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Translational stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342656/nurses-are-as-specific-and-are-earlier-in-calling-in-hospital-stroke-alerts-compared-to-physicians
#1
Pravin George, Dolora R Wisco, James Gebel, Ken Uchino, Christopher R Newey
INTRODUCTION: In-hospital stroke alerts are typically activated by nurses or physicians when a patient's neurological status acutely changes from baseline. It is unclear if knowledge of stroke symptoms translates to accurate activation of the acute stroke team. We hypothesized that nurses who activate the stroke alert system would correctly identify as great a proportion of acute strokes as physicians. We also investigated the time to activation of these in-hospital stroke alerts. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive inpatient stroke team calls over a 12-month period at a single, tertiary care center...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339419/the-im-possibilities-of-returning-to-work-after-a-stroke
#2
Maria Norstedt
BACKGROUND: What a stroke means for working-age persons has not been sufficiently studied from a sociological perspective. OBJECTIVE: This article uses the empirical material of a larger study to describe and analyze how institutional practices and discourses influence attempts to return to work after a stroke. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten persons who have had a stroke and ten civil servants and professionals from the Swedish Public Employment Service, the Social Insurance Agency, and different health care institutions...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337932/stroke-lesions-in-a-large-upper-limb-rehabilitation-trial-cohort-rarely-match-lesions-in-common-preclinical-models
#3
Matthew A Edwardson, Ximing Wang, Brent Liu, Li Ding, Christianne J Lane, Caron Park, Monica A Nelsen, Theresa A Jones, Steven L Wolf, Carolee J Winstein, Alexander W Dromerick
BACKGROUND: Stroke patients with mild-moderate upper extremity motor impairments and minimal sensory and cognitive deficits provide a useful model to study recovery and improve rehabilitation. Laboratory-based investigators use lesioning techniques for similar goals. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether stroke lesions in an upper extremity rehabilitation trial cohort match lesions from the preclinical stroke recovery models used to drive translational research. METHODS: Clinical neuroimages from 297 participants enrolled in the Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) study were reviewed...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337466/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-approaches-to-evaluate-next-generation-tobacco-and-non-tobacco-products-on-human-blood-platelets
#4
Sherry L Spinelli, Katie L Lannan, Shannon G Loelius, Richard P Phipps
Human blood platelets are major hemostatic regulators in the circulation and important in the mediation of chronic inflammation and immunomodulation. They are key elements that promote cardiovascular pathogenesis that leads to atherosclerosis, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. New information on tobacco use and platelet dysregulation shows that these highly understudied vascular cells are dysregulated by tobacco smoke. Thus, platelet function studies should be an important consideration for the evaluation of existing and next-generation tobacco and non-tobacco products...
March 1, 2017: Appl In Vitro Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#5
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323006/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-cerebral-hypoxia-and-ischemia
#6
REVIEW
Myriam Peters, Betty Wielsch, Johannes Boltze
The process of protein modification by adding or detaching small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) proteins, called SUMOylation, contributes to the regulation of numerous processes in eukaryotic cells. SUMOylation also represents a key response and adaption mechanism to different forms of metabolic stress. The central nervous system (CNS) and neurons in particular are highly susceptible to hypoxic-ischemic stress due to the lack of significant oxygen and energy reserves. SUMOylation is observed in many molecular responses to metabolic stress in the brain, and is therefore supposed to represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism...
