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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670327/asthma-pressurised-metered-dose-inhaler-performance-propellant-effect-studies-in-delivery-systems
#1
William F S Sellers
BACKGROUND: Current pressurised metered dose asthma inhaler (pMDI) propellants are not inert pharmacologically as were previous chlorofluorocarbons, have smooth muscle relaxant' partial pressure effects in the lungs and inhaled hydrofluoroalkane 134a (norflurane) has anaesthetic effects. Volumes of propellant gas per actuation have never been measured. METHODS: In-vitro studies measured gas volumes produced by pMDIs on air oxygen (O2) levels in valved holding chambers (VHC) and the falls in O2% following actuation into lung ventilator delivery devices...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578937/active-hcv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-circulating-levels-of-interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-10-ip-10-soluble-cd163-and-inflammatory-monocytes-regardless-of-liver-fibrosis-and-hiv-coinfection
#2
Claudia Mascia, Miriam Lichtner, Paola Zuccalà, Serena Vita, Tiziana Tieghi, Raffaella Marocco, Stefano Savinelli, Raffaella Rossi, Marco Iannetta, Michela Campagna, Francesco Schiavone, Fabio Mengoni, Gianluca Russo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), soluble (s) CD163 and sCD14 play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCV and HIV infection and are involved in inflammation and liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate at a single time point, plasma soluble biomarkers and inflammatory monocytes subsets in different groups of subjects: (i) HIV monoinfected patients on suppressive ART; (ii) HIV/HCV coinfected patients on ART, with undetectable HIV viremia (including either subjects who had active HCV replication or those who cleared HCV); (iii) HCV monoinfected individual with active viral replication...
May 31, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577160/fascial-reinforcement-fixing-the-bronchi-to-the-heart-its-anatomy-and-clinical-significance
#3
Kozo Nakanishi, Hidenori Goto, Tomokazu Ito
PURPOSE: The details of the mediastinal fascia have been scarcely described and the bronchopericardial membrane is the only known structure that is present between the bronchi and the pericardium. However, the anatomical description of this structure is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the fascial structures between the bronchi and the pericardium based on surgical findings. METHODS: The connective tissues in the mid-mediastinum were observed surgically when lung lobectomy, including mediastinal lymph node dissection for lung cancer, was performed at our institute from April 2011 to March 2016...
June 2, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450164/a-novel-approach-to-study-the-pmdi-plume-using-an-infrared-camera-and-to-evaluate-the-aerodynamic-properties-after-varying-the-time-between-actuations
#4
Nitesh K Kunda, Julia Hautmann, Sebastián E Godoy, Patricia Marshik, Ramesh Chand, Sanjay Krishna, Pavan Muttil
Plume characteristics, such as temperature and velocity, emitted from pMDIs could significantly affect the dose delivered to the lung. Currently, high speed cameras and thermocouples are used separately to evaluate these parameters. We used a low-noise infrared camera to evaluate both the temperature and velocity of the emitted plume from pMDIs. Additionally, we investigated whether the fine particle fraction (FPF) is affected when time between actuations is varied. We tested three different albuterol sulfate pMDIs: ProAir(®) HFA, Proventil(®) HFA, and Ventolin(®) HFA...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#5
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
KEY POINTS: Dentate spikes are fast fluctuations of hilar local-field potentials that take place during rest and are thought to reflect input arriving from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus. During dentate spikes, neuronal firing in hippocampal input (dentate gyrus) and output (CA1/CA3) regions is uncoupled. To date, the behavioural significance of dentate spikes is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that disrupting the dentate spike-related uncoupling of the dentate gyrus and the CA1/CA3 subregions for 1 h after training retards associative learning...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417347/-serological-markers-of-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-monitored-in-the-pediatrics-department-at-the-university-hospital-of-bobo-dioulasso-burkina-faso
#6
S A Kissou, M Koura, A Sawadogo, A-S Ouédraogo, H Traoré, E Kamboulé, W W F Zogona, B Nacro
