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Translational stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721206/a-bipedal-mammalian-model-for-spinal-cord-injury-research-the-tammar-wallaby
#1
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Sophie C Whish, Lyn A Hinds, Benjamin J Wheaton, Yifan Huang, Steve Henry, Mark D Habgood
Background: Most animal studies of spinal cord injury are conducted in quadrupeds, usually rodents. It is unclear to what extent functional results from such studies can be translated to bipedal species such as humans because bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion involve very different patterns of spinal control of muscle coordination. Bipedalism requires upright trunk stability and coordinated postural muscle control; it has been suggested that peripheral sensory input is less important in humans than quadrupeds for recovery of locomotion following spinal injury...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713891/hypothermia-exerts-early-neuroprotective-effects-involving-protein-conjugation-of-sumo%C3%A2-2-3-in-a-rat-model-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#2
Gang Li, Xiaozhi Liu, Zhiguo Su, Dong Zhang
How hypothermia serves an early protective role against cerebral ischemia remains to be determined. The small ubiquitin‑related modifier protein (SUMO) functions as a post‑translational modification system and SUMO‑2/3 subtypes are often activated in early stress. The present study investigated changes in the protein level of SUMO using western blotting and immunocytochemistry when neurons were exposed to oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro, as well as in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713637/regenerative-rehabilitation-an-innovative-and-multifactorial-approach-to-recovery-from-stroke-and-brain-injury
#3
Samantha M Portis, Paul R Sanberg
There is currently a dearth of treatment options for stroke or traumatic brain injury that can restore cognitive and motor function. Regenerative and translational medicine have ushered forth promising new methods for mediating recovery in the central nervous system, the most salient of which are rehabilitation and stem cell therapies that, when combined, result in more pronounced recovery than one approach alone.
2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701578/circular-rna-expression-profiles-alter-significantly-in-mouse-brain-after-transient-focal-ischemia
#4
Suresh L Mehta, Gopal Pandi, Raghu Vemuganti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding RNAs formed from many protein-coding genes by backsplicing. Although their physiological functions are not yet completely defined, they are thought to control transcription, translation, and microRNA levels. We investigated whether stroke changes the circRNAs expression profile in the mouse brain. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, and circRNA expression profile was evaluated in the penumbral cortex at 6, 12, and 24 hours of reperfusion using circRNA microarrays and real-time PCR...
July 12, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701308/national-institutes-of-health-funded-cardiac-arrest-research-a-10-year-trend-analysis
#5
Ryan A Coute, Ashish R Panchal, Timothy J Mader, Robert W Neumar
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death in the United States, claiming over 450 000 lives annually. Improving survival depends on the ability to conduct CA research and on the translation and implementation of research findings into practice. Our objective was to provide a descriptive analysis of annual National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for CA research over the past decade. METHOD AND RESULTS: A search within NIH RePORTER for the years 2007 to 2016 was performed using the terms: "cardiac arrest" or "cardiopulmonary resuscitation" or "heart arrest" or "circulatory arrest" or "pulseless electrical activity" or "ventricular fibrillation" or "resuscitation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697710/enhancing-the-alignment-of-the-preclinical-and-clinical-stroke-recovery-research-pipeline-consensus-based-core-recommendations-from-the-stroke-recovery-and-rehabilitation-roundtable-translational-working-group
#6
Dale Corbett, S Thomas Carmichael, Timothy H Murphy, Theresa A Jones, Martin E Schwab, Jukka Jolkkonen, Andrew N Clarkson, Numa Dancause, Tadeusz Weiloch, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Michael Nilsson, Louise D McCullough, Mary T Joy
Stroke recovery research involves distinct biological and clinical targets compared to the study of acute stroke. Guidelines are proposed for the pre-clinical modeling of stroke recovery and for the alignment of pre-clinical studies to clinical trials in stroke recovery.
July 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697708/agreed-definitions-and-a-shared-vision-for-new-standards-in-stroke-recovery-research-the-stroke-recovery-and-rehabilitation-roundtable-taskforce
#7
Julie Bernhardt, Kathryn S Hayward, Gert Kwakkel, Nick S Ward, Steven L Wolf, Karen Borschmann, John W Krakauer, Lara A Boyd, S Thomas Carmichael, Dale Corbett, Steven C Cramer
The first Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable established a game changing set of new standards for stroke recovery research. Common language and definitions were required to develop an agreed framework spanning the four working groups: translation of basic science, biomarkers of stroke recovery, measurement in clinical trials and intervention development and reporting. This paper outlines the working definitions established by our group and an agreed vision for accelerating progress in stroke recovery research...