March 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322973/imidazoline-i2-receptors-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Jun-Xu Li
Since first introduced more than two decades ago, the research in imidazoline I2 receptors has been steadily increasing. This review provides an update on the current status of I2 receptor pharmacology. Imidazoline I2 receptors or I2 binding sites refer to several (at least four) different proteins that bind to [(3)H]-idazoxan and [(3)H]-2-BFI with high affinity. The molecular identities of the proteins remain elusive. One of the proteins (45 kD) seems to be consistent with the identity of brain creatine kinase...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320168/a-systematic-comparison-of-key-features-of-ischemic-stroke-prevention-guidelines-in-low-and-middle-income-vs-high-income-countries
#8
REVIEW
Hernán Bayona, Mayowa Owolabi, Wuwei Feng, Paul Olowoyo, Joseph Yaria, Rufus Akinyemi, James R Sawers, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Implementation of contextually appropriate, evidence-based, expert-recommended stroke prevention guideline is particularly important in Low-Income Countries (LMICs), which bear disproportional larger burden of stroke while possessing fewer resources. However, key quality characteristics of guidelines issued in LMICs compared with those in High-Income Countries (HICs) have not been systematically studied. We aimed to compare important features of stroke prevention guidelines issued in these groups...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320070/dexpramipexole-improves-bioenergetics-and-outcome-in-experimental-stroke
#9
Mirko Muzzi, Elisabetta Gerace, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Coppi, Francesco Resta, Laura Formentini, Riccardo Zecchi, Laura Tigli, Daniele Guasti, Martina Ferri, Emidio Camaioni, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Guido Mannaioni, Daniele Bani, Anna M Pugliese, Alberto Chiarugi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexpramipexole, a drug recently tested in ALS patients able to bind F1Fo ATP synthase and increase mitochondrial ATP production, on experimental ischemic brain injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of dexpramipexole on bioenergetics, Ca(2+) fluxes, electrophysiological functions and death were evaluated in primary neural cultures and hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The drug's impact on infarct volumes and neurological functions was also evaluated in mice subjected to proximal or distal MCAo...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303914/restoring-brain-function-after-stroke-bridging-the-gap-between-animals-and-humans
#10
REVIEW
Nick S Ward
Stroke is the leading cause of complex adult disability in the world. Recovery from stroke is often incomplete, which leaves many people dependent on others for their care. The improvement of long-term outcomes should, therefore, be a clinical and research priority. As a result of advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in recovery and repair after stroke, therapeutic opportunities to promote recovery through manipulation of poststroke plasticity have never been greater. This work has almost exclusively been carried out in preclinical animal models of stroke with little translation into human studies...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303738/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-in-ischemic-stroke-a-role-for-preconditioning-and-cellular-engineering
#11
Joshua D Bernstock, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Daniel Ye, Florian A Gessler, Dragan Maric, Nunzio Vicario, Yang-Ja Lee, Stefano Pluchino, John M Hallenbeck
Ischemic stroke continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. To protect and/or repair the ischemic brain, a multitiered approach may be centered on neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation. Transplanted NSCs exert beneficial effects not only via structural replacement, but also via immunomodulatory and/or neurotrophic actions. Unfortunately, the clinical translation of such promising therapies remains elusive, in part due to their limited persistence/survivability within the hostile ischemic microenvironment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302915/sex-differences-in-ischaemic-stroke-potential-cellular-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Anjali Chauhan, Hope Moser, Louise D McCullough
Stroke remains a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. More women than men have strokes each year, in part because women live longer. Women have poorer functional outcomes, are more likely to need nursing home care and have higher rates of recurrent stroke compared with men. Despite continued advancements in primary prevention, innovative acute therapies and ongoing developments in neurorehabilitation, stroke incidence and mortality continue to increase due to the aging of the U.S. POPULATION: Sex chromosomes (XX compared with XY), sex hormones (oestrogen and androgen), epigenetic regulation and environmental factors all contribute to sex differences...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299202/the-role-for-infarct-volume-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-functional-outcome-following-ischemic-stroke
#13
Ryan C Turner, Kenneth DiPasquale, Aric F Logsdon, Zhenjun Tan, Zachary J Naser, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, Brandon P Lucke-Wold
The failed translation of proposed therapeutic agents for ischemic stroke from preclinical to clinical studies has led to increased scrutiny of preclinical studies, namely the model and outcome measures utilized. Preclinical studies routinely use infarct volume as an experimental endpoint or measure in studies employing young-adult, healthy male animals despite the fact that clinically, ischemic stroke is a disease of the elderly and improvements in functional outcome from pre- to post-intervention remains the most widely utilized assessment...
