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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223443/response-to-pioglitazone-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-vs-without-type-2-diabetes
#1
Fernando Bril, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Virginia C Clark, Romina Lomonaco, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, I-Chia Liu, Beverly Orsak, Fermin Tio, Kenneth Cusi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pioglitazone is effective for long-term treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with prediabetes or type-2 diabetes. However, it is not clear how the presence of type-2 diabetes affects the drug's efficacy. We compared metabolic and histologic responses to pioglitazone in patients with NASH and prediabetes vs type-2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of adults with biopsy-proven NASH (52 with type-2 diabetes and 49 with prediabetes), enrolled from the general population of San Antonio, Texas from 2008 through 2014...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204927/augmented-bioavailability-of-felodipine-through-an-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-based-microemulsion
#2
Mahendra Singh, Jovita Kanoujia, Poonam Parashar, Malti Arya, Chandra B Tripathi, V R Sinha, Shailendra K Saraf, Shubhini A Saraf
The oral bioavailability of felodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, is about 15%. This may be due to poor water solubility, and a lower intestinal permeability than a BCS class I drug, and hepatic first-pass metabolism of the drug. Many drugs are unpopular due to solubility issues. The goal of this study was to develop and optimize a felodipine-containing microemulsion to improve the intestinal permeability and bioavailability of the drug. The felodipine microemulsions were developed with the selected components, i...
December 4, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201778/liver-disease-in-sri-lanka
#3
REVIEW
Hasitha S Wijewantha
Liver disease in Sri Lanka is mainly due to alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In contrast to other South Asian countries, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C is low in Sri Lanka and prevalence of hepatitis A is intermediate. The few reported cases of hepatitis E in Sri Lanka are mainly in people who have traveled to neighboring South Asian countries. Wilson's disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, drug-induced liver disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis are recognized causes of liver disease in Sri Lanka...
January 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198562/disease-burden-and-costs-from-excess-alcohol-consumption-obesity-and-viral-hepatitis-fourth-report-of-the-lancet-standing-commission-on-liver-disease-in-the-uk
#4
REVIEW
Roger Williams, Graeme Alexander, Iain Armstrong, Alastair Baker, Neeraj Bhala, Ginny Camps-Walsh, Matthew E Cramp, Simon de Lusignan, Natalie Day, Anil Dhawan, John Dillon, Colin Drummond, Jessica Dyson, Graham Foster, Ian Gilmore, Mark Hudson, Deirdre Kelly, Andrew Langford, Neil McDougall, Petra Meier, Kieran Moriarty, Philip Newsome, John O'Grady, Rachel Pryke, Liz Rolfe, Peter Rice, Harry Rutter, Nick Sheron, Alison Taylor, Jeremy Thompson, Douglas Thorburn, Julia Verne, John Wass, Andrew Yeoman
This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost...
November 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185250/management-of-hepatitis-c-in-decentralised-versus-centralised-drug-substitution-programmes-and-minimally-invasive-point-of-care-tests-to-close-gaps-in-the-hcv-cascade
#5
Andrea Bregenzer, Anna Conen, Jürg Knuchel, Andrée Friedl, Franz Eigenmann, Martin Näf, Peter Ackle, Martin Roth, Christoph Andreas Fux
BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, intravenous drug use accounts for the majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Early HCV treatment prevents further transmissions and reduces morbidity and mortality due to decompensated liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nevertheless, patients in drug substitution programmes are often insufficiently screened and treated. AIM: The aim was to compare the current state of HCV management in centralised and decentralised drug substitution programmes of the canton Aargau...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179765/using-peer-advocates-to-improve-access-to-services-among-hard-to-reach-populations-with-hepatitis-c-a-qualitative-study-of-client-and-provider-relationships
#6
Jennifer MacLellan, Julian Surey, Ibrahim Abubakar, Helen R Stagg, Jenevieve Mannell
BACKGROUND: Peer support programmes use individuals with specific experiences to improve engagement and outcomes among new clients. However, the skills and techniques used to achieve this engagement have not been mapped. This potentially restricts the development and replication of successful peer advocate models of care. This study explored how a group of peer advocates with experience of homelessness, alcohol and drug misuse made and sustained relationships with their client group. For the purposes of this project, the client group were located among a hepatitis C-positive cohort of people who have a history of injecting drug use and homelessness...
November 28, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122694/pharmacotherapy-for-nash-current-and-emerging
#7
REVIEW
Monica A Konerman, Jacob C Jones, Stephen A Harrison
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prominent forms of chronic liver disease worldwide, reflecting the epidemic of global obesity. Those with the progressive variant of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are at significantly increased risk of multisystem morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no approved pharmacologic therapies for NASH. Given the disease burden, there is an important unmet need for pharmacologic treatment options for this patient population...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121925/advances-and-challenges-in-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertension
#8
Annalisa Berzigotti
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is the fourth cause of death in adults in Western countries, with complications of portal hypertension being responsible for most casualties. In order to reduce mortality, development of accurate diagnostic methods for early diagnosis, effective etiologic treatment, improved pharmacological therapy for portal hypertension, and effective therapies for end-stage liver failure are required. DISCUSSION: Early detection of cirrhosis and portal hypertension is now possible using simple non-invasive methods, leading to the advancement of individualized risk stratification in clinical practice...
