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Translational stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910074/evolutional-characterization-of-photochemically-induced-stroke-in-rats-a-multimodality-imaging-and-molecular-biological-study
#1
Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Yonghua Zhao, Yi-An Chen, Kim-Chuan Chan, David Tat-Wei Tan, Jhih-Shian Lee, You-Yin Chen, Tun-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Chi-Wei Chang, Bang-Hung Yang, Wen-Sheng Huang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia is an easy-manipulated, reproducible, relatively noninvasive, and lesion controllable model for translational study of ischemic stroke. In order to longitudinally investigate the characterization of the model, magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, fluorescence, and bioluminescence imaging system were performed in correlation with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry examinations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, NeuN, von willebrand factor, and α-smooth muscle actin in the infarct zone...
December 1, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909266/reliability-of-infarct-volumetry-its-relevance-and-the-improvement-by-a-software-assisted-approach
#2
Felix Friedländer, Ferdinand Bohmann, Max Brunkhorst, Ju-Hee Chae, Kavi Devraj, Yvette Köhler, Peter Kraft, Hannah Kuhn, Alexandra Lucaciu, Sebastian Luger, Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Rebecca Sadler, Arthur Liesz, Karolina Scholtyschik, Leonie Stolz, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Robert Brunkhorst
Despite the efficacy of neuroprotective approaches in animal models of stroke, their translation has so far failed from bench to bedside. One reason is presumed to be a low quality of preclinical study design, leading to bias and a low a priori power. In this study, we propose that the key read-out of experimental stroke studies, the volume of the ischemic damage as commonly measured by free-handed planimetry of TTC-stained brain sections, is subject to an unrecognized low inter-rater and test-retest reliability with strong implications for statistical power and bias...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909071/does-task-specific-training-improve-upper-limb-performance-in-daily-life-poststroke
#3
Kimberly J Waddell, Michael J Strube, Ryan R Bailey, Joseph W Klaesner, Rebecca L Birkenmeier, Alexander W Dromerick, Catherine E Lang
Background A common assumption is that changes in upper limb (UL) capacity, or what an individual is capable of doing, translates to improved UL performance in daily life, or what an individual actually does. This assumption should be explicitly tested for individuals with UL paresis poststroke. Objective To examine changes in UL performance after an intensive, individualized, progressive, task-specific UL intervention for individuals at least 6 months poststroke. Methods Secondary analysis on 78 individuals with UL paresis who participated in a phase II, single-blind, randomized parallel dose-response trial...
December 1, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906754/management-of-acute-stroke-in-patients-on-oral-anticoagulants
#4
Jan C Purrucker, Thorsten Steiner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An increasing number of patients are receiving oral anticoagulants. Since non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were approved, primary prevention of ischemic stroke has become simpler. However, managing ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage while on oral anticoagulation (OAC) has become more complex. This review covers the latest developments in managing ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in patients receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and NOACs...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902774/intravenous-treatment-with-a-long-chain-omega-3-lipid-emulsion-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemic-stroke-a-pilot-study
#5
Dirk Berressem, Konrad Koch, Nicole Franke, Jochen Klein, Gunter P Eckert
Single long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are known for their neuroprotective properties associated with ischemic stroke. This pilot study aimed to test the effectiveness of an acute treatment with a long-chain omega-3 lipid emulsion (Omegaven 10%®, OGV) that contains fish oil (DHA 18 mg/ml; EPA 21 mg/ml) and α-tocopherol (0.2 mg/ml) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke in mice. For this purpose, female CD-1 mice were anesthetized and subjected to 90 minutes of MCAO...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898011/update-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-treatments-in-ischemic-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Matteo Casula, Federico Carbone, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco
After an acute ischemic stroke (AIS), inflammatory processes are able to concomitantly induce both beneficial and detrimental effects. In this narrative review, we updated evidence on the inflammatory pathways and mediators that are investigated as promising therapeutic targets. We searched for papers on PubMed and MEDLINE up to August 2016. The terms searched alone or in combination were: ischemic stroke, inflammation, oxidative stress, ischemia reperfusion, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, autoimmunity...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895550/closed-loop-task-difficulty-adaptation-during-virtual-reality-reach-to-grasp-training-assisted-with-an-exoskeleton-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#7
Florian Grimm, Georgios Naros, Alireza Gharabaghi
Stroke patients with severe motor deficits of the upper extremity may practice rehabilitation exercises with the assistance of a multi-joint exoskeleton. Although this technology enables intensive task-oriented training, it may also lead to slacking when the assistance is too supportive. Preserving the engagement of the patients while providing "assistance-as-needed" during the exercises, therefore remains an ongoing challenge. We applied a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton to provide passive gravity compensation during task-oriented training in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892432/reliability-and-validity-of-the-nepali-wolf-motor-function-test-following-cross-cultural-adaptation
#8
S P Adhikari, J Tretriluxana, P Chaiyawat
Background The Wolf motor function test is a standardized, reliable and valid performance-based measure, which evaluates upper-extremity function. Neither there is any evidence of neurological measure in Nepali nor has this tool been cross-culturally adapted to date. Objective To cross-culturally translate and evaluate reliability and validity of Nepali Wolf motor function test. Method Two forward-translators translated the original version into Nepali. After synthesizing, two back- translators translated it into English...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889956/red-blood-cell-function-and-dysfunction-redox-regulation-nitric-oxide-metabolism-anemia
#9
Viktoria Kuhn, Lukas Diederich, T C Stevenson Keller Iv, Christian M Kramer, Wiebke Lückstädt, Christina Panknin, Tatsiana Suvorava, Brant Isakson, Malte Kelm, Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: Recent clinical evidence identified anemia to be correlated with severe complications of cardiovascular disease such as bleeding, thromboembolic events, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmias, as well as inflammation, particularly in elderly patients. The underlying mechanisms of these complications are largely unidentified. Recent Advances: Previously, red blood cells (RBCs) were considered exclusively as transporters of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. More recent experimental evidence indicates that RBCs are important inter-organ communication systems with additional functions, including participation in control of systemic NO metabolism, redox regulation, blood rheology and viscosity...
November 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886815/antiplatelet-therapy-for-secondary-prevention-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#10
REVIEW
Ilaria Cavallari, Marc P Bonaca
Patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) are at long-term heightened risk for recurrent ischemic events. Several large randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of more intensive antiplatelet strategies for long-term secondary prevention of cardiovascular death, recurrent MI, and stroke in patients with a history of MI at a cost of increased bleeding. The bleeding risk associated with long-term intensive antiplatelet strategies requires careful patient selection and involvement of patients in shared decision making regarding risks and benefits of therapy...
January 2017: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883349/-the-education-influence-on-effects-of-rehabilitation-in-patients-after-stroke
#11
Sabina Dudka, Piotr Winczewski, Katarzyna Janczewska, Anna Kubsik, Marta Woldańska-Okońska
: Patients after stroke face a new situation where some educational and pedagogical actions should be reinitiated. Stroke often causes a break away from the previous lifestyle. It the acute phase it excludes the possibility of employment or performance of household duties that were carried out before or indulging in previously preferred ways of spending free time. Patients often abandon the habits that they developed before stroke, inclusive of hygienic habits. Therefore, it is an important objective of rehabilitation to reinstate in stroke patients behaviours characteristic of their peers, which would mark the beginning of their own care for health...
November 25, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881558/the-american-heart-association-s-new-institute-for%C3%A2-precision-cardiovascular-medicine
#12
Steven R Houser
"One size does not fit all." These 6 simple words represent the fundamental concept driving an unprecedented initiative of the American Heart Association, the Institute for Precision Cardiovascular Medicine. In the field of heart disease and stroke research, we have seen enormous knowledge advances in recent decades, all of which have led to breakthroughs in our ability to treat and prevent these illnesses. We celebrate these advances because they are allowing us to save and improve more lives than ever before...