July 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691582/the-next-step-in-understanding-impaired-reactive-balance-control-in-people-with-stroke-the-role-of-defective-early-automatic-postural-responses
#8
Digna de Kam, Jolanda M B Roelofs, Amber K B D Bruijnes, Alexander C H Geurts, Vivian Weerdesteyn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postural muscle responses are often impaired after stroke. We aimed to identify the contribution of deficits in very early postural responses to poorer reactive balance capacity, with a particular focus on reactive stepping as a key strategy for avoiding falls. METHODS: A total of 34 chronic stroke survivors and 17 controls were subjected to translational balance perturbations in 4 directions. We identified the highest perturbation intensity that could be recovered without stepping (single stepping threshold [SST]) and with maximally 1 step (multiple stepping threshold [MST])...
July 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684048/dihydrocapsaicin-dhc-enhances-the-hypothermia-induced-neuroprotection-following-ischemic-stroke-via-pi3k-akt-regulation-in-rat
#9
Di Wu, Jingfei Shi, Omar Elmadhoun, Yunxia Duan, Hong An, Jun Zhang, Xiaoduo He, Ran Meng, Xiangrong Liu, Xunming Ji, Yuchuan Ding
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia has demonstrated neuroprotection following ischemia in preclinical studies while its clinical application is still very limited. The aim of this study was to explore whether combining local hypothermia in ischemic territory achieved by intra-arterial cold infusions (IACIs) with pharmacologically induced hypothermia enhances therapeutic outcomes, as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h using intraluminal hollow filament...
July 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676010/kca3-1-channel-modulators-as-potential-therapeutic-compounds-for-glioblastoma
#10
Brandon M Brown, Brandon Pressley, Heike Wulff
The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is widely expressed in cells of the immune system such as T- and B-lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages and microglia, but also found in dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and many cancer cells including pancreatic, prostate, leukemia and glioblastoma. In all these cell types KCa3.1 plays an important role in cellular activation, migration and proliferation by regulating membrane potential and Ca2+ signaling. KCa3.1 therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target for diseases involving excessive proliferation or activation of one more of these cell types and researchers both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry have developed several potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of KCa3...
June 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674991/cell-death-mechanisms-of-neurodegeneration
#11
Jing Fan, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson
There are common mechanisms shared by genetically or pathologically distinct neurodegenerative diseases, such as excitotoxicity, mitochondrial deficits and oxidative stress, protein misfolding and translational dysfunction, autophagy and microglia activation. This indicates that although the original cause may differ in individual diseases or even subtypes of certain disorders, these disrupted common cell functions and signaling, together with aging, may lead to final execution of cell death through similar pathways...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670721/age-is-not-a-bar-to-pci-insights-from-the-long-term-outcomes-from-off-site-pci-in-a-real-world-setting
#12
Robert T Gerber, Satpal S Arri, Mohamed O Mohamed, Gurpreet Dhillon, Alykhan Bandali, Idris Harding, Jeremy Gifford, Belinda Sandler, Ben Corbo, Eric McWilliams
OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes of very elderly patients (V. Eld. group, age >80 years) and compare their outcomes to a less elderly cohort (Eld. group, age 75-80 years) traditionally reported in the literature. BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on peri-procedural and long-term outcomes following PCI in the V. Eld. (age >80 years), with under-representation of this cohort in randomized controlled trials. These patients present with advanced complex coronary disease and multiple comorbidities...
July 2, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666966/aapt-diagnostic-criteria-for-central-neuropathic-pain
#13
Eva Widerstrom-Noga, John D Loeser, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Nanna Brix Finnerup
Central neuropathic pain, which is pain caused by a lesion or disease of the central somatosensory nervous system, is a serious consequence of spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis and other conditions affecting the central nervous system. A collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership and the American Pain Society (APS), the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) initiative, invited a working group to develop diagnostic criteria for central neuropathic pain...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661945/effect-of-visual-art-school-based-stroke-intervention-for-middle-school-students
#14
Ashleigh B Johnson, Chelsea M Montgomery, Wesley A Dillard, Kenneth Morrill, Coral Hoesli, Wesley M Gillette, Brandon K Johnson, Thomas I Nathaniel
BACKGROUND: Community stroke awareness initiatives have traditionally been used to expand knowledge of stroke signs and risk factors to high-risk adult populations. Here, we use a novel unfettered, visual art-based approach for an elementary school initiative to raise stroke awareness. METHODS: Seventh graders in a middle school art class received stroke awareness training during the course of the 2015 to 2016 school year through their teacher in the visual arts class...
