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Translational stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091936/task-specific-motor-rehabilitation-therapy-after-stroke-improves-performance-in-a-different-motor-task-translational-evidence
#1
M El Amki, P Baumgartner, O Bracko, A R Luft, S Wegener
While the stroke survivor with a motor deficit strives for recovery of all aspects of daily life movements, neurorehabilitation training is often task specific and does not generalize to movements other than the ones trained. In rodent models of post-stroke recovery, this problem is poorly investigated as the training task is often the same as the one that measures motor function. The present study investigated whether motor training by pellet reaching translates into enhancement of different motor functions in rats after stroke...
January 14, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#2
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086932/spontaneous-ischaemic-stroke-lesions-in-a-dog-brain-neuropathological-characterisation-and-comparison-to-human-ischaemic-stroke
#3
Barbara Blicher Thomsen, Hanne Gredal, Martin Wirenfeldt, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Anders Elm Larsen, Bente Finsen, Mette Berendt, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
BACKGROUND: Dogs develop spontaneous ischaemic stroke with a clinical picture closely resembling human ischaemic stroke patients. Animal stroke models have been developed, but it has proved difficult to translate results obtained from such models into successful therapeutic strategies in human stroke patients. In order to face this apparent translational gap within stroke research, dogs with ischaemic stroke constitute an opportunity to study the neuropathology of ischaemic stroke in an animal species...
January 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079633/criterion-referenced-values-of-grip-strength-and-usual-gait-speed-using-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-disability-as-the-criterion
#4
Meng-Chih Lee, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Yi-Fen Tsai, Ching-Yu Chen, Cheng-Chieh Lin, Ching-Yi Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current evidence suggests that grip strength and usual gait speed (UGS) are important predictors of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability. Knowing the optimum cut points of these tests for discriminating people with and without IADL disability could help clinicians or researchers to better interpret the test results and make medical decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine the cutoff values of grip strength and UGS for best discriminating community-dwelling older adults with and without IADL disability, separately for men and women, and to investigate their association with IADL disability...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078626/time-course-investigation-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-tight-junction-protein-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-permanent-focal-ischemia
#5
Peng Liu, Rui Zhang, Danyang Liu, Jinling Wang, Chunling Yuan, Xuemei Zhao, Yinjie Li, Xuefei Ji, Tianyan Chi, Libo Zou
Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) is an animal model that is widely used to simulate human ischemic stroke. However, the timing of the changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and synaptic proteins associated with pMCAO remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to further explore the characteristics and mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during cerebral ischemic stroke, we used a pMCAO rat model to define dynamic changes in BBB permeability within 120 h after ischemia in order to examine the expression levels of the TJ proteins claudin-5 and occludin and the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#6
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064388/stem-cell-recipes-of-bone-marrow-and-fish-just-what-the-stroke-doctors-ordered
#7
REVIEW
Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
Stem cell therapy for stroke has advanced from the laboratory to the clinic, but remains as an experimental treatment. Two lines of transplant regimens have emerged, namely the "early bird" peripheral injections in subacute stroke patients and the "late night" direct intracerebral treatments in chronic stroke patients. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells, which only required minimal manipulations during graft cell preparation, gained fast-track entry into the clinic, while gene modified stem cells necessitated overcoming more stringent regulatory criteria before they were approved for clinical use...
January 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064150/a-novel-risk-prediction-score-in-atrial-fibrillation-for-a-net-clinical-outcome-from-the-engage-af-timi-48-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Christina L Fanola, Robert P Giugliano, Christian T Ruff, Marco Trevisan, Francesco Nordio, Michele F Mercuri, Elliott M Antman, Eugene Braunwald
AIMS: The choice between initiating a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) and a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be challenging. To assist in this decision, we developed a risk score to identify patients for whom a therapeutic benefit of NOACs over VKA is predicted. METHODS AND RESULTS: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 was a randomized clinical trial of edoxaban vs. warfarin in 21 105 patients with AF. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with a serious net clinical outcome (NCO) of disabling stroke, life-threatening bleeding, and all-cause mortality in VKA naïve patients from the warfarin arm...