November 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116878/evaluation-of-methadone-treatment-in-malaysia-findings-from-the-malaysian-methadone-treatment-outcome-study-mytos
#9
Norsiah Ali, Salina Abd Aziz, Salmah Nordin, Norliza Che Mi, Norni Abdullah, V Paranthaman, Maimunah Mahmud, Anne Yee, Mahmoud Danaee
BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse and dependence is a global issue with a huge negative impact. In Malaysia, heroin is still the main illicit drug used, and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used since 2005. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of MMT. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 103 treatment centers between October and December 2014 using a set of standard questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20...
November 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096647/hepatitis-c-infection-related-services-and-barriers-to-hcv-treatment-among-drug-users-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-clinics-in-shanghai-china
#10
Zhi-Bin Li, Lei Zhang, Jun Wang, Le-Ping Huang, Zhi-Rong Zhou, Yi-Ning Cao, Min Zhao, Jiang Du
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of hepatitis C among MMT patients, hepatitis C virus (HCV) knowledge of patients and MMT staff members, and the barriers preventing them from receiving or delivering HCV-related services in MMT clinics of China. METHODS: Data were collected from 240 MMT patients and 58 staff members in Shanghai MMT clinics. Structured questionnaires (HCV Knowledge Scale and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and several self-developed questionnaires were used to assess (1) patient and staff HCV knowledge, (2) attitudes toward HCV-related services in MMT clinics, and (3) what type of HCV-related services the staff members have provided in their routine work...
November 2, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074410/global-regional-and-country-level-coverage-of-interventions-to-prevent-and-manage-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#11
Sarah Larney, Amy Peacock, Janni Leung, Samantha Colledge, Matthew Hickman, Peter Vickerman, Jason Grebely, Kostyantyn V Dumchev, Paul Griffiths, Lindsey Hines, Evan B Cunningham, Richard P Mattick, Michael Lynskey, John Marsden, John Strang, Louisa Degenhardt
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by the global HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics. HIV and HCV prevention interventions for PWID include needle and syringe programmes (NSP), opioid substitution therapy (OST), HIV counselling and testing, HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART), and condom distribution programmes. We aimed to produce country-level, regional, and global estimates of coverage of NSP, OST, HIV testing, ART, and condom programmes for PWID...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074409/global-prevalence-of-injecting-drug-use-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-and-prevalence-of-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-in-people-who-inject-drugs-a-multistage-systematic-review
#12
Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock, Samantha Colledge, Janni Leung, Jason Grebely, Peter Vickerman, Jack Stone, Evan B Cunningham, Adam Trickey, Kostyantyn Dumchev, Michael Lynskey, Paul Griffiths, Richard P Mattick, Matthew Hickman, Sarah Larney
BACKGROUND: Sharing of equipment used for injecting drug use (IDU) is a substantial cause of disease burden and a contributor to blood-borne virus transmission. We did a global multistage systematic review to identify the prevalence of IDU among people aged 15-64 years; sociodemographic characteristics of and risk factors for people who inject drugs (PWID); and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PWID. METHODS: Consistent with the GATHER and PRISMA guidelines and without language restrictions, we systematically searched peer-reviewed databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO; articles published since 2008, latest searches in June, 2017), searched the grey literature (websites and databases, searches between April and August, 2016), and disseminated data requests to international experts and agencies (requests sent in October, 2016)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058572/lifetime-marijuana-and-alcohol-use-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-people-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#13
Sara A Lorkiewicz, Alicia S Ventura, Timothy C Heeren, Michael R Winter, Alexander Y Walley, Meg Sullivan, Jeffrey H Samet, Richard Saitz
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people with HIV infection. Alcohol, marijuana, and HIV can have negative effects on cognition. We examined associations between current and lifetime marijuana and alcohol use, and cognitive dysfunction in people with HIV infection. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 215 HIV-infected adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) substance dependence or ever injection drug use. In adjusted cross-sectional regression analyses we tested the associations between current marijuana use, current heavy alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime alcohol use, duration of heavy alcohol use (the independent variables), and three measures of cognitive dysfunction (dependent variables): both the i) memory and ii) attention domains from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and iii) the 4-item cognitive function scale (CF4) from the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV)...
