Thomas Leung, Marek Czosnyka, Rong Zhang, Jia Liu, Ka Sing Wong
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is a protective mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow at a relatively constant level despite fluctuations of cerebral perfusion pressure or arterial blood pressure. It is a universal physiological mechanism that may involve myogenic, neural control as well as metabolic regulations of cerebral vasculature in response to changes in pressure or cerebral blood flow. Traditionally, CA has been represented by a sigmoid curve with a wide plateau between about 50 mm Hg and 170 mm Hg of steady-state changes in mean arterial pressure, defined as static CA...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535304/the-interplay-of-micrornas-in-the-inflammatory-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#5
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh
Immunity and inflammation are important parameters of the pathophysiology of stroke, a destructive illness that is the second most common cause of death worldwide. Following ischemic stroke, neuroinflammation plays a critical role in neurodegeneration and brain injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed, noncoding RNA molecules that function to inhibit mRNA translation. Recent studies demonstrate that miRNAs are key regulators of inflammatory processes contributing to ischemic stroke injuries...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532498/the-golden-hour-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#6
Rajiv Advani, Halvor Naess, Martin W Kurz
BACKGROUND: Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) treatment has been revolutionised in the last two decades with the increasing use of Intravenous Thrombolysis (IVT) and with the advent of Endovascular therapy (EVT). AIS treatment and outcome are time dependant and time saving measures are being implemented at every step of the treatment chain. These changes have resulted in lower treatment times in-hospital, but it is unclear if this translates into more patients being treated within 60 min of symptom onset - the Golden Hour...
May 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531374/stroke-is-a-global-epidemic-new-developments-in-clinical-and-translational-cerebrovascular-diseases-research
#7
William A Li, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531097/evolution-not-revolution-nutrition-and-obesity
#8
Elaine C Rush, Mary R Yan
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528288/cancer-atrial-fibrillation-and-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Tess Fitzpatrick, Marc Carrier, Grégoire Le Gal
Cancer patients appear to be at increased risk for atrial fibrillation. Although surgery and chemotherapy exacerbate this risk, this association is observed even in the absence of any cancer-specific treatment. The underlying mechanism of this is likely multifactorial, but systemic inflammation and autonomic dysregulation are hypothesized to play critical roles. Cancer and atrial fibrillation are both independent risk factors for ischemic stroke; however, it is not clear whether this translates to an increased risk of stroke in patients with both comorbidities...
May 9, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524175/modulators-of-microglial-activation-and-polarization-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#10
REVIEW
Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Qian Li, Qing-Wu Yang, Jian Wang
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most lethal subtype of stroke but currently lacks effective treatment. Microglia are among the first non-neuronal cells on the scene during the innate immune response to ICH. Microglia respond to acute brain injury by becoming activated and developing classic M1-like (proinflammatory) or alternative M2-like (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes. This polarization implies as yet unrecognized actions of microglia in ICH pathology and recovery, perhaps involving microglial production of proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523224/the-treatment-methods-for-post-stroke-visual-impairment-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Kerry Louise Hanna, Lauren Rachel Hepworth, Fiona J Rowe
AIM: To provide a systematic overview of interventions for stroke related visual impairments. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, observational studies, systematic reviews, and retrospective medical note reviews. All languages were included and translation obtained. This review covers adult participants (aged 18 years or over) diagnosed with a visual impairment as a direct cause of a stroke...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522551/inhibition-of-mir-143-during-ischemia-cerebral-injury-protects-neurons-through-recovery-of-the-hexokinase-2-mediated-glucose%C3%A2-uptake
#12
Xianzhu Zeng, Na Liu, Jing Zhang, Lei Wang, Zhecheng Zhang, Ju Zhu, Qian Li, Yuwen Wang
Ischemic stroke, a major cause of death, is caused by occlusion of a blood vessel, resulting in a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short noncoding RNAs (18 to 22 nucleotides) and bind the 3' un-translated region (UTR) of their target genes to post-transcriptionally suppress gene expression. In this study, we report miR-143 is downregulated in rat neurons but high expressed in astrocytes cells. In vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and ex vivo oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) results showed miR-143 was significantly induced by ischemia injury...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522196/impact-of-glucose-lowering-therapies-on-risk-of-stroke-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
F Bonnet, A J Scheen
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of stroke compared with people without diabetes. However, the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on risk of ischaemic stroke in T2D have been less extensively investigated than in coronary heart disease. Some evidence, including the UKPDS, has suggested a reduced risk of stroke with metformin, although the number of studies is limited. Inhibition of the KATP channels increases ischaemic brain lesions in animals. This is in agreement with a recent meta-analysis showing an increased risk of stroke with sulphonylureas vs...
