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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656369/seeking-for-the-definition-of-culture-current-concerns-and-their-implications-a-comment-on-gustav-jahoda-s-article-critical-reflections-on-some-recent-definitions-of-culture
#1
Irina A Mironenko, Pavel S Sorokin
This article takes as a starting point the critical analysis of attempts to define "culture", offered by Jahoda in 2012. Basing on the observed proliferation of various, often contradicting, definitions of "culture" (for instance, trying to refer to its both internal and external aspects), Jahoda arrives at the conclusion that attempts to define the concept of "culture" are vain and useless and it is quite practicable simply to use the term without seeking to define it. We find it hard to agree with this statement...
April 14, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655519/much-ado-about-mice-standard-setting-in-model-organism-research
#2
Rebecca A Hardesty
Recently there has been a practice turn in the philosophy of science that has called for analyses to be grounded in the actual doings of everyday science. This paper is in furtherance of this call and it does so by employing participant-observation ethnographic methods as a tool for discovering epistemological features of scientific practice in a neuroscience lab. The case I present focuses on a group of neurobiologists researching the genetic underpinnings of cognition in Down syndrome (DS) and how they have developed a new mouse model which they argue should be regarded as the "gold standard" for all DS mouse research...
April 11, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649220/statistical-reporting-inconsistencies-in-experimental-philosophy
#3
Matteo Colombo, Georgi Duev, Michèle B Nuijten, Jan Sprenger
Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of this question, namely the rate of inconsistencies in statistical reporting...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644105/drawing-method-can-improve-musculoskeletal-anatomy-comprehension-in-medical-faculty-student
#4
Muliani Joewono, I Nyoman Mangku Karmaya, Gede Wirata, Yuliana, I Gusti Ayu Widianti, I Nyoman Gede Wardana
The Chinese philosophy of Confucianism said "What I heard I forgot, what I see, I remember, what I do, I understand." During this time, most of the teaching and learning process relies on viewing and listening modalities only. As a result, much information does not last long in memory as well as the material understanding achieves became less deep. In studying anatomy science, drawing is one of effective important methods because it is an integration of ideas and knowledge of vision thereby increasing comprehension and learning motivation of college students...
March 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629188/lessons-from-a-broad-view-of-science-a-response-to-dr-robergs-article
#5
Flavio Oliveira Pires
Dr Robergs suggested that the central governor model (CGM) is not a well-worded theory, as it deviated from the tenant of falsification criteria. According to his view of science, exercise researches with the intent to prove rather than disprove the theory contribute little to new knowledge and condemn the theory to the label of pseudoscience. However, exercise scientists should be aware of limitations of the falsification criteria. First, the number of potential falsifiers for a given hypothesis is always infinite so that there is no mean to ensure asymmetric comparison between theories...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629066/the-challenges-of-clinical-education-in-a-baccalaureate-surgical-technology-students-in-iran-a-qualitative-study
#6
Roghayeh Zardosht, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Mohammad Etezad Razavi, Soleiman Ahmady
Background: Clinical education is an integral part of the surgical technology curriculum, in which students combine and integrate knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and philosophies of the profession. It is difficult to learn and adapt to different types of skills and roles in the operating room environment. Objective: This qualitative study examines the difference between the clinical education of Surgical Technology and other clinical settings, and the challenges faced by students in the field, within the course...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614351/revisiting-norms-of-assertion
#7
John Turri
A principal conclusion supported by convergent evidence from cognitive science, life science, and philosophy is that knowledge is a central norm of assertion-that is, according to the rules of the practice, assertions should express knowledge. That view has recently been challenged with new experiments. This paper identifies a critical confound in the experiments. In the process, a new study is reported that provides additional support for the view that knowledge is a central norm of assertion.
March 31, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578649/assessing-the-impact-of-the-graduate-certificate-in-anatomical-sciences-instruction-a-post-degree-survey
#8
April Richardson-Hatcher, Brian MacPherson, Douglas Gould, Jennifer Brueckner-Collins
There are few graduate programs available for pursuing a doctorate in anatomy where students gain specific training in gross anatomy dissection and the responsibilities of a medical educator. In light of this fact, the University of Kentucky created a Graduate Certificate in Anatomical Sciences Instruction in 2006. This 12-credit hour curriculum includes detailed training in gross anatomy and/or neuroscience courses, practicum experiences, a seminar class in pedagogical literature, and a course in educational strategies for the anatomical sciences...
March 26, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566614/love-and-responsibility-a-new-understanding-of-leadership
#9
Berit Foss, Katie Eriksson, Dagfinn Nåden
The purpose of the study is to investigate the importance of substance for the disclosure of ontological evidence. The methodology is inspired by Gadamer's hermeneutic philosophy and involves clinical application research using a deductive approach. This means that leaders in a clinical context were taught and participated in a discussion about a theoretical model of leadership with caring science and ontological substance. The result shows that the leaders' attention and focus were primarily directed toward administration, finances, and outer structures...
