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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132774/distribution-and-sea-to-air-fluxes-of-volatile-halocarbons-in-the-bohai-sea-and-north-yellow-sea-during-spring
#1
Zhen He, Qiu-Lin Liu, Ying-Jie Zhang, Gui-Peng Yang
Concentrations of volatile halocarbons (VHCs), such as CHBr2Cl, CHBr3, C2HCl3, and C2Cl4, in the Bohai Sea (BS) and North Yellow Sea (NYS) were measured during the spring of 2014. The VHC concentrations varied widely and decreased with distance from the coast in the investigated area, with low values observed in the open sea. Depth profiles of the VHCs were characterized by the highest concentration generally found in the upper water column. The distributions of the VHCs in the BS and NYS were clearly influenced by the combined effects of biological production, anthropogenic activities, and riverine input...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121049/ventral-hippocampal-neurons-inhibit-postprandial-energy-intake
#2
Reilly C Hannapel, Yoko H Henderson, Rebecca Nalloor, Almira Vazdarjanova, Marise B Parent
Evidence suggests that the memory of a recently ingested meal limits subsequent intake. Given that ventral hippocampal (vHC) neurons are involved in memory and energy intake, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that vHC neurons contribute to the formation of a memory of a meal and inhibit energy intake during the postprandial period. We tested (1) whether pharmacological inactivation of vHC neurons during the period following a sucrose meal, when the memory of the meal would be undergoing consolidation, accelerates the onset of the next sucrose meal and increases intake and (2) whether sucrose intake increases vHC expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc)...
March 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111371/volatile-hydrocarbon-analysis-in-blood-by-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-the-interpretation-of-vhc-patterns-in-fire-related-incidents
#3
Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Mio Takayama, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was used to quantitate the concentration of volatile hydrocarbons from the blood of cadavers by cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 24 compounds including aromatic and aliphatic volatile hydrocarbons were analyzed by this method. The analytes in the headspace of 0.1 g of blood mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water plus 1 µL of an internal standard solution were adsorbed onto a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 0°C for 15 min, and measured using a GC-MS full scan method...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977309/drug-delivery-in-asthmatic-children-following-coordinated-and-uncoordinated-inhalation-maneuvers-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#4
Ariel Berlinski, Dirk von Hollen, Ross H M Hatley, Lucy E A Hardaker, Kurt Nikander
BACKGROUND: Valved holding chambers (VHCs) are used in children to deliver pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). In vitro data suggest that uncoordinated use decreases the amount of drug available for inhalation. We hypothesize that in an ex vivo study, the coordinated maneuver will deliver more drug than the uncoordinated one. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two clinically stable asthmatic children, ages 5-8 years, completed the study. An aerosol filter was interposed between a small-volume nonelectrostatic VHC and a mouthpiece to capture the drug emitted by one puff of Flovent(®) 220 mcg during tidal breathing...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854311/care-seeking-for-diarrhoea-in-southern-malawi-attitudes-practices-and-implications-for-diarrhoea-control
#5
Salule Masangwi, Neil Ferguson, Anthony Grimason, Tracy Morse, Lawrence Kazembe
This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in Southern Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773481/distinct-hippocampal-pathways-mediate-dissociable-roles-of-context-in-memory-retrieval
#6
Chun Xu, Sabine Krabbe, Jan Gründemann, Paolo Botta, Jonathan P Fadok, Fumitaka Osakada, Dieter Saur, Benjamin F Grewe, Mark J Schnitzer, Edward M Callaway, Andreas Lüthi
Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740517/%C3%A2-frequency-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-single-institution-in-mexico-with-a-focus-on-birth-cohort-population
#7
Héctor Baptista-González, Victor M Noffal-Nuño, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
 Background and rationale for the study. The generation of people born before 1965 is a high-risk group for developing chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. AIM: To report the experience on single institution of HCV infection under birth-cohort or baby boomers effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design of consecutive subjects older than 18 years referred for serological evaluation for anti-HCV and detection of HCV RNA. RESULTS: A total of 7,658 people were included...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613457/the-effect-of-a-holding-chamber-on-albuterol-metered-dose-inhaler-product-differences
#8
Jennifer L H Johnson, Danielle Guthrie, Joel Hyde, Thomas Hanson, Kelly Karlage, Paul B Myrdal
BACKGROUND: Three albuterol sulfate metered-dose inhaled (MDI) products (Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, and ProAir HFA) are marketed in the United States to provide the same total dose of albuterol sulfate. However, it is widely known that the fine particle dose (<5 μm) is the portion of the particle distribution that actually reaches the lungs and provides therapeutic benefit. OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences in particle size between products and how a valved holding chamber (VHC) can mitigate possible adverse effects...
September 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546787/molecular-mechanism-and-clinical-relevance-of-ketamine-as-rapid-acting-antidepressant
#9
Vesna Pešić, Jelena Petrović, Marin M Jukić
Preclinical Research The emergence of rapid-acting antidepressants such as ketamine has motivated studies aiming to reveal the molecular mechanism of the ketamine antidepressant effect and to enable the clinical application of rapid-acting antidepressants. Here, we provide an overview of studies addressing the antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients and animal models of depression and we compare the reduction of depressive symptoms in humans with the reduction in immobility time in the forced swim test in rodents after acute ketamine treatment...
November 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504420/an-evaluation-of-the-stress-distribution-in-screw-retained-implants-of-different-crown-implant-ratios-in-different-bone-densities-under-various-loads-a-fem-study
#10
Naveen Reddy Vootla, Sarat Chandra Barla, Vhc Kumar, Hemchand Surapaneni, Srilatha Balusu, Swetha Kalyanam
INTRODUCTION: Studies on stress distribution around screw retained implants in different bone densities are limited. In clinical situations crowns of different heights are placed on the implants and the effect of varying crown implant ratio on the bone is not understood properly. AIM: To evaluate and compare the stress distribution in different screw retained implants for different crown-implant ratios in different bone densities under various occlusal loads using three dimensional finite element analyses...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275221/lactoferrin-enhanced-apoptosis-and-protected-against-thioacetamide-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-rats
#11
Alyaa Hessin, Rehab Hegazy, Azza Hassan, Nemat Yassin, Sanaa Kenawy
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the common pathologic consequence of all chronic liver diseases. AIM: Lactoferrin (Lf) was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats received TAA (200 mg/kg/biweekly, ip) for four successive weeks. Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle (VHC) was administered for one month before and another month during TAA injection...
June 15, 2015: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249381/screening-for-viral-hepatitis-c-in-a-young-tunisian-population-more-than-175-000-recruits
#12
Sondes Bizid, Sahar Ben Sassi, Hatem Ben Abdallah, Afifa Doghri, Chokri Tounsi, Riadh Bouali, Nasreddine Gritli, Nabil Abdelli, Mondher Yedeas, Ali Mrabet
BACKGROUND: In front of the considerable impact of the viral hepatitis C, the prevention is more than ever a priority, based essentially on the screening. AIM: We realized an epidemiological study in a population of young recruits with the aim of considering prevalence of anti-hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV) antibodies, describing its epidemiological evolution and establishing a cartography of the viral hepatitis C in Tunisia. METHODS: Epidemiological retrospective study of prevalence was realized from the data of the screening of anti-HCV antibodies from 2003 till 2012 of all the young recruits suggested to be incorporated for the national service or suggested to be recruited as career soldier...
December 2015: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050649/vascular-and-neuroepithelial-histopathology-of-the-saccule-in-humans-with-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Pelin Kocdor, Serdar Kaya, Mehmet Erdil, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Michael M Paparella, Meredith E Adams
HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine if there are quantitative differences in the neuroepithelium and microvasculature of the saccule between subjects with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). BACKGROUND: Histopathologic changes that may underlie the association between DM and vestibular dysfunction have not been characterized in humans. METHODS: Human temporal bones (HTBs) from 39 subjects with DM (n = 16 type I DM [T1DM], n = 23 type II DM [T2DM]) were compared with 40 group age-matched controls...
June 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006348/oronasal-and-tracheostomy-delivery-of-soft-mist-and-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers-with-valved-holding-chamber
#14
Ariel Berlinski, Brandy Cooper
BACKGROUND: Some pediatric tracheostomized patients who receive inhaled drugs undergo decannulation, and it is unknown whether the dose has to be adjusted. Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) and soft mist inhalers (SMIs) used with valved holding chambers (VHCs) made of non-electrostatic material are available. We hypothesized that using an SMI and changing the delivery route from tracheostomy to oronasal would increase lung dose. METHODS: Four units of a metallic VHC were studied with albuterol hydrofluoroalkane (pMDI) and albuterol/ipratropium bromide with an SMI using an anatomically correct in vitro model of a 5-y-old spontaneously breathing tracheostomized child...
July 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847479/-cathinones-use-in-paris
#15
A Batisse, M Grégoire, M Marillier, M Fortias, S Djezzar
BACKGROUND: The pattern of recreational drug use has changed over the last decade and now includes a multitude of substances sold as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances, "NPS". In France, synthetic cathinones emerged in 2008 (while first mentioned by the French police force in 2007 first alerts among users appeared in 2008) and have grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Under the Official Journal dated 11th June 2010, only mephedrone has been listed as narcotics but "designer drugs" have synthesized new substitute cathinones in order to avoid anti-drug laws...
August 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26762338/a-multi-laboratory-in-vitro-study-to-compare-data-from-abbreviated-and-pharmacopeial-impactor-measurements-for-orally-inhaled-products-a-report-of-the-european-aerosol-group-epag
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Steven C Nichols, Jolyon P Mitchell, Dennis Sandell, Patrik U Andersson, Manfred Fischer, Markus Howald, Roy Pengilley, Phillip Krüger
Fine particle dose (FPD) is a critical quality attribute for orally inhaled products (OIPs). The abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept simplifies its measurement, provided there is a validated understanding of the relationship with the full resolution pharmacopoeial impactor (PIM) data for a given product. This multi-center study compared fine particle dose determined using AIM and PIM for five dry powder inhaler (DPIs) and two pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) products, one of which included a valved holding chamber (VHC)...
December 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26637448/evidence-for-competition-for-target-innervation-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Ramon Guirado, Juzoh Umemori, Pia Sipilä, Eero Castrén
Inputs to sensory cortices are known to compete for target innervation through an activity-dependent mechanism during critical periods. To investigate whether this principle also applies to association cortices such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), we produced a bilateral lesion during early development to the ventral hippocampus (vHC), an input to the mPFC, and analyzed the intensity of the projection from another input, the basolateral amgydala (BLA). We found that axons from the BLA had a higher density of "en passant" boutons in the mPFC of lesioned animals...
March 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635563/impaired-contextual-fear-extinction-learning-is-associated-with-aberrant-regulation-of-chd-type-chromatin-remodeling-factors
#18
Alexandra Wille, Verena Maurer, Paolo Piatti, Nigel Whittle, Dietmar Rieder, Nicolas Singewald, Alexandra Lusser
Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629359/changing-trends-of-hospitalisation-of-liver-cirrhosis-in-beijing-china
#19
Xiao-Yuan Bao, Bei-Bei Xu, Kai Fang, Yan Li, Yong-Hua Hu, Guo-Pei Yu
OBJECTIVE: To examine if the hospitalisation trends of liver cirrhosis are changing with the changes of risk factors of the disease in China. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of hospitalisation records in the 31 top-ranking hospitals in Beijing. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2010, hospitalisation from viral hepatitis cirrhosis (VHC) decreased by 10% (95% CI=5-14%, p<0.001), but non-viral hepatitis cirrhosis (NVHC) and alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) increased by 35% (26-46%, p<0...
2015: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491563/a-rationale-for-going-back-to-the-future-use-of-disposable-spacers-for-pressurised-metered-dose-inhalers
#20
REVIEW
Mark Sanders, Ronald Bruin
The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI), user convenience, cost, and accessibility...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
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