May 15, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514873/unpacking-community-mobility-a-preliminary-study-into-the-embodied-experiences-of-stroke-survivors
#14
Christa S Nanninga, Louise Meijering, Klaas Postema, Marleen C Schönherr, Ant T Lettinga
PURPOSE: To enrich the discussion on mobility in stroke rehabilitation by translating theoretical repertoires of mobility from the context of geography to rehabilitation. METHOD: Qualitative research methodology was applied, and included in-depth interviews with stroke survivors. RESULTS: This study revealed: (a) social and material differences in clinical, private and public places; (b) ambivalences and shifting tensions in bodily, family and community life; (c) differences in access to resources to be used for mobility...
May 17, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511969/the-current-role-of-decompressive-craniectomy-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
S Honeybul, K M Ho, C R P Lind, G R Gillett
There is little doubt that decompressive craniectomy can reduce mortality however, the results of a recent study has provided more evidence to inform the debate regarding clinical and ethical concerns that it merely converts death into survival with severe disability or in a vegetative state. The recently published RESCUEicp trial compared last-tier secondary decompressive craniectomy with continued medical management for refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury. Patients were randomly assigned to decompressive craniectomy with medical therapy or to receive continued medical therapy with the option of adding barbiturates...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489049/superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-complexed-cationic-amylose-for-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-tracking-of-transplanted-stem-cells-in-stroke
#16
Bing-Ling Lin, Jun-Zhao Zhang, Lie-Jing Lu, Jia-Ji Mao, Ming-Hui Cao, Xu-Hong Mao, Fang Zhang, Xiao-Hui Duan, Chu-Shan Zheng, Li-Ming Zhang, Jun Shen
Cell-based therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy for acute ischemic stroke. In vivo tracking of therapeutic stem cells with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is imperative for better understanding cellular survival and migrational dynamics over time. In this study, we develop a novel biocompatible nanocomplex (ASP-SPIONs) based on cationic amylose, by introducing spermine and the image label, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), to label MSCs. The capacity, efficiency, and cytotoxicity of the nanocomplex in transferring SPIONs into green fluorescence protein-modified MSCs were tested; and the performance of in vivo MRI tracking of the transplanted cells in acute ischemic stroke was determined...
May 10, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487457/do-outcomes-after-kidney-transplantation-differ-for-black-patients-in-england-versus-new-york-state-a-comparative-population-cohort-analysis
#17
Sanna Tahir, Holly Gillott, Francesca Jackson-Spence, Jay Nath, Jemma Mytton, Felicity Evison, Adnan Sharif
OBJECTIVES: Inferior outcomes for black kidney transplant recipients in the USA may not be generalisable elsewhere. In this population cohort analysis, we compared outcomes for black kidney transplant patients in England versus New York State. DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative, population cohort study utilising administrative data registries. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: English data were derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, while New York State data were derived from Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481738/outcomes-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-for-equinovarus-deformity-in-patients-with-cva-a-case-series
#18
Priya Karakkattil, Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, Heather Hilliard Brown, Patrick Hammontree, Mary Okolo
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that Botulinum Toxin-A (BTX-A) reduces focal spasticity associated with equinovarus to improve gait in patients poststroke. However, there is little research examining whether gait improvements are maintained after the effectiveness period of BTX-A injections. The purpose of this observational study was to determine whether there was a difference in gait parameters in three patients before BTX-A injection versus four and ten weeks after. CASE SERIES: Three women, ages 63, 60, and 42 postischemic stroke with hemiparesis and equinovarus underwent measurements for: plantar flexor spasticity, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, temporal-spatial gait parameters, and gait endurance...
May 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480877/emerging-roles-of-micrornas-in-ischemic-stroke-as-possible-therapeutic-agents
#19
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Yaghoob Farbood, Hadi Fathi Moghaddam, Maryam Farzaneh
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability worldwide. The consequences of stroke injuries are profound and persistent, causing in considerable burden to both the individual patient and society. Current treatments for ischemic stroke injuries have proved inadequate, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of the cellular and molecular changes that occur following ischemic stroke. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously expressed RNA molecules that function to inhibit mRNA translation and have key roles in the pathophysiological processes contributing to ischemic stroke injuries...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480338/the-role-of-necroptosis-in-atherosclerotic-disease
#20
Nicholas J Leeper
It is now known that cells don't always die by apoptosis, but can also undergo a process known as programmed cell necrosis, or necroptosis. In a study recently published in Science Advances, investigators reported that this pro-inflammatory process is active in human atherosclerosis, may promote growth of the necrotic core, and may serve as a novel molecular imaging and translational therapeutic target. These findings represent a major step in our goal to reduce coronary disease and stroke.
October 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
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