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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#1
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#2
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
June 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619394/understanding-real-world-adherence-in-the-directly-acting-antiviral-era-a-prospective-evaluation-of-adherence-among-people-with-a-history-of-drug-use-at-a-community-based-program-in-toronto-canada
#3
Kate Mason, Zoë Dodd, Mary Guyton, Paula Tookey, Bernadette Lettner, John Matelski, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Jason Altenberg, Jeff Powis
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatments for Hepatitis C (HCV) are now widely available with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90%. A major predictor of response to DAAs is adherence, yet few real-world studies evaluating adherence among marginalized people who use drugs and/or alcohol exist. This study evaluates patterns and factors associated with non-adherence among marginalized people with a history of drug use who were receiving care through a primary care, community-based HCV treatment program where opiate substitution is not offered on-site...
June 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608973/high-hepatitis-c-cure-rates-among-black-and-non-black-hiv-infected-adults-in-an-urban-center
#4
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catherine Sutcliffe, Juhi Moon, Geetanjali Chander, Tanyaporn Wansom, Jeanne Keruly, Jennifer Katzianer, Amy Nathanson, Jillian Marks, Shruti Mehta, David Thomas, Richard Moore, Mark Sulkowski
Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure rates have been similar in patients with and without HIV co-infection; however, in the ION-4 study, black patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir were significantly less likely to achieve cure (90%) compared to non-black patients (99%). There are limited real world data on the effectiveness of oral direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in predominantly minority HIV/HCV co-infected populations. Methods We analyzed HCV treatment outcomes among 255 HCV co-infected patients initiating DAAs between February 2014 and March 2016 in an urban clinic in Baltimore, Maryland...
June 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603092/crosstalk-of-liver-immune-cells-and-cell-death-mechanisms-in-different-murine-models-of-liver-injury-and-its-clinical-relevance
#5
Hilal Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Zishan Ahmad, Junaid Ali Khan, Muhammad Imran Arshad
BACKGROUND: Liver inflammation or hepatitis is a result of pluripotent interactions of cell death molecules, cytokines, chemokines and the resident immune cells collectively called as microenvironment. The interplay of these inflammatory mediators and switching of immune responses during hepatotoxic, viral, drug-induced and immune cell-mediated hepatitis decide the fate of liver pathology. The present review aimed to describe the mechanisms of liver injury, its relevance to human liver pathology and insights for the future therapeutic interventions...
June 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602867/effect-of-gangjihwan-on-hepatic-steatosis-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#6
Jong Seong Roh, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jeongjun Kim, Heejung Yang, Yooshik Yoon, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gangjihwan (DF), a polyherbal drug composed of Ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C. A. Mayer (Ephedraceae), Lithospermum erythrorhizon Siebold et Zuccarini (Borraginaceae), and Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), is used to treat obesity in local Korean clinics. The constituents of DF have traditionally been reported to exert anti-obesity and anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of DF on obesity and NAFLD and the underlying mechanisms...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595132/functionality-based-method-for-simultaneous-isolation-of-rodent-hepatic-sinusoidal-cells
#7
L Stradiot, S Verhulst, T Roosens, C I Øie, I M Moya, G Halder, I Mannaerts, L A van Grunsven
Chronic liver disease is the result of long term exposure to viruses or toxins such as alcohol, fat and drugs, and forms the basis for the development of liver fibrosis and primary liver cancer. In vitro and in vivo models are key to study the pathways involved in chronic liver disease and for the development of therapeutics. 3D co-culture systems are becoming the in vitro standard, which requires freshly isolated primary hepatic cells. We developed a novel isolation method to simultaneously isolate liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588752/inducible-protein-10-as-a-predictive-marker-of-antiviral-hepatitis-c-treatment-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Bastian Neesgaard, Morten Ruhwald, Nina Weis
AIM: To investigate interferon-γ-inducible protein-10's (IP-10) potential to anticipate rapid (RVR)- and sustained virological responses (SVR) to chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment. METHODS: We included case series examining RVR or SVR in relation to 24 or 48 wk treatment for CHC, in patients treatment free for at least six months, with genotype 1 or 4, and in relation to 24 wk treatment for genotype 2 and 3, with pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin...
