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Ariel Berlinski, Dirk von Hollen, Ross H M Hatley, Lucy E A Hardaker, Kurt Nikander
BACKGROUND: Valved holding chambers (VHCs) are used in children to deliver pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). In vitro data suggest that uncoordinated use decreases the amount of drug available for inhalation. We hypothesize that in an ex vivo study, the coordinated maneuver will deliver more drug than the uncoordinated one. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two clinically stable asthmatic children, ages 5-8 years, completed the study. An aerosol filter was interposed between a small-volume nonelectrostatic VHC and a mouthpiece to capture the drug emitted by one puff of Flovent(®) 220 mcg during tidal breathing...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Salule Masangwi, Neil Ferguson, Anthony Grimason, Tracy Morse, Lawrence Kazembe
This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in Southern Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chun Xu, Sabine Krabbe, Jan Gründemann, Paolo Botta, Jonathan P Fadok, Fumitaka Osakada, Dieter Saur, Benjamin F Grewe, Mark J Schnitzer, Edward M Callaway, Andreas Lüthi
Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways...
October 18, 2016: Cell
Héctor Baptista-González, Victor M Noffal-Nuño, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
:  Background and rationale for the study. The generation of people born before 1965 is a high-risk group for developing chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. AIM: To report the experience on single institution of HCV infection under birth-cohort or baby boomers effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design of consecutive subjects older than 18 years referred for serological evaluation for anti-HCV and detection of HCV RNA...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Jennifer L H Johnson, Danielle Guthrie, Joel Hyde, Thomas Hanson, Kelly Karlage, Paul B Myrdal
BACKGROUND: Three albuterol sulfate metered-dose inhaled (MDI) products (Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, and ProAir HFA) are marketed in the United States to provide the same total dose of albuterol sulfate. However, it is widely known that the fine particle dose (<5 μm) is the portion of the particle distribution that actually reaches the lungs and provides therapeutic benefit. OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences in particle size between products and how a valved holding chamber (VHC) can mitigate possible adverse effects...
September 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Vesna Pešić, Jelena Petrović, Marin M Jukić
Preclinical Research The emergence of rapid-acting antidepressants such as ketamine has motivated studies aiming to reveal the molecular mechanism of the ketamine antidepressant effect and to enable the clinical application of rapid-acting antidepressants. Here, we provide an overview of studies addressing the antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients and animal models of depression and we compare the reduction of depressive symptoms in humans with the reduction in immobility time in the forced swim test in rodents after acute ketamine treatment...
November 2016: Drug Development Research
Naveen Reddy Vootla, Sarat Chandra Barla, Vhc Kumar, Hemchand Surapaneni, Srilatha Balusu, Swetha Kalyanam
INTRODUCTION: Studies on stress distribution around screw retained implants in different bone densities are limited. In clinical situations crowns of different heights are placed on the implants and the effect of varying crown implant ratio on the bone is not understood properly. AIM: To evaluate and compare the stress distribution in different screw retained implants for different crown-implant ratios in different bone densities under various occlusal loads using three dimensional finite element analyses...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Alyaa Hessin, Rehab Hegazy, Azza Hassan, Nemat Yassin, Sanaa Kenawy
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the common pathologic consequence of all chronic liver diseases. AIM: Lactoferrin (Lf) was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats received TAA (200 mg/kg/biweekly, ip) for four successive weeks. Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle (VHC) was administered for one month before and another month during TAA injection...
June 15, 2015: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Sondes Bizid, Sahar Ben Sassi, Hatem Ben Abdallah, Afifa Doghri, Chokri Tounsi, Riadh Bouali, Nasreddine Gritli, Nabil Abdelli, Mondher Yedeas, Ali Mrabet
BACKGROUND: In front of the considerable impact of the viral hepatitis C, the prevention is more than ever a priority, based essentially on the screening. AIM: We realized an epidemiological study in a population of young recruits with the aim of considering prevalence of anti-hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV) antibodies, describing its epidemiological evolution and establishing a cartography of the viral hepatitis C in Tunisia. METHODS: Epidemiological retrospective study of prevalence was realized from the data of the screening of anti-HCV antibodies from 2003 till 2012 of all the young recruits suggested to be incorporated for the national service or suggested to be recruited as career soldier...
December 2015: La Tunisie Médicale
Pelin Kocdor, Serdar Kaya, Mehmet Erdil, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Michael M Paparella, Meredith E Adams
HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine if there are quantitative differences in the neuroepithelium and microvasculature of the saccule between subjects with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). BACKGROUND: Histopathologic changes that may underlie the association between DM and vestibular dysfunction have not been characterized in humans. METHODS: Human temporal bones (HTBs) from 39 subjects with DM (n = 16 type I DM [T1DM], n = 23 type II DM [T2DM]) were compared with 40 group age-matched controls...
