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hepatitis c alcohol drugs

Zobair M Younossi, Haesuk Park, Douglas Dieterich, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed, Stuart C Gordon
BACKGROUND: New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased cure rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but has also substantially raised treatment costs. AIM: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit and net costs (i.e. efficiency frontier) and the quality-adjusted cost of care associated with the evolution of treatment regimens for patients with HCV genotype 1 in the United States. DESIGN: A decision-analytic Markov model...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kathlene Tracy, Samantha P Wallace
OBJECTIVE: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Lesley De Pietri, Marcello Bianchini, Gianluca Rompianesi, Elisabetta Bertellini, Bruno Begliomini
AIM: To describe the thromboelastography (TEG) "reference" values within a population of liver transplant (LT) candidates that underline the differences from healthy patients. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2013, 261 liver transplant patients with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score between 15 and 40 were studied. In particular the adult patients (aged 18-70 years) underwent to a first LT with a MELD score between 15 and 40 were included, while all patients with acute liver failure, congenital bleeding disorders, and anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet drug use were excluded...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Tabia Henry-Akintobi, Nastassia Laster, Jennie Trotter, DeBran Jacobs, Tarita Johnson, Tandeca King Gordon, Assia Miller
African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kelly E Dunn, Frederick S Barrett, Evan S Herrmann, Jennifer G Plebani, Stacey C Sigmon, Matthew W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C are a significant problem among substance abusers. Current risk behavior measures [e.g., HIV Risk Taking Behaviour Scale (HRBS) and Risk Assessment Battery (RAB)] were developed for injection drug users and do not include newly identified risks or noninjection drug use behaviors. This study developed and provided initial, internal validation of the Behavioral Risk Assessment for Infectious Diseases (BRAID) to assess infectious disease risk behaviors among alcohol and other drug users...
August 25, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
J Stollenwerk, M Schepke, E Biecker
BACKGROUND: Altered liver function tests are a common finding in clinical practice. Our retrospective study aimed to identify the diagnoses in a non-selected cohort of patients with altered liver tests and to investigate whether alpha-1 antitrypsin genotyping should be part of the diagnostic workup. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 501 patients who were admitted to our outpatient clinic for further evaluation of altered liver function tests were included in the study. The patients underwent a standardized diagnostic program with history taking, physical examination, laboratory tests and ultrasonography...
September 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Meenu Bajpai, Shruti Gupta, Priyanka Jain
INTRODUCTION: Transfusion support is vital to the management of patients with liver diseases. Repeated transfusions are associated with many risks such as transfusion-transmitted infection, transfusion immunomodulation, and alloimmunization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of antibody screening and identification was done from February 2012 to February 2014 to determine the frequency and specificity of irregular red-cell antibodies in multitransfused liver disease patients...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Katharina Büsch, Jesper Waldenström, Martin Lagging, Soo Aleman, Ola Weiland, Jan Kövamees, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Jonas Söderholm
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of physician-diagnosed and registered chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and to estimate the reported frequencies of Charlson comorbidities compared with matched comparators from the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were identified according to ICD codes for CHC in the Swedish National Patient Register (1997-2013). Prevalence was estimated according to different patient identification algorithms and for different subgroups...
September 6, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Naveed Z Janjua, Margot Kuo, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Stanley Wong, Darrel Cook, Jason Wong, Jason Grebely, Zahid A Butt, Hasina Samji, Alnoor Ramji, Mark Tyndall, Mel Krajden
BACKGROUND: Population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected people across the cascade of care identifies gaps in access and engagement in care and treatment. We characterized a population-level cascade of care for HCV in British Columbia (BC), Canada and identified factors associated with leakage at each stage. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes 1.5million individuals tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990 to 2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs and mortality data...
August 25, 2016: EBioMedicine
Selvaraj Miltonprabu, Michał Tomczyk, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Luca Rastrelli, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Liver diseases caused by viral hepatitis infections have a negative impact on global health. Approximately 30 million people in the USA and 29 million people in the European Union suffer from chronic liver disease. There are many kinds of diseases of the liver, caused by viruses, such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, or by certain drugs and poisons including excessive alcohol consumption. Many herbal medicines are used in traditional medicine for their protective and therapeutic properties against liver diseases...
August 31, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Qi-Tao Huang, Li-Lin Hang, Mei Zhong, Yun-Fei Gao, Man-Ling Luo, Yan-Hong Yu
Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
L C Mendes, S M Ralla, A G Vigani
Loss to follow-up (LF), which refers to patients who started care but voluntary stopped it, is a problem for patients with chronic disease. We aimed to estimate the rate of LF among patients seropositive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and identify possible demographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with LF. From January 2009 through December 2012, 1010 anti-HCV-positive patients were included in the study. Among participants, 223 (22.1%) met the case definition for LF (more than 1-year elapsed since the last clinical appointment)...