December 2016: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291535/the-health-burden-and-economic-costs-averted-by-ambient-pm2-5-pollution-reductions-in-nagpur-india
#14
Tunde O Etchie, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Gregory O Adewuyi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, Padma S Rao, Ayotunde T Etchie, Ajay Pillarisetti, Narendra K Arora, Kirk R Smith
National estimates of the health and economic burdens of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in India reveal substantial impacts. This information, often lacking at the local level, can justify and drive mitigation interventions. Here, we assess the health and economic gains resulting from attainment of WHO guidelines for PM2.5 concentrations - including interim target 2 (IT-2), interim target 3 (IT-3), and the WHO air quality guideline (AQG) - in Nagpur district to inform policy decision making for mitigation...
March 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290234/preliminary-validation-study-of-the-russian-birmingham-cognitive-screen
#15
E Kuzmina, G W Humphreys, M J Riddoch, A A Skvortsov, B S Weekes
INTRODUCTION: The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) is designed for use with individuals who have acquired language impairment following stroke. Our goal was to develop a Russian version of the BCoS (Rus-BCoS) by translating the battery following cultural and linguistic adaptations and establishing preliminary data on its psychometric properties. METHOD: Fifty patients with left-hemisphere stroke were recruited, of whom 98% were diagnosed with mild to moderate aphasia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290152/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-isoform-b-stimulates-neurovascular-repair-after-ischemic-stroke-by-promoting-the-function-of-pericytes-via-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1
#16
Noëmie Jean LeBlanc, Revathy Guruswamy, Ayman ElAli
Ischemic stroke triggers endogenous angiogenic mechanisms, which correlates with longer survival in patients. As such, promoting angiogenesis appears to be a promising approach. Experimental studies investigated mostly the potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor isoform-A (VEGF-A). However, VEGF-A increases the risk of destabilizing the brain microvasculature, thus hindering the translation of its usage in clinics. An attractive alternative VEGF isoform-B (VEGF-B) was recently reported to act as a survival factor rather than a potent angiogenic factor...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286764/phase-i-and-phase-ii-therapies-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-an-update-on-currently-studied-drugs-in-clinical-research
#17
REVIEW
Cesar Reis, Onat Akyol, Wing Mann Ho, Camila Araujo, Lei Huang, Richard Applegate Ii, John H Zhang
Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284901/the-application-and-neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-cerebral-ischemic-post-conditioning-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Zhixing Li, Hanlin Chen, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
Ischemic stroke is a serious cerebrovascular disease that leads to death and/or severe disability, and extensive research has been directed in search of appropriate treatment measures. One such potential treatment is the use of cerebral ischemic post-conditioning (IPostC), and its neuroprotective effects and controllability have been widely confirmed and validated. Numerous studies have indicated that cerebral IPostC can suppress the inflammatory reaction in ischemia reperfusion injury, improve cerebral circulation, reduce infarct volume, and promote both neurogenesis and angiogenesis...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283966/data-standardization-and-quality-management
#19
Paul A Lapchak, John H Zhang
Important questions regarding the conduct of scientific research and data transparency have been raised in various scientific forums over the last 10 years. It is becoming clear, that in spite of published RIGOR guidelines, that improvement in the transparency of scientific research is required to focus on the discovery and drug development process so that a treatment can be provided to stroke patients. We have the unique privilege of conducting research using animal models of a disease so that we can address the development of a new therapy, and we should do this with great care and vigilance...
March 10, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271496/genetics-of-migraine-insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-migraine-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Heidi G Sutherland, Lyn R Griffiths
Migraine is a complex, debilitating neurovascular disorder, typically characterized by recurring, incapacitating attacks of severe headache often accompanied by nausea and neurological disturbances. It has a strong genetic basis demonstrated by rare migraine disorders caused by mutations in single genes (monogenic), as well as familial clustering of common migraine which is associated with polymorphisms in many genes (polygenic). Hemiplegic migraine is a dominantly inherited, severe form of migraine with associated motor weakness...
March 8, 2017: Headache
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