October 23, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035169/prospective-longitudinal-substance-use-patterns-in-patients-preparing-for-hepatitis-c-treatment
#14
Carol S North, David E Pollio, Omar T Sims, Mamta K Jain, Barry A Hong
OBJECTIVE: This study prospectively examined the independent courses of alcohol, drugs, and smoking over 18 months in 154 patients preparing for hepatitis C (HCV) treatment in relation to functioning, negative coping, and satisfaction with quality of life, in data collected from a randomized controlled trial of multiple-family group psychoeducation for patients preparing for HCV treatment. Patients with HCV who had consistent abstinence, consistent use, or achievement of abstinence after study entry were examined for outcomes pertaining to functioning in the context of HCV, negative coping, and satisfaction with quality of life...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021113/association-between-alcohol-consumption-and-injection-and-sexual-risk-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-rural-puerto-rico
#15
Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Dane Hautala, Patrick Habecker, Kirk Dombrowski
Although alcohol use has been associated with risky behavior generally, the relationship between alcohol use and multiple types of risk behaviors that could lead to the acquisition and transmission of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) has not been fully examined. The current study seeks to contribute to the understanding of how alcohol use is related to both injection risk and sexual risk, among a non-treatment, cross-sectional sample of mostly male PWID in rural Puerto Rico (n=315)...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989095/risk-factors-and-prevention-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Naoto Fujiwara, Scott L Friedman, Nicolas Goossens, Yujin Hoshida
Chronic fibrotic liver disease caused by viral or metabolic etiologies is a high-risk condition for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even after complete HCC tumor resection or ablation, the carcinogenic tissue microenvironment in the remnant liver can give rise to recurrent de novo HCC tumors, which progress into incurable, advanced-stage disease in the majority of patients. Thus, early detection and prevention of HCC development is, in principle, the most impactful strategy to improve patient prognosis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986139/restrictions-for-reimbursement-of-interferon-free-direct-acting-antiviral-drugs-for-hcv-infection-in-europe
#17
Alison D Marshall, Evan B Cunningham, Stine Nielsen, Alessio Aghemo, Hannu Alho, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Olav Dalgard, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Robert Flisiak, Graham R Foster, Liana Gheorghe, David Goldberg, Ioannis Goulis, Matthew Hickman, Patrick Hoffmann, Ligita Jancorienė, Peter Jarcuska, Martin Kåberg, Leondios G Kostrikis, Mihály Makara, Matti Maimets, Rui Tato Marinho, Mojca Matičič, Suzanne Norris, Sigurður Ólafsson, Anne Øvrehus, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, James Pocock, Geert Robaeys, Carlos Roncero, Marieta Simonova, Jan Sperl, Michele Tait, Ieva Tolmane, Stefan Tomaselli, Marc van der Valk, Adriana Vince, Gregory J Dore, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Jason Grebely
All-oral direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus, which have response rates of 95% or more, represent a major clinical advance. However, the high list price of DAAs has led many governments to restrict their reimbursement. We reviewed the availability of, and national criteria for, interferon-free DAA reimbursement among countries in the European Union and European Economic Area, and Switzerland. Reimbursement documentation was reviewed between Nov 18, 2016, and Aug 1, 2017. Primary outcomes were fibrosis stage, drug or alcohol use, prescriber type, and HIV co-infection restrictions...
October 3, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949020/barriers-to-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-anti-viral-agents
#18
M Lin, J Kramer, D White, Y Cao, S Tavakoli-Tabasi, S Madu, D Smith, S M Asch, H B El-Serag, F Kanwal
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting anti-virals (DAA) are safe, effective treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Suboptimal linkage to specialists and access to DAAs are the leading barriers to treatment; however, data are limited. AIM: To determine predictors of follow-up, receipt of DAAs, and reasons for the lack thereof. METHODS: We used clinical data from retrospective cohort of HCV-infected patients with previously established HCV care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs to examine predictors of follow-up in HCV clinics and DAA treatment (during 12/1/2013-4/30/2015)...
September 26, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942443/a-novel-role-of-sirt1-fgf-21-in-taurine-protection-against-cafeteria-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-in-rats
#19
Azza H Abd Elwahab, Basma K Ramadan, Mona F Schaalan, Amina M Tolba
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the alarmingly rising clinical problems in the 21st century with no effective drug treatment until now. Taurine is an essential amino acid in humans that proved efficacy as a non-pharmacological therapy in a plethora of diseases; however, its impact on NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective mechanism of taurine in experimental steatohepatitis induced by junk food given as cafeteria-diet (CAF-D) in male albino rats...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940752/supplementation-with-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-extra-virgin-olive-oil-prevents-liver-steatosis-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-mice-through-ppar-%C3%AE-and-nrf2-upregulation-with-concomitant-srebp-1c-and-nf-kb-downregulation
#20
María C Hernández-Rodas, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverría, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, Paola Illesca, Patricio Muñoz, Alicia Corbari, Nalda Romero, Daniel Gonzalez-Mañan, Luis A Videla
SCOPE: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease, for which there is no validated drug therapy at present time. In this respect, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA) modulate lipid metabolism in the liver, and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has hepatoprotective effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Effect of combined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) administration to mice on oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances induced by high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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