August 25, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Hamish Innes, Scott McDonald, Peter Hayes, John F Dillon, Sam Allen, David Goldberg, Peter R Mills, Stephen T Barclay, David Wilks, Heather Valerio, Ray Fox, Diptendu Bhattacharyya, Nicholas Kennedy, Judith Morris, Andrew Fraser, Adrian Stanley, Peter Bramley, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: The number of people living with previous hepatitis-C infection that have attained a sustained viral response (SVR) is expected to grow rapidly. So far, the prognosis of this group relative to the general population is unclear. METHODS: Individuals attaining SVR in Scotland in 1996-2011 were identified using a national database. Through record-linkage, we obtained cause-specific mortality data complete to Dec 2013. We calculated standardised-mortality-ratios (SMRs) to compare the frequency of mortality in SVR patients to the general population...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Yu-Chou Chi, Shou-Lun Lee, Ching-Long Lai, Yung-Pin Lee, Shiao-Pieng Lee, Chien-Ping Chiang, Shih-Jiun Yin
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the principal enzyme responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Human ADH constitutes a complex isozyme family with striking variations in kinetic function and tissue distribution. Liver and gastrointestinal tract are the major sites for first-pass metabolism (FPM). Their relative contributions to alcohol FPM and degrees of the inhibitions by aspirin and its metabolite salicylate, acetaminophen and cimetidine remain controversial. To address this issue, mathematical organ modeling of ethanol-oxidizing activities in target tissues and that of the ethanol-drug interactions were constructed by linear combination of the corresponding numerical rate equations of tissue constituent ADH isozymes with the documented isozyme protein contents, kinetic parameters for ethanol oxidation and the drug inhibitions of ADH isozymes/allozymes that were determined in 0...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Li Wang, Carol Collins, Edward J Kelly, Xiaoyan Chu, Adrian S Ray, Laurent Salphati, Guangqing Xiao, Caroline Lee, Yurong Lai, Mingxiang Liao, Anita Mathias, Raymond Evers, William Humphreys, Cornelis E C A Hop, Sean C Kumer, Jashvant D Unadkat
Although data are available on the change of expression/activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver cirrhosis patients, corresponding data on transporter protein expression are not available. Therefore, using quantitative targeted proteomics, we compared our previous data on noncirrhotic control livers (n = 36) with the protein expression of major hepatobiliary transporters, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2, MRP3, MRP4, sodium taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B1, 1B3, 2B1, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in alcoholic (n = 27) and hepatitis C cirrhosis (n = 30) livers...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Abby M Falla, Irene K Veldhuijzen, Amena A Ahmad, Miriam Levi, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: To investigate access to treatment for chronic hepatitis B/C among six vulnerable patient/population groups at-risk of infection: undocumented migrants, asylum seekers, people without health insurance, people with state insurance, people who inject drugs (PWID) and people abusing alcohol. METHODS: An online survey among experts in gastroenterology, hepatology and infectious diseases in 2012 in six EU countries: Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK...
August 19, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Shuangpeng Cai, Xiaoyu Cheng, Xueyin Pan, Jun Li
Exosomes can meditate intercellular communication by conveying various bioactive molecules. Plentiful evidences suggest that exosomes are involved in many liver diseases including hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection, hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection, hepatocellualr carcinoma(HCC), liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease(ALD). Moreover, exosomes are presented in nearly all human body fluids. Therefore, exosomal miRNA or proteins have the potential to be the novel biomarkers of liver diseases...
August 18, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Charitha Gowda, Todd T Brown, Charlene Compher, Kimberly A Forde, Jay Kostman, Pamela A Shaw, Phyllis C Tien, Vincent Lo Re
OBJECTIVE: Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in HIV, possibly mediated by systemic inflammation. Viral hepatitis coinfection can induce additional inflammation and hepatic dysfunction that may exacerbate low muscle mass. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for low muscle mass in HIV/viral hepatitis coinfection. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and Women's Interagency HIV Study with anthropometry performed after 1 January 2000...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
Heather Lewis, Jan Kunkel, David Axten, Jane Dalton, Hayley Gardner, Andrew Tippett, Stephanie Wynne, Mandie Wilkinson, Graham R Foster
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is common in people who inject drugs (PWID) and this population serves as a reservoir for infection. Treatment levels are low among this group, ranging from 1 to 19%. We explored whether a nurse-initiated community treatment model increased uptake of and adherence to interferon-based therapies. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized trial of nurse-initiated versus physician-initiated antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C virus in community clinics (trial registration: ISRCTN07774040)...
November 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Tomislav Preveden, Maja Ruzic, Dajana Lendak, Maria Pete, Ludovico Abenavoli, Snezana Brkic
BACKGROUND: Chronic ethyl alcohol consuming is well known independent negative predictor of unfavorable natural course and therapy outcome of Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) infection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to clarify the impact of alcohol consumption on fibrosis rate progression in patients with CHC and Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) rates in patients undergoing treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. METHOD: This cross sectional retrospective study included 807 CHC patients underwent liver biopsy and hospitalized at Clinical center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
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