January 6, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062508/arterial-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus-preclinical-models-and-translational-implications
#9
John N Stabley, Dwight A Towler
Diabetes mellitus increasingly afflicts our aging and dysmetabolic population. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the antecedent metabolic syndrome represent the vast majority of the disease burden-increasingly prevalent in children and older adults. However, type 1 diabetes mellitus is also advancing in preadolescent children. As such, a crushing wave of cardiometabolic disease burden now faces our society. Arteriosclerotic calcification is increased in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and type 1 diabetes mellitus-impairing conduit vessel compliance and function, thereby increasing the risk for dementia, stroke, heart attack, limb ischemia, renal insufficiency, and lower extremity amputation...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061401/the-effect-of-weight-bearing-asymmetry-on-dynamic-postural-stability-in-people-with-chronic-stroke
#10
Digna de Kam, Jip F Kamphuis, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Alexander C H Geurts
After stroke, weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) towards the non-paretic side is associated with postural instability. It remains unknown whether WBA is a cause or consequence of postural instability, as both phenomena depend on stroke severity. We investigated the effect of WBA on the ability to recover from balance perturbations in people with stroke. Fourteen people in the chronic phase of stroke underwent multidirectional translational perturbations at three levels of initial WBA (0, 10 and 20% of body weight unloading of the paretic leg)...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059802/recent-progress-in-translational-research-on-neurovascular-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#11
Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Tracy D Farr, Mathias Gelderblom, Karen Horsburgh, Costantino Iadecola, Damian D Mcleod, Dominik Michalski, Tim H Murphy, Josune Orbe, Willem M Otte, Gabor C Petzold, Nikolaus Plesnila, Georg Reiser, Klaus G Reymann, Maria A Rueger, Dorothee Saur, Sean I Savitz, Stephan Schilling, Neil J Spratt, Renée J Turner, Raghu Vemuganti, Denis Vivien, Manuel Yepes, Marietta Zille, Johannes Boltze
The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve the patient's outcome. This has been paralleled by a swift increase in our understanding of pathomechanisms underlying many neurovascular diseases and most prevalent forms of dementia. Taken together, these current advances offer the potential to overcome almost two decades of marginally successful translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059649/quantitative-analysis-of-the-effect-of-institutional-case-volume-on-complications-after-surgical-clipping-of-unruptured-aneurysms
#12
Lorenzo Rinaldo, Brandon A McCutcheon, Meghan E Murphy, Daniel L Shepherd, Patrick R Maloney, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohamad Bydon, Giuseppe Lanzino
OBJECTIVE The mechanism by which greater institutional case volume translates into improved outcomes after surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is not well established. The authors thus aimed to assess the effect of case volume on the rate of various types of complications after clipping of UIAs. METHODS Using information on the outcomes of inpatient admissions for surgical clipping of UIAs collected within a national database, the relationship of institutional case volume to the incidence of different types of complications after clipping was investigated...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057795/pleiotropic-effects-of-statins-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
REVIEW
Adam Oesterle, Ulrich Laufs, James K Liao
The statins have been used for 30 years to prevent coronary artery disease and stroke. Their primary mechanism of action is the lowering of serum cholesterol through inhibiting hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis thereby upregulating the hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and increasing the clearance of LDL-cholesterol. Statins may exert cardiovascular protective effects that are independent of LDL-cholesterol lowering called pleiotropic effects. Because statins inhibit the production of isoprenoid intermediates in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as Rho and Rac, and their downstream effectors such as Rho kinase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases are also inhibited...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056995/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-activation-and-coevolution-of-its-%C3%AE%C2%B5pkc-mediated-phosphorylation-sites
#14
Aishwarya Nene, Che-Hong Chen, Marie-Hélène Disatnik, Leslie Cruz, Daria Mochly-Rosen