May 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587943/delivering-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-to-highly-marginalised-and-current-drug-injecting-populations-in-a-targeted-primary-health-care-setting
#9
Phillip Read, Rebecca Lothian, Karen Chronister, Rosie Gilliver, John Kearley, Gregory J Dore, Ingrid van Beek
BACKGROUND: The Kirketon Road Centre (KRC) is a community-based public health facility in Sydney, Australia, that provides healthcare to people who inject drugs (PWID) care, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. From March 2016, the Australian Government has provided access to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for adults with chronic HCV, without liver disease stage or drug and alcohol use restrictions. The aim of this study was to report DAA treatment outcomes among highly marginalised PWID treated at KRC...
June 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480064/systemic-therapy-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Jasmin Radhika Desai, Sebastian Ochoa, Petra Alexandra Prins, Aiwu Ruth He
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly disease with few systemic therapeutic options. Sorafenib is the only agent to be FDA approved for the first-line treatment of patients with HCC. This drug increases overall survival (OS) by 3 months compared with placebo (10.7 months with sorafenib vs. 7.7 months with placebo). More recently, the RESORCE trial demonstrated efficacy of regorafenib in the second-line treatment of HCC: OS was increased from 7.8 months with placebo to 10.6 months with regorafenib after patients experienced disease progression on sorafenib...
April 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476267/chronic-pain-among-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-electronic-health-records-data
#11
Yih-Ing Hser, Larissa J Mooney, Andrew J Saxon, Karen Miotto, Douglas S Bell, David Huang
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of comorbid chronic pain among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and to compare other comorbidities (substance use disorder (SUD), mental health disorders, health/disease conditions) among patients in four categories: no chronic pain (No Pain), OUD prior to pain (OUD First), OUD and pain at the same time (Same Time), or pain condition prior to OUD (Pain First). METHODS: Using an electronic health record (EHR) database from 2006-2015, the study assessed 5307 adult patients with OUD in a large healthcare system; 35...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470665/pentamidine-blocks-hepatotoxic-injury-in-mice
#12
Enpeng Zhao, Ghulam Ilyas, Francesca Cingolani, Jae Ho Choi, François Ravenelle, Kathryn E Tanaka, Mark J Czaja
Toxin-induced liver diseases lack effective therapies despite increased understanding of the role factors such as an overactive innate immune response play in the pathogenesis of this form of hepatic injury. Pentamidine is an effective antimicrobial agent against several human pathogens, but studies have also suggested that this drug inhibits inflammation. This potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, together with the development of a new oral form of pentamidine isethionate VLX103, led to investigations of the effectiveness of this drug in the prevention and treatment of hepatotoxic liver injury...
May 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465155/effect-of-liver-disease-on-hepatic-transporter-expression-and-function
#13
REVIEW
Nilay Thakkar, Jason R Slizgi, Kim L R Brouwer
Liver disease can alter the disposition of xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) recommend, if possible, studying the effect of liver disease on drugs under development to guide specific dose recommendations in these patients. While extensive research has been conducted to characterize the effect of liver disease on drug-metabolizing enzymes, emerging data have implicated that the expression and/or function of hepatobiliary transport proteins also are altered in liver disease...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464763/sporadic-porphyria-in-a-patient-with-stage-ii-melanoma-treated-with-interferon-%C3%AE
#14
Valerie Reymann, Celine Girard, Olivier Dereure, Bernard Guillot, Aurélie Du Thanh
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common form of human porphyria, due to reduced activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD). There are many factors which can trigger PCT such as viral infections, excessive alcohol intake, iron overload, hepatotoxic drugs and hepatic tumours. Drug induced PCT is well documented but PCT induced by interferon α has rarely been described and only in cases of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection or haematological malignancies. Here, we report the first case of de novo PCT induced by adjuvant interferon α (IFNα) therapy in a patient with stage II melanoma...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442271/evaluation-of-the-xpert-hcv-viral-load-point-of-care-assay-from-venepuncture-collected-and-finger-stick-capillary-whole-blood-samples-a-cohort-study
#15
Jason Grebely, Francois M J Lamoury, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Yasmin Mowat, Alison D Marshall, Sahar Bajis, Philippa Marks, Janaki Amin, Julie Smith, Michael Edwards, Carla Gorton, Nadine Ezard, David Persing, Marika Kleman, Philip Cunningham, Beth Catlett, Gregory J Dore, Tanya L Applegate
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing offers an advantage over antibody testing (which only indicates previous exposure), enabling diagnosis of active infection in a single visit. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Xpert HCV Viral Load assay with venepuncture and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples. METHODS: Plasma and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples were collected from participants in an observational cohort enrolled at five sites in Australia (three drug and alcohol clinics, one homelessness service, and one needle and syringe programme)...