Viral hepatitis B and C are universal public health problems. Burkina Faso is a high endemic area for hepatitis B. Patients with sickle cell disease are at risk. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the serological markers of viral hepatitis B and C among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which took place from July to November 2014 at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Bobo- Dioulasso. The study included 44 SS and 26 SC sickle cell patients...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411159/in-vivo-visualization-of-connections-among-revised-papez-circuit-hubs-using-full-q-space-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-tractography
#7
Peng-Hu Wei, Zhi-Qi Mao, Fei Cong, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Bo Wang, Zhi-Pei Ling, Shu-Li Liang, Lin Chen, Xin-Guang Yu
Structural connections among the hubs of the revised Papez circuit remain to be elucidated in the human brain. As the original Papez circuit failed to explain functional imaging findings, a more detailed investigation is needed to delineate connections among the circuit's key hubs. Here we acquired diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) from eight normal subjects and used data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to elucidate connections among hubs in the retrosplenial gyrus, hippocampus, mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nuclei...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132774/distribution-and-sea-to-air-fluxes-of-volatile-halocarbons-in-the-bohai-sea-and-north-yellow-sea-during-spring
#8
Zhen He, Qiu-Lin Liu, Ying-Jie Zhang, Gui-Peng Yang
Concentrations of volatile halocarbons (VHCs), such as CHBr2Cl, CHBr3, C2HCl3, and C2Cl4, in the Bohai Sea (BS) and North Yellow Sea (NYS) were measured during the spring of 2014. The VHC concentrations varied widely and decreased with distance from the coast in the investigated area, with low values observed in the open sea. Depth profiles of the VHCs were characterized by the highest concentration generally found in the upper water column. The distributions of the VHCs in the BS and NYS were clearly influenced by the combined effects of biological production, anthropogenic activities, and riverine input...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121049/ventral-hippocampal-neurons-inhibit-postprandial-energy-intake
#9
Reilly C Hannapel, Yoko H Henderson, Rebecca Nalloor, Almira Vazdarjanova, Marise B Parent
Evidence suggests that the memory of a recently ingested meal limits subsequent intake. Given that ventral hippocampal (vHC) neurons are involved in memory and energy intake, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that vHC neurons contribute to the formation of a memory of a meal and inhibit energy intake during the postprandial period. We tested (1) whether pharmacological inactivation of vHC neurons during the period following a sucrose meal, when the memory of the meal would be undergoing consolidation, accelerates the onset of the next sucrose meal and increases intake and (2) whether sucrose intake increases vHC expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc)...
March 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111371/volatile-hydrocarbon-analysis-in-blood-by-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-the-interpretation-of-vhc-patterns-in-fire-related-incidents
#10
Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Mio Takayama, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was used to quantitate the concentration of volatile hydrocarbons from the blood of cadavers by cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 24 compounds including aromatic and aliphatic volatile hydrocarbons were analyzed by this method. The analytes in the headspace of 0.1 g of blood mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water plus 1 µL of an internal standard solution were adsorbed onto a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 0°C for 15 min, and measured using a GC-MS full scan method...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977309/drug-delivery-in-asthmatic-children-following-coordinated-and-uncoordinated-inhalation-maneuvers-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#11
Ariel Berlinski, Dirk von Hollen, Ross H M Hatley, Lucy E A Hardaker, Kurt Nikander
BACKGROUND: Valved holding chambers (VHCs) are used in children to deliver pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). In vitro data suggest that uncoordinated use decreases the amount of drug available for inhalation. We hypothesize that in an ex vivo study, the coordinated maneuver will deliver more drug than the uncoordinated one. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two clinically stable asthmatic children, ages 5-8 years, completed the study. An aerosol filter was interposed between a small-volume nonelectrostatic VHC and a mouthpiece to capture the drug emitted by one puff of Flovent(®) 220 mcg during tidal breathing...