November 22, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879370/validation-of-mri-determination-on-pet-measurements-in-ischemic-stroke
#13
Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Olivier Zaro Weber
The concept of the ischemic penumbra was formulated based on animal experiments showing functional impairment and electrophysiological disturbances with decreasing flow to the brain below defined values (the threshold for function) and irreversible tissue damage with blood supply further decreased (the threshold for infarction). The perfusion range between these thresholds was termed "penumbra", and restitution of flow above the functional threshold was able to reverse the deficits without permanent damage...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870460/sex-differences-in-the-immune-response-to-experimental-stroke-implications-for-translational-research
#14
REVIEW
Abby L Dotson, Halina Offner
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. It is known that males and females respond differently to stroke. Depending on age, the incidence, prevalence, mortality rate, and disability outcome of stroke differ between the sexes. Females generally have strokes at older ages than males and, therefore, have a worse stroke outcome. There are also major differences in how the sexes respond to stroke at the cellular level. Immune response is a critical factor in determining the progress of neurodegeneration after stroke and is fundamentally different for males and females...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870410/sex-differences-in-neuroinflammation-and-neuroprotection-in-ischemic-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Monica S Spychala, Pedram Honarpisheh, Louise D McCullough
Stroke is not only a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide it also disproportionally affects women. There are currently over 500,000 more women stroke survivors in the US than men, and elderly women bear the brunt of stroke-related disability. Stroke has dropped to the fifth leading cause of death in men, but remains the third in women. This review discusses sex differences in common stroke risk factors, the efficacy of stroke prevention therapies, acute treatment responses, and post-stroke recovery in clinical populations...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868026/preclinical-randomized-controlled-multicenter-trials-in-translational-stroke-research
#16
COMMENT
Sergio Amaro, Laura Llull
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865696/strength-training-for-skeletal-muscle-endurance-after-stroke
#17
Frederick M Ivey, Steven J Prior, Charlene E Hafer-Macko, Leslie I Katzel, Richard F Macko, Alice S Ryan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864383/use-of-pharmacogenetic-information-in-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Kevin Friede, Josephine Li, Deepak Voora
BACKGROUND: In 1964, Robert A. O'Reilly's research group identified members of a family who required remarkably high warfarin doses (up to 145 mg/day, 20 times the average dose) to achieve appropriate anticoagulation. Since this time, pharmacogenetics has become a mainstay of cardiovascular science, and genetic variants have been implicated in several fundamental classes of medications used in cardiovascular medicine. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss genetic variants that affect drug response to 3 classes of cardiovascular drugs: statins, platelet P2Y12 inhibitors, and anticoagulants...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857725/blood-micrornas-as-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-markers-in-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#19
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
MicroRNAs are a family of small, genome-encoded endogenous RNAs that are transcribed but are not translated into proteins. They serve essential roles in virtually every aspect of brain function, including neurogenesis, neural development, and cellular responses leading to changes in synaptic plasticity. They are also implicated in neurodegeneration and neurological disorders, in responses to hypoxia and ischemia, and in ischemic tolerance induced by ischemic preconditioning. In recent developments, miRNA expression profiling has been examined in stroke, and these studies indicate that miRNAs have emerged as key mediators in ischemic stroke biology...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856349/reparative-effects-of-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-in-young-and-aged-co-morbid-rodents-after-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Jesus M Pradillo, Katie N Murray, Graham A Coutts, Ana Moraga, Fernando Oroz-Gonjar, Herve Boutin, Maria A Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain, Nancy J Rothwell, Stuart M Allan
Neuroprotective strategies for ischemic stroke have failed to translate from bench to bedside, possibly due to the lack of consideration of key clinical co-morbidities. Stroke and co-morbidities are associated with raised levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). Inhibition of IL-1 by the administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) has shown to be neuroprotective after experimental cerebral ischemia. Stroke can also trigger a robust neuroreparative response following injury, yet many of these new born neurons fail to survive or integrate into pre-existing circuits...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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