April 21, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426439/high-mortality-among-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-large-healthcare-system
#16
Yih-Ing Hser, Larissa J Mooney, Andrew J Saxon, Karen Miotto, Douglas S Bell, Yuhui Zhu, Di Liang, David Huang
OBJECTIVES: Elevated mortality has been observed among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) treated in addiction specialty clinics or programs. Information about OUD patients in general healthcare settings is needed in light of the current effort to integrate addiction services into primary healthcare systems. This study examined mortality rates, causes of death, and associated risk factors among patients with OUD in a large general healthcare system. METHODS: Mortality data were linked with electronic health records of 2576 OUD patients cared for in a large university health system from 2006 to 2014...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426313/restrictions-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-substance-using-medicaid-patients-cost-versus-ethics
#17
Joshua M Liao, Michael A Fischer
Medicaid programs provide health insurance coverage for many patients with hepatitis C, a public health problem for which effective but very expensive treatments are now available. Facing constrained budgets, most states adopted prior authorization criteria for sofosbuvir, the first of these agents. Using fee-for-service utilization data from 42 Medicaid programs in 2014, we found that strict behavioral criteria-those that limited coverage on the basis of drug or alcohol use and included specific abstinence or treatment requirements-were associated with significantly less spending on sofosbuvir...
June 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418984/short-article-anger-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-a-cross-sectional-study-anrs-co13-hepavih
#18
Fabienne Marcellin, Camelia Protopopescu, Laure Esterle, Linda Wittkop, Lionel Piroth, Hugues Aumaitre, Olivier Bouchaud, Cécile Goujard, Daniel Vittecoq, François Dabis, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Perrine Roux, Maria P Carrieri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to document the relationship between anger dimensions (state, trait, expression, and control) and quality of life (QoL) in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study nested in the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH French national cohort. Anger and QoL were assessed using self-administered questionnaires in 536 HIV-HCV-co-infected patients. Correlations between anger scores (STAXI-2 scale) and QoL scores (WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale) were assessed using Spearman's coefficients...
July 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404136/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-hiv
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Verna
Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, and in this era of safer and more effective hepatitis C therapy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could soon emerge as the most common liver disease in this population. NAFLD is common among patients with HIV, and might be more likely to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD-related fibrosis or cirrhosis in these patients than in individuals without HIV. Several mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are postulated to explain the disease severity in patients with HIV; these mechanisms include the influence of the gut microbiome, and also metabolic, genetic, and immunological factors...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404135/incidence-risk-factors-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-reinfection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Nazrul Islam, Mel Krajden, Jean Shoveller, Paul Gustafson, Mark Gilbert, Jane A Buxton, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Naveed Zafar Janjua
BACKGROUND: People remain at risk of reinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even after clearance of the primary infection. We identified factors associated with HCV reinfection risk in a large population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, and examined the association of opioid substitution therapy and mental health counselling with reinfection. METHODS: We obtained data from the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort, which includes all individuals tested for HCV or HIV at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Public Health Laboratory during 1990-2013 (when data were available)...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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