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme for the metabolism of many toxic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, derived from alcohol drinking, and 4HNE, an oxidative stress-derived lipid peroxidation aldehyde. Post-translational enhancement of ALDH2 activity can be achieved by serine/threonine phosphorylation by epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC). Elevated ALDH2 is beneficial in reducing injury following myocardial infarction, stroke and other oxidative stress and aldehyde toxicity-related diseases...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056813/hemodynamic-effects-of-intraoperative-anesthetics-administration-in-photothrombotic-stroke-model-a-study-using-laser-speckle-imaging
#15
Hongyang Lu, Yao Li, Bin Bo, Lu Yuan, Xiaodan Lu, Hangdao Li, Shanbao Tong
BACKGROUND: Previous neuroimaging studies have shown the hemodynamic effect of either preconditioning or postconditioning anesthesia in ischemic stroke model. However, the anesthetic effect in hemodynamics during and immediately after the stroke modeling surgery remains unknown due to the lack of appropriate anesthesia-free stroke model and intraoperative imaging technology. In the present study, we utilized our recently developed photothrombotic model of focal cerebral ischemia in conscious and freely moving rats, and investigated transient hemodynamic changes with or without isoflurane administration...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053925/reliability-and-validity-of-a-chinese-version-of-the-stroke-action-test-a-new-instrument-for-assessment-of-stroke-knowledge-and-response
#16
Mei Ha, Xiaoling Qian, Hong Yang, Jichun Huang, Changjiang Liu
BACKGROUND: The public's cognition of stroke and responses to stroke symptoms are important to prevent complications and decrease the mortality when stroke occurs. The aim of study was to develop and validate the Chinese version of the Stroke Action Test (C-STAT) in a Chinese population. METHODS: This study was rigorously implemented with the published guideline for the translation, adaptation and validation of instruments for the cross-cultural use in healthcare care research...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052873/path-of-translational-discovery-of-urological-complications-of-obesity-and-diabetes-ucod
#17
Firouz Daneshgari, Guiming Liu, Ann T Hanna-Mitchell
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a prevalent chronic disease. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of absolute lack of insulin; whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is due to insulin resistance-related relative insulin deficiency. Obesity is an established risk factor for T2DM. In comparison with T1DM, T2DM is more complex. The natural history of T2DM in most patients typically involves a course of obesity to impaired glucose tolerance, to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046516/we-ab-207a-03-a-cbct-head-scanner-for-point-of-care-imaging-of-intracranial-hemorrhage
#18
J Xu, A Sisniega, W Zbijewski, H Dang, J Stayman, X Wang, D Foos, N Aygun, V Koliatsos, J Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: This work reports the design, development, and first technical assessment of a cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanner developed specifically for imaging of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at the point of care, with target applications in diagnosis and monitoring of traumatic brain injury, stroke, and postsurgical hemorrhage. METHODS: System design employed a task-based image quality model to quantify the influence of factors such as additive noise and high-gain (HG) detector readout on ICH detectability...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041899/left-atrial-appendage-closure-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-previous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#19
Pauline Renou, Jean-Benoît Thambo, Xavier Iriart, Stéphanie Nicot, Nathanael Kabore, Zakaria Jalal, Stéphane Olindo, Sabrina Debruxelles, Mathilde Poli, François Rouanet, Igor Sibon
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) may be considered in patients with atrial fibrillation and contraindication for long-term anticoagulation. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LAAC followed by single antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In this explorative, prospective, single-center study, consecutive patients who underwent LAAC because of previous spontaneous ICH over a period of 4 years were analyzed...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018988/gsk249320-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-the-axon-outgrowth-inhibition-molecule-myelin-associated-glycoprotein-improves-outcome-of-rodents-with-experimental-stroke
#20
Diana Cash, Alanna C Easton, Michel Mesquita, John Beech, Steve Williams, Andrew Lloyd, Elaine Irving, Steven C Cramer
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is an inhibitor of axon growth. MAG levels increase after stroke. GSK249320 is a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes MAG-mediated inhibition and so may promote axon outgrowth and improve post-stroke outcomes. The current study tested the hypothesis that GSK249320 initiated 24 hours or 7 days after experimental stroke improves behavioural outcomes. Rats with right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes were randomized to receive 6 weeks of intravenous (a) GSK249320 starting 24 hours post-stroke, (b) GSK249320 starting 7 days post-stroke, or (c) vehicle...
2016: J Neurol Exp Neurosci
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