June 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Ariel Berlinski, Brandy Cooper
BACKGROUND: Some pediatric tracheostomized patients who receive inhaled drugs undergo decannulation, and it is unknown whether the dose has to be adjusted. Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) and soft mist inhalers (SMIs) used with valved holding chambers (VHCs) made of non-electrostatic material are available. We hypothesized that using an SMI and changing the delivery route from tracheostomy to oronasal would increase lung dose. METHODS: Four units of a metallic VHC were studied with albuterol hydrofluoroalkane (pMDI) and albuterol/ipratropium bromide with an SMI using an anatomically correct in vitro model of a 5-y-old spontaneously breathing tracheostomized child...
July 2016: Respiratory Care
A Batisse, M Grégoire, M Marillier, M Fortias, S Djezzar
BACKGROUND: The pattern of recreational drug use has changed over the last decade and now includes a multitude of substances sold as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances, "NPS". In France, synthetic cathinones emerged in 2008 (while first mentioned by the French police force in 2007 first alerts among users appeared in 2008) and have grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Under the Official Journal dated 11th June 2010, only mephedrone has been listed as narcotics but "designer drugs" have synthesized new substitute cathinones in order to avoid anti-drug laws...
August 2016: L'Encéphale
Steven C Nichols, Jolyon P Mitchell, Dennis Sandell, Patrik U Andersson, Manfred Fischer, Markus Howald, Roy Pengilley, Phillip Krüger
Fine particle dose (FPD) is a critical quality attribute for orally inhaled products (OIPs). The abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept simplifies its measurement, provided there is a validated understanding of the relationship with the full resolution pharmacopoeial impactor (PIM) data for a given product. This multi-center study compared fine particle dose determined using AIM and PIM for five dry powder inhaler (DPIs) and two pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) products, one of which included a valved holding chamber (VHC)...
December 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Ramon Guirado, Juzoh Umemori, Pia Sipilä, Eero Castrén
Inputs to sensory cortices are known to compete for target innervation through an activity-dependent mechanism during critical periods. To investigate whether this principle also applies to association cortices such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), we produced a bilateral lesion during early development to the ventral hippocampus (vHC), an input to the mPFC, and analyzed the intensity of the projection from another input, the basolateral amgydala (BLA). We found that axons from the BLA had a higher density of "en passant" boutons in the mPFC of lesioned animals...
March 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Alexandra Wille, Verena Maurer, Paolo Piatti, Nigel Whittle, Dietmar Rieder, Nicolas Singewald, Alexandra Lusser
Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Xiao-Yuan Bao, Bei-Bei Xu, Kai Fang, Yan Li, Yong-Hua Hu, Guo-Pei Yu
OBJECTIVE: To examine if the hospitalisation trends of liver cirrhosis are changing with the changes of risk factors of the disease in China. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of hospitalisation records in the 31 top-ranking hospitals in Beijing. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2010, hospitalisation from viral hepatitis cirrhosis (VHC) decreased by 10% (95% CI=5-14%, p<0.001), but non-viral hepatitis cirrhosis (NVHC) and alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) increased by 35% (26-46%, p<0...
2015: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Mark Sanders, Ronald Bruin
The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI), user convenience, cost, and accessibility...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
N I Guliaev, V V Kuznetsov, D S Poltareĭko, I B Qleksiuk, A V Gordienko, A V Barsukov
The article presents an assessment of degree and type of atherosclerosis of coronary and non-coronary vessels in old patients with ischemic heart disease associated with chronic viral hepatitis C (VHC), the incidence of myocardial infarction and the possibility of participation chronic VHC in atherogenesis. Patients with ischemic heart disease have correlation of atherosclerosis of arteries with age, hypercholesterinemia. Patients without chronic VHC more often give a higher risk of myocardial infarction, especially in early period (1-1,5 years) of onset of ischemic heart disease clinical implications...
2015: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Gustavo J Rodrigo, Carlos E Rodríguez-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to summarize the principal findings in the literature about acute asthma management in children. METHODS: Systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (SRCTs) with or without meta-analysis in children (1-18 years) admitted to the emergency department (ED) were retrieved using five data bases. Methodological quality was determined using the AMSTAR tool. RESULTS: One hundred and three studies were retrieved...
2015: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
E Gachelin, L Vecellio, J-C Dubus
OBJECTIVE: To identify the spacer devices sold in France and to provide a critical evaluation in the light of the published data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We contacted the pharmaceutical companies, manufacturers and distributors of each spacer in order to obtain their technical parameters and the results of any in vitro or in vivo studies. A review of the literature via PubMed completed the first set of data. We were interested in the quantity of fine particles (less than 5 μm diameter) obtained with a cascade impactor at paediatric flow rates, for all inhaled drugs available in France...
September 2015: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
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