April 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542393/reflections-on-jackson-katz-and-the-mvp-program
#10
Elizabeth Wilmerding, Mari Knuth-Bouracee, Jeffrey L Edleson
This article offers reflections on the article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model" by Jackson Katz in this issue of Violence Against Women. The authors rely on their unique perspectives in varying roles at the University of California (UC) Berkeley, as well as on relevant social science and social justice research. The article explores five themes of violence prevention and anti-oppression work: leadership, social justice, gender identity, issues of identity and status, and diffusion of innovation...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515480/hypernatural-monitoring-a-social-rehearsal-account-of-smartphone-addiction
#11
Samuel P L Veissière, Moriah Stendel
We present a deflationary account of smartphone addiction by situating this purportedly antisocial phenomenon within the fundamentally social dispositions of our species. While we agree with contemporary critics that the hyper-connectedness and unpredictable rewards of mobile technology can modulate negative affect, we propose to place the locus of addiction on an evolutionarily older mechanism: the human need to monitor and be monitored by others. Drawing from key findings in evolutionary anthropology and the cognitive science of religion, we articulate a hypernatural monitoring model of smartphone addiction grounded in a general social rehearsal theory of human cognition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504485/framing-the-mind-body-problem-in-contemporary-neuroscientific-and-sunni-islamic-theological-discourse
#12
Faisal Qazi, Don Fette, Syed S Jafri, Aasim I Padela
Famously posed by seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes, the mind-body problem remains unresolved in western philosophy and science, with both disciplines unable to move convincingly beyond the dualistic model. The persistence of dualism calls for a reframing of the problem through interdisciplinary modes of inquiry that include non-western points of view. One such perspective is Islamic theology of the soul, which, while approaching the problem from a distinct point of view, also adopts a position commensurate with (substance) dualism...
March 5, 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502787/suffering-the-darker-side-of-ageing
#13
Chris Gilleard
Much of the literature on ageing is presaged upon a model of advocacy that seeks to combat what is seen as the negative stereotyping of old age and old people. One consequence is that ageing studies has difficulty in confronting the darker side of ageing except in so far as age associated disability and distress can be attributed to extrinsic disadvantage, such as low income, poor housing and inadequate services. The pain and suffering associated with age itself tend to be neglected as subject experiences. This paper seeks to shed some light on these topics, considered under the general heading of 'suffering'...
March 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498174/the-mind-brain-gap-and-the-neuroscience-psychiatry-gap
#14
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489632/temporal-immediacy-a-two-system-theory-of-mind-for-understanding-and-changing-health-behaviors
#15
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Blaine Reeder, Sara Horton-Deutsch, Nancy K Lowe, Paula Meek
BACKGROUND: Health promotion and chronic disease management both require behavior change, but people find it hard to change behavior despite having good intentions. The problem arises because patients' narratives about experiences and intentions are filtered through memory and language. These narratives inaccurately reflect intuitive decision-making or actual behaviors. OBJECTIVES: We propose a principle-temporal immediacy-as a moderator variable that explains which of two mental systems (narrative or intuitive) will be activated in any given situation...
March 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485621/interoperable-and-accessible-census-and-survey-data-from-ipums
#16
Tracy A Kugler, Catherine A Fitch
The first version of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) was released to users in 1993, and since that time IPUMS has come to stand for interoperable and accessible census and survey data. Initially created to harmonize U.S. census microdata over time, IPUMS now includes microdata from the U.S. and international censuses and from surveys on health, employment, and other topics. IPUMS also provides geo-spatial data, aggregate population data, and environmental data. IPUMS supports ten data products, each disseminating an integrated data collection with a set of tools that make complex data easy to find, access, and use...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480783/psychodynamic-psychiatry-in-the-21st-century-constructing-a-comprehensive-science-of-experience
#17
Yakov Shapiro
Psychodynamic psychiatry is not limited to psychotherapy practice. It is defined by systematic attention to the "common factors" underlying both psychotherapy and psychopharmacology outcomes, which include the patient's subjective systems of meaning and the complex flow of the patient-provider relationship in addition to the patient's "objective" psychopathology. It allows for a non-reductionist milieu where the meaning of the illness and the full complexity of the treatment process can be explored in order to achieve a qualitative and lasting change in the patient's psychopathology...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473367/-the-relationship-between-acupuncture-moxibustion-theory-of-dou-hanqing-and-neo-confucianism
#18
Baojin Li, Longxiang Huang
For the construction factors of acupuncture-moxibustion theory of DOU Hanqing , a doctor in Jin-Yuan Dynasty, we studied his life, acupuncture-moxibustion theory and culture background in the History of Medicine and Philosophy of Science & Technology. It was found that the major source of DOU Hanqing ' s Confucianism was the CHENG - ZHU Neo-Confucianism. The data show that Neo-Confucianism played an important role in the enrichment of his human nature, spirit, moral cultivation and political talent, making him a scholar in the Jin - Yuan dynasty, also shaping his medical ethics, medical skill and acupuncture-moxibustion theory...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463966/thriving-