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Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics...
November 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
L Tyler Mix, Julia Kirpich, Masato Kumauchi, Jie Ren, Mikas Vengris, Wouter D Hoff, Delmar S Larsen
We explored the photoisomerization mechanisms in novel homologs of Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP) from Leptospira biflexa to identify conserved features and functional diversity in the primary photochemistry of this family of photoreceptors. In close agreement with the prototypical PYP from Halorhodospira halophila, we observe excited state absorbance near 375 nm and stimulated emission near 500 nm, with triphasic excited state decay. While the excited state decay for Lbif PYP is the slowest among known PYPs due to the redistribution of the amplitudes of the three decay components, the quantum yield for productive photocycle entry is very similar to that of Hhal PYP...
October 17, 2016: Biochemistry
Sorena Keihani, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Seyedeh Maryam Kameli, Reza Abbasioun
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term impact of bladder neck incision (BNI) on continence and ejaculatory function of adults who underwent concurrent posterior urethral valve (PUV) ablation and BNI during childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to find all adult patients with relevant history. All patients had undergone BNI at 6 o'clock proximal to the verumontanum with caution to leave the adventitia and verumontanum untouched...
October 5, 2016: Urology
Sarah Marokakis, Nadine A Kasparian, Sean E Kennedy
OBJECTIVES: To explore parents' experiences of counselling after prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of a child born between September 2012 and March 2015 with posterior urethral valves (PUV) or multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) completed a semi-structured telephone interview, demographic survey, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS21). Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo10 software...
September 29, 2016: BJU International
Lin Foo, Carmel McEniery, Ian Wilkinson, Christoph Lees
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy has been postulated as a potential cause or consequence of early pregnancy loss. We sought to investigate pre- and early pregnancy cardiovascular function in women with a viable pregnancy beyond the first trimester, and those suffering a first trimester pregnancy loss. METHODS: We recruited healthy women trying for pregnancy without assisted reproductive technology into an observational pre-conception study, and recorded pregnancy loss as a clinical endpoint...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Marie-Klaire Farrugia
Fetal bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), most commonly caused by posterior urethral valves (PUV), remains a challenging and multi-faceted condition. Evolving techniques, and refinement in ultrasound, optics and instrumentation, have increased our rate of prenatal diagnosis, and enabled valve ablation not only in smaller newborns, but also in fetuses. Long-term outcome studies have raised our awareness of the silent damage caused by bladder dysfunction and polyuria and encouraged their proactive management. In spite of our best efforts, the proportion of boys with PUV who progress to chronic and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not changed in the last 25 years...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Mohd Ashraf, Virender Kumar, Rifat Ara Bano, Khursheed Ahmed Wani, Javed Ahmed, Kaisar Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Definite paucity of data pertaining to spectrum of renal and urinary tract diseases in our state and in various parts of India forms the basis of this study. Available data has emphasized more on specific clinical syndromes and chronic renal diseases rather than over all spectrums of renal and urinary tract diseases, that too in adult population. AIM: The present study a retrospective analysis, forms one of the basic data of paediatric nephrology and urology related disorders in our state...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
A Richardson, N Raine-Fenning, S Deb, B Campbell, K Vedhara
OBJECTIVES: To determine anxiety levels of women presenting to Early Pregnancy Assessment Units (EPAU) with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding and assess how these change over time and according to ultrasonographic diagnosis. METHODS: We undertook a prospective cohort study in a EPAU in a large UK teaching hospital. Women with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (less than 12 weeks gestation) presenting for the first time were eligible for inclusion in the study...
August 3, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yvon Chitrit, Mathilde Bourdon, Diane Korb, Christine Grapin-Dagorno, Félicia Joinau-Zoulovits, Edith Vuillard, Annabel Paye-Jaouen, Matthieu Peycelon, Nadia Belarbi, Anne-Lyse Delezoide, Thomas Schmitz, Alaa El Ghoneimi, Olivier Sibony, Jean-François Oury
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate prenatal sonographic signs that distinguish male fetuses with posterior urethral valves (PUV) from those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). METHODS: Prenatal data were retrospectively retrieved from all consecutive women delivering between 2003 and 2012 of a male newborn with a postnatal diagnosis of PUV or VUR. Prenatal parameters included fetal bladder characteristics, identification of a dilated posterior urethra, and change in shape and size in the fetal renal pelvis or ureter...
September 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
M Barrett, K Fitzhenry, V O'Flaherty, W Dore, S Keaveney, M Cormican, N Rowan, E Clifford
It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
R Babu, S Hariharasudhan, C Ramesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports on the criteria with which to determine success following posterior urethral valve (PUV) ablation. The aims of this study were to assess the value of the posterior urethra: anterior urethra ratio (PAR) in predicting successful PUV ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All neonates and infants with confirmed PUV on voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) were included. Initial PAR was computed by dividing maximum posterior urethral diameter by anterior urethral diameter...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Araya Boonyaleepan
BACKGROUND: Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) is a new modality in the investigation of breast cancer in Rajavithi Hospital, and its effectiveness has not yet been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness and characterization of breast images taken with PEM in Rajavithi Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This was a retrospective study in which data were collected and analyzed of patients who were investigated by PEM in Rajavithi Hospital between 18 September 2013 and 31 May 2014...