June 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854311/care-seeking-for-diarrhoea-in-southern-malawi-attitudes-practices-and-implications-for-diarrhoea-control
#12
Salule Masangwi, Neil Ferguson, Anthony Grimason, Tracy Morse, Lawrence Kazembe
This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in Southern Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773481/distinct-hippocampal-pathways-mediate-dissociable-roles-of-context-in-memory-retrieval
#13
Chun Xu, Sabine Krabbe, Jan Gründemann, Paolo Botta, Jonathan P Fadok, Fumitaka Osakada, Dieter Saur, Benjamin F Grewe, Mark J Schnitzer, Edward M Callaway, Andreas Lüthi
Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740517/%C3%A2-frequency-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-single-institution-in-mexico-with-a-focus-on-birth-cohort-population
#14
Héctor Baptista-González, Victor M Noffal-Nuño, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
 Background and rationale for the study. The generation of people born before 1965 is a high-risk group for developing chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. AIM: To report the experience on single institution of HCV infection under birth-cohort or baby boomers effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design of consecutive subjects older than 18 years referred for serological evaluation for anti-HCV and detection of HCV RNA. RESULTS: A total of 7,658 people were included...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613457/the-effect-of-a-holding-chamber-on-albuterol-metered-dose-inhaler-product-differences
#15
Jennifer L H Johnson, Danielle Guthrie, Joel Hyde, Thomas Hanson, Kelly Karlage, Paul B Myrdal
BACKGROUND: Three albuterol sulfate metered-dose inhaled (MDI) products (Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, and ProAir HFA) are marketed in the United States to provide the same total dose of albuterol sulfate. However, it is widely known that the fine particle dose (<5 μm) is the portion of the particle distribution that actually reaches the lungs and provides therapeutic benefit. OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences in particle size between products and how a valved holding chamber (VHC) can mitigate possible adverse effects...
September 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546787/molecular-mechanism-and-clinical-relevance-of-ketamine-as-rapid-acting-antidepressant
#16
Vesna Pešić, Jelena Petrović, Marin M Jukić
Preclinical Research The emergence of rapid-acting antidepressants such as ketamine has motivated studies aiming to reveal the molecular mechanism of the ketamine antidepressant effect and to enable the clinical application of rapid-acting antidepressants. Here, we provide an overview of studies addressing the antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients and animal models of depression and we compare the reduction of depressive symptoms in humans with the reduction in immobility time in the forced swim test in rodents after acute ketamine treatment...
November 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504420/an-evaluation-of-the-stress-distribution-in-screw-retained-implants-of-different-crown-implant-ratios-in-different-bone-densities-under-various-loads-a-fem-study
#17
Naveen Reddy Vootla, Sarat Chandra Barla, Vhc Kumar, Hemchand Surapaneni, Srilatha Balusu, Swetha Kalyanam
INTRODUCTION: Studies on stress distribution around screw retained implants in different bone densities are limited. In clinical situations crowns of different heights are placed on the implants and the effect of varying crown implant ratio on the bone is not understood properly. AIM: To evaluate and compare the stress distribution in different screw retained implants for different crown-implant ratios in different bone densities under various occlusal loads using three dimensional finite element analyses...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275221/lactoferrin-enhanced-apoptosis-and-protected-against-thioacetamide-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-rats
#18
Alyaa Hessin, Rehab Hegazy, Azza Hassan, Nemat Yassin, Sanaa Kenawy
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the common pathologic consequence of all chronic liver diseases. AIM: Lactoferrin (Lf) was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats received TAA (200 mg/kg/biweekly, ip) for four successive weeks. Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle (VHC) was administered for one month before and another month during TAA injection...
June 15, 2015: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249381/screening-for-viral-hepatitis-c-in-a-young-tunisian-population-more-than-175-000-recruits
#19
Sondes Bizid, Sahar Ben Sassi, Hatem Ben Abdallah, Afifa Doghri, Chokri Tounsi, Riadh Bouali, Nasreddine Gritli, Nabil Abdelli, Mondher Yedeas, Ali Mrabet
BACKGROUND: In front of the considerable impact of the viral hepatitis C, the prevention is more than ever a priority, based essentially on the screening. AIM: We realized an epidemiological study in a population of young recruits with the aim of considering prevalence of anti-hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV) antibodies, describing its epidemiological evolution and establishing a cartography of the viral hepatitis C in Tunisia. METHODS: Epidemiological retrospective study of prevalence was realized from the data of the screening of anti-HCV antibodies from 2003 till 2012 of all the young recruits suggested to be incorporated for the national service or suggested to be recruited as career soldier...
December 2015: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050649/vascular-and-neuroepithelial-histopathology-of-the-saccule-in-humans-with-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Pelin Kocdor, Serdar Kaya, Mehmet Erdil, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Michael M Paparella, Meredith E Adams
HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine if there are quantitative differences in the neuroepithelium and microvasculature of the saccule between subjects with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). BACKGROUND: Histopathologic changes that may underlie the association between DM and vestibular dysfunction have not been characterized in humans. METHODS: Human temporal bones (HTBs) from 39 subjects with DM (n = 16 type I DM [T1DM], n = 23 type II DM [T2DM]) were compared with 40 group age-matched controls...
June 2016: Otology & Neurotology
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