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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849831/optimizing-the-delivery-of-inhaled-medication-for-respiratory-patients-the-role-of-valved-holding-chambers
#1
REVIEW
R Andrew McIvor, Hollie M Devlin, Alan Kaplan
Valved holding chambers (VHCs) have been used with pressurized metered-dose inhalers since the early 1980s. They have been shown to increase fine particle delivery to the lungs, decrease oropharyngeal deposition, and reduce side effects such as throat irritation, dysphonia, and oral candidiasis that are common with use of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) alone. VHCs act as aerosol reservoirs, allowing the user to actuate the pMDI device and then inhale the medication in a two-step process that helps users overcome challenges in coordinating pMDI actuation with inhalation...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724397/randomized-study-of-the-effects-of-aerochamber-plus-%C3%A2-flow-vu-%C3%A2-on-the-efficacy-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-glycopyrronium-formoterol-fumarate-dihydrate-metered-dose-inhaler-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Faisal Fakih, Selwyn Spangenthal, Barry Sigal, Patrick Darken, Andrea Maes, Shahid Siddiqui, Michael Gillen, Colin Reisner, Ubaldo J Martin
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and safety of GFF MDI (Bevespi Aerosphere® ), a fixed-dose combination of glycopyrronium and formoterol fumarate dihydrate (14.4/10 μg) delivered by a metered dose inhaler (MDI) formulated using innovative co-suspension delivery technology, in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with and without the Aerochamber Plus® Flow-Vu® valved holding chamber (VHC). METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, crossover, Phase III study (NCT02454959), patients were randomized to receive GFF MDI 14...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692639/seroprevalences-and-correlates-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-among-cameroonian-pregnant-women
#3
Florent Ymele Fouelifack, Jeanne Hortence Fouedjio, Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue, Loic Dongmo Fouelifa
Background and rationale: Viral hepatitis B (VHB) and viral hepatitis C (VHC) are major public health issues in resource-poor countries where vertical transmission remains high. Aim: To assess prevalences and correlates of VHB and VHC among women attending antenatal clinic. Methods: A cross-sectional study at the Yaounde Central Hospital from January 1 to June 30, 2016. We included 360 pregnant women who were screened for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HbsAg) and VHCAb by rapid diagnostic test (DiaSpot Diagnostics, USA) followed by confirmation of positive results by a reference laboratory...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605203/in-vitro-and-clinical-characterization-of-the-valved-holding-chamber-aerochamber-plus-%C3%A2-flow-vu-%C3%A2-for-administrating-tiotropium-respimat-%C3%A2-in-1-5-year-old-children-with-persistent-asthmatic-symptoms
#4
Herbert Wachtel, Mark Nagel, Michael Engel, Georges El Azzi, Ashish Sharma, Jason Suggett
BACKGROUND: When characterizing inhalation products, a comprehensive assessment including in vitro, pharmacokinetic (PK), and clinical data is required. We conducted a characterization of tiotropium Respimat® when administered with AeroChamber Plus® Flow-Vu® anti-static valved holding chamber (test VHC) with face mask in 1-5-year-olds with persistent asthmatic symptoms. METHODS: In vitro tiotropium dose and particle size distribution delivered into a cascade impactor were evaluated under fixed paediatric and adult flow rates between actuation and samplings...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550391/antidepressant-like-effect-of-losartan-involves-trkb-transactivation-from-angiotensin-receptor-type-2-agtr2-and-recruitment-of-fyn
#5
Cassiano R A F Diniz, Plinio C Casarotto, Senem M Fred, Caroline Biojone, Eero Castrén, Sâmia R L Joca
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with peripheral fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function, but recent evidence also suggests a functional role in the brain. RAS regulates physiological and behavioral parameters related to the stress response, including depressive symptoms. Apparently, RAS can modulate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TRKB, which are important in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. However, the interaction between the BDNF/TRKB system and RAS in depression has not been investigated before...