February 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Cinzia Chiaramonte, Denisia Bommarito, Elisa Zambaiti, Vincenzo Antona, Giuseppe Li Voti
OBJECTIVE: To highlight genetic pattern of posterior urethral valves (PUVs), we performed a genetic study on 2 siblings affected. PUVs are the most common congenital cause of lower urinary tract obstruction and an important cause of renal failure in infants (50% progress to end-stage renal disease in 10 years). PUVs occur in 1 of 5000-8000 male infants, but real incidence is arduous to determine because of the wide spectrum of possible clinical presentation. A different recurrence rate is reported in African Americans and children with Down syndrome, although usually PUVs are not found in syndromic conditions but constitute an isolated disorder...
September 2016: Urology
Jitendra P Parmar, Chander Mohan, Maulik P Vora
BACKGROUND: Urethral valves are infravesical congenital anomalies, with the posterior urethral valve (PUV) being the most prevalent one. Anterior urethral valve (AUV) is a rare but a well-known congenital anomaly. AUV and diverticula can cause severe obstruction, whose repercussions on the proximal urinary system can be important. Few cases have been described; both separately and in association with urethral diverticulum. The presentation of such a rare but important case led us to a report with highlighting its classic imaging features...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
L Hua, R J Linke, H A P Boucaut, S Khurana
BACKGROUND: Micturating cystourethrograms (MCUG) are the gold standard for evaluating vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). There is a growing consensus for increasing the threshold for performing MCUGs following urinary tract infections (UTI) in children. There are several varying guidelines. It is important to detect high-grade reflux in the setting of an UTI because of potential long-term complications. OBJECTIVE: This audit aimed to retrospectively: (1) identify the conformance rate of local guidelines at the Women's and Children's Hospital (WCH); (2) assess predictors for an abnormal MCUG; and (3) compare local guidelines against the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne (RCH), National Institute for Healthcare and Excellence (NICE), and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for selectively detecting high-grade reflux...
April 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
A Faure, A Bouty, G Caruana, L Williams, T Burgess, M N Wong, P A James, M O'Brien, A Walker, J F Bertram, Y Heloury
INTRODUCTION: Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are among the most common urological causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood. Recently, genomic imbalances have been cited as potential risk factors for altered kidney function and have been associated with CKD. The phenotypic effects of a copy number variant (CNV) in boys with PUV are unknown. Here, it was hypothesised that the progression to early renal failure in PUV patients may be influenced by genetic aberrations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between CNVs and renal outcomes...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Xiaoxia Qu, Jian Yang, Shaodong Ma, Tingzhu Bai, Wilfried Philips
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of epilepsy and can be automatically detected via magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, visual detection of lesions is time consuming and highly dependent on the doctor's personal knowledge and experience. In this paper, we propose a new framework for positive unanimous voting (PUV) to detect FCD lesions. Maps of gray matter thickness, gradient, relative intensity, and gray/white matter width are computed in the proposed framework to enhance the differences between lesional and non-lesional regions...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Jeremy Wong, Vishal Punwani, Christopher Lai, Jessalynn Chia, John M Hutson
BACKGROUND/AIM: Undescended testis (UDT) occurs in ~2 % of newborn males, and occasionally these infants also have posterior urethral valve (PUV). The cause of this relationship is uncertain. We aimed to review the literature to identify publications documenting co-occurrence of UDT and PUV, and to summarise the theories of co-occurrence. METHODS: A search of the literature (Embase, Medline, Pubmed; 1947-2015) was undertaken to identify publications describing the link between UDT in PUV patients, as well as PUV in UDT patients...
May 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Rakan Odeh, Damien Noone, Paul R Bowlin, Luis H P Braga, Armando J Lorenzo
PURPOSE: There is paucity of validated objective early imaging markers to help predict future renal deterioration in infants with posterior urethral valves. We evaluated the prognostic value of total renal parenchymal area, renal echogenicity and corticomedullary differentiation regarding future development of chronic kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed initial postnatal ultrasonographic images from serial posterior urethral valve cases seen at a single tertiary referral center using National Institutes of Health sponsored image processing software...
September 2016: Journal of Urology
Melissa McGrath, Amar A A Alnaqi, Luis H Braga
Although anorectal malformations are often associated with urinary tract abnormalities, the association with posterior urethral valves is exceptionally rare. We report a unique case of a premature (35 gestational weeks) male neonate born with posterior urethral valves, bilateral dysplastic kidneys, and imperforate anus, successfully treated by Blocksom vesicostomy and left upper quadrant loop colostomy. The challenges involving placement of both stomas in a small abdominal wall of a 2200 g premature neonate are discussed...
July 2016: Urology
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