August 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655816/optimal-transport-destination-for-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-unknown-vessel-status-use-of-prehospital-triage-scores
#15
Eckhard Schlemm, Martin Ebinger, Christian H Nolte, Matthias Endres, Ludwig Schlemm
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion may benefit from direct transportation to an endovascular capable comprehensive stroke center (mothership approach) as opposed to direct transportation to the nearest stroke unit without endovascular therapy (drip and ship approach). The optimal transport strategy for patients with AIS and unknown vessel status is uncertain. The rapid arterial occlusion evaluation scale (RACE, scores ranging from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating higher stroke severity) correlates with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and was developed to identify patients with large vessel occlusion in a prehospital setting...
June 27, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654919/a-clinical-score-for-predicting-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-cryptogenic-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack
#16
Calvin Kwong, Albee Y Ling, Michael H Crawford, Susan X Zhao, Nigam H Shah
OBJECTIVES: Detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in post-cryptogenic stroke (CS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients carries important therapeutic implications. METHODS: To risk stratify CS/TIA patients for later development of AF, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from 1995 to 2015 in the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE). RESULTS: Of the 9,589 adult patients (age ≥40 years) with CS/TIA included, 482 (5%) patients developed AF post CS/TIA...
June 28, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652256/fundamental-cardiovascular-research-returns-on-societal-investment-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#17
REVIEW
Joseph A Hill, Reza Ardehali, Kimberli Taylor Clarke, Gregory J Del Zoppo, Lee L Eckhardt, Kathy K Griendling, Peter Libby, Dan M Roden, Hesham A Sadek, Christine E Seidman, Douglas E Vaughan
Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention...
June 26, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651530/perspectives-of-health-care-professionals-on-the-facilitators-and-barriers-to-the-implementation-of-a-stroke-rehabilitation-guidelines-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Sarah E P Munce, Ian D Graham, Nancy M Salbach, Susan B Jaglal, Carol L Richards, Janice J Eng, Johanne Desrosiers, Marilyn MacKay-Lyons, Sharon Wood-Dauphinee, Nicol Korner-Bitensky, Nancy E Mayo, Robert W Teasell, Merrick Zwarenstein, Jennifer Mokry, Sandra Black, Mark T Bayley
BACKGROUND: The Stroke Canada Optimization of Rehabilitation by Evidence Implementation Trial (SCORE-IT) was a cluster randomized controlled trial that evaluated two knowledge translation (KT) interventions for the promotion of the uptake of best practice recommendations for interventions targeting upper and lower extremity function, postural control, and mobility. Twenty rehabilitation centers across Canada were randomly assigned to either the facilitated or passive KT intervention. The objective of the current study was to understand the factors influencing the implementation of the recommended treatments and KT interventions from the perspective of nurses, occupational therapists and physical therapists, and clinical managers following completion of the trial...
June 26, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650845/sealing-free-fast-response-paraffin-nanoporous-gold-hybrid-actuator
#19
Xinglong Ye, Haijun Jin
Paraffin-based actuators can deliver large actuation strokes and high actuation stress, but often suffer from low response rate and leaking problems. Here we report a new paraffin/metal hybrid actuator, which is formed by infiltrating nanoporous gold with paraffin. It exhibits fast actuation rate owing to high thermal conductivity of the inter-connected metal phase, and requires no external sealing because paraffin could be well confined in nanoscale channels due to the capillary force. We found that in this hybrid actuator, the stress generated by actuation is negligibly small when the characteristic size of the nanoporous gold (L) is above ~ 70 nm, and increases dramatically with decreasing size when L < ~ 70 nm...
June 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648945/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#20
Joakim N E Ölmestig, Ida R Marlet, Atticus H Hainsworth, Christina Kruuse
Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), such as sildenafil (Viagra®) are widely used for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Preclinical studies suggest that PDE5i may improve functional outcome following ischemic stroke. In this systematic review we aimed to evaluate the effects of selective PDE5i in animal models of brain ischaemia. A systematic search in Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library was performed including studies in English assessing the effects of selective PDE5i. 32 publications were included describing outcome in 3646 animals...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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