March 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378477/a-review-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-valved-holding-chamber-vhc-literature-with-a-focus-on-the-aerochamber-plus-flow-vu-anti-static-vhc
#6
Sanjeeva Dissanayake, Jason Suggett
Valved holding chambers (VHCs) reduce the need for inhalation-actuation coordination with pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), reduce oropharyngeal drug deposition and may improve lung deposition and clinical outcomes compared to pMDIs used alone. While VHCs are thus widely advocated for use in vulnerable patient groups within clinical and regulatory guidelines, there is less consensus as to whether the performance differences between different VHCs have clinical implications. This review evaluates the VHC literature, in particular the data pertaining to large- versus small-volume chambers, aerosol performance with a VHC adjunct versus a pMDI alone, charge dissipative/conducting versus non-conducting VHCs, and facemasks, to ascertain whether potentially meaningful differences between VHCs exist...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141440/explaining-the-t-v-dependent-dynamics-of-glass-forming-liquids-the-cooperative-free-volume-model-tested-against-new-simulation-results
#7
Ronald P White, Jane E G Lipson
In this article, we derive a rate model, the "cooperative free volume" (CFV) model, to explain relaxation dynamics in terms of a system's free volume, Vfree, and its temperature, T, over widely varied pressure dependent conditions. In the CFV model, the rate a molecule moves a distance on the order of its own size is dependent on the cooperation of surrounding molecules to open up enough free space. To test CFV, we have generated extensive T,V dependent simulation data for structural relaxation times, τ, on a Kob and Andersen type Lennard-Jones (KA-LJ) fluid...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024795/are-valved-holding-chambers-vhcs-interchangeable-an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-vhc-equivalence
#8
Sanjeeva Dissanayake, Mark Nagel, Emanuela Falaschetti, Jason Suggett
INTRODUCTION: The European Medicines Agency (EMA) requires that a specific valved holding chamber (VHC) is designated for use with a given pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI). No other regulatory authorities impose similar requirements, implying that VHCs are interchangeable. This in vitro study, employing EMA assessment criteria, assessed the equivalence of four anti-static VHCs (aVHCs) versus the non-conducting VHC most widely referenced in pMDI monographs, the AeroChamber Plus™ (AC+) VHC...
February 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869501/the-use-of-a-virtual-online-debating-platform-to-facilitate-student-discussion-of-potentially-polarising-topics
#9
Paul D McGreevy, Vicky Tzioumis, Chris Degeling, Jane Johnson, Robert Brown, Mike Sands, Melissa J Starling, Clive J C Phillips
The merits of students exchanging views through the so-called human continuum exercise (HCE) are well established. The current article describes the creation of the virtual human continuum (VHC), an online platform that facilitates the same teaching exercise. It also reports feedback on the VHC from veterinary science students (n = 38). First-year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students at the University of Sydney, Australia, trialed the platform and provided feedback. Most students agreed or strongly agreed that the VHC offered: a non-threatening environment for discussing emotive and challenging issues; and an opportunity to see how other people form ideas...
September 2, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846482/valved-holding-chambers-and-in-vitro-metered-dose-inhaler-performance-effects-of-flow-rate-and-inhalation-delay
#10
Xiaofei Liu, Changning Guo, Badrul Chowdhury, Peter Starke, Susan Limb, Prasad Peri, Alan Schroeder, William Doub
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors may influence the performance of a metered dose inhaler (MDI) when used with a valved holding chamber (VHC or "spacer"). METHODS: Andersen Cascade Impactor measurements were conducted for three MDI products and two different VHCs using a specially designed system that accommodated variable delay times between MDI actuation and introduction of the aerosol into the impactor, and allowed reduced flow through the VHC while the impactor was operated at 28...
December 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670327/asthma-pressurised-metered-dose-inhaler-performance-propellant-effect-studies-in-delivery-systems
#11
William F S Sellers
BACKGROUND: Current pressurised metered dose asthma inhaler (pMDI) propellants are not inert pharmacologically as were previous chlorofluorocarbons, have smooth muscle relaxant' partial pressure effects in the lungs and inhaled hydrofluoroalkane 134a (norflurane) has anaesthetic effects. Volumes of propellant gas per actuation have never been measured. METHODS: In-vitro studies measured gas volumes produced by pMDIs on air oxygen (O2) levels in valved holding chambers (VHC) and the falls in O2% following actuation into lung ventilator delivery devices...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578937/active-hcv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-circulating-levels-of-interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-10-ip-10-soluble-cd163-and-inflammatory-monocytes-regardless-of-liver-fibrosis-and-hiv-coinfection
#12
Claudia Mascia, Miriam Lichtner, Paola Zuccalà, Serena Vita, Tiziana Tieghi, Raffaella Marocco, Stefano Savinelli, Raffaella Rossi, Marco Iannetta, Michela Campagna, Francesco Schiavone, Fabio Mengoni, Gianluca Russo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), soluble (s) CD163 and sCD14 play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCV and HIV infection and are involved in inflammation and liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate at a single time point, plasma soluble biomarkers and inflammatory monocytes subsets in different groups of subjects: (i) HIV monoinfected patients on suppressive ART; (ii) HIV/HCV coinfected patients on ART, with undetectable HIV viremia (including either subjects who had active HCV replication or those who cleared HCV); (iii) HCV monoinfected individual with active viral replication...
December 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577160/fascial-reinforcement-fixing-the-bronchi-to-the-heart-its-anatomy-and-clinical-significance
#13
Kozo Nakanishi, Hidenori Goto, Tomokazu Ito
PURPOSE: The details of the mediastinal fascia have been scarcely described and the bronchopericardial membrane is the only known structure that is present between the bronchi and the pericardium. However, the anatomical description of this structure is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the fascial structures between the bronchi and the pericardium based on surgical findings. METHODS: The connective tissues in the mid-mediastinum were observed surgically when lung lobectomy, including mediastinal lymph node dissection for lung cancer, was performed at our institute from April 2011 to March 2016...
December 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450164/a-novel-approach-to-study-the-pmdi-plume-using-an-infrared-camera-and-to-evaluate-the-aerodynamic-properties-after-varying-the-time-between-actuations
#14
Nitesh K Kunda, Julia Hautmann, Sebastián E Godoy, Patricia Marshik, Ramesh Chand, Sanjay Krishna, Pavan Muttil
Plume characteristics, such as temperature and velocity, emitted from pMDIs could significantly affect the dose delivered to the lung. Currently, high speed cameras and thermocouples are used separately to evaluate these parameters. We used a low-noise infrared camera to evaluate both the temperature and velocity of the emitted plume from pMDIs. Additionally, we investigated whether the fine particle fraction (FPF) is affected when time between actuations is varied. We tested three different albuterol sulfate pMDIs: ProAir® HFA, Proventil® HFA, and Ventolin® HFA...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#15
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
KEY POINTS: Dentate spikes are fast fluctuations of hilar local-field potentials that take place during rest and are thought to reflect input arriving from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus. During dentate spikes, neuronal firing in hippocampal input (dentate gyrus) and output (CA1/CA3) regions is uncoupled. To date, the behavioural significance of dentate spikes is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that disrupting the dentate spike-related uncoupling of the dentate gyrus and the CA1/CA3 subregions for 1 h after training retards associative learning...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417347/-serological-markers-of-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-monitored-in-the-pediatrics-department-at-the-university-hospital-of-bobo-dioulasso-burkina-faso
#16
S A Kissou, M Koura, A Sawadogo, A -S Ouédraogo, H Traoré, E Kamboulé, W W F Zogona, B Nacro
Viral hepatitis B and C are universal public health problems. Burkina Faso is a high endemic area for hepatitis B. Patients with sickle cell disease are at risk. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the serological markers of viral hepatitis B and C among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which took place from July to November 2014 at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Bobo- Dioulasso. The study included 44 SS and 26 SC sickle cell patients...
August 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411159/in-vivo-visualization-of-connections-among-revised-papez-circuit-hubs-using-full-q-space-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-tractography
#17
Peng-Hu Wei, Zhi-Qi Mao, Fei Cong, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Bo Wang, Zhi-Pei Ling, Shu-Li Liang, Lin Chen, Xin-Guang Yu
Structural connections among the hubs of the revised Papez circuit remain to be elucidated in the human brain. As the original Papez circuit failed to explain functional imaging findings, a more detailed investigation is needed to delineate connections among the circuit's key hubs. Here we acquired diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) from eight normal subjects and used data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to elucidate connections among hubs in the retrosplenial gyrus, hippocampus, mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nuclei...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132774/distribution-and-sea-to-air-fluxes-of-volatile-halocarbons-in-the-bohai-sea-and-north-yellow-sea-during-spring
#18
Zhen He, Qiu-Lin Liu, Ying-Jie Zhang, Gui-Peng Yang
Concentrations of volatile halocarbons (VHCs), such as CHBr2 Cl, CHBr3 , C2 HCl3 , and C2 Cl4 , in the Bohai Sea (BS) and North Yellow Sea (NYS) were measured during the spring of 2014. The VHC concentrations varied widely and decreased with distance from the coast in the investigated area, with low values observed in the open sea. Depth profiles of the VHCs were characterized by the highest concentration generally found in the upper water column. The distributions of the VHCs in the BS and NYS were clearly influenced by the combined effects of biological production, anthropogenic activities, and riverine input...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121049/ventral-hippocampal-neurons-inhibit-postprandial-energy-intake
#19
Reilly C Hannapel, Yoko H Henderson, Rebecca Nalloor, Almira Vazdarjanova, Marise B Parent
Evidence suggests that the memory of a recently ingested meal limits subsequent intake. Given that ventral hippocampal (vHC) neurons are involved in memory and energy intake, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that vHC neurons contribute to the formation of a memory of a meal and inhibit energy intake during the postprandial period. We tested (1) whether pharmacological inactivation of vHC neurons during the period following a sucrose meal, when the memory of the meal would be undergoing consolidation, accelerates the onset of the next sucrose meal and increases intake and (2) whether sucrose intake increases vHC expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc)...
March 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111371/volatile-hydrocarbon-analysis-in-blood-by-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-the-interpretation-of-vhc-patterns-in-fire-related-incidents
#20
Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Natsuki Ikematsu, Mio Takayama, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Aya Matsusue, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was used to quantitate the concentration of volatile hydrocarbons from the blood of cadavers by cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 24 compounds including aromatic and aliphatic volatile hydrocarbons were analyzed by this method. The analytes in the headspace of 0.1 g of blood mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water plus 1 µL of an internal standard solution were adsorbed onto a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 0°C for 15 min, and measured using a GC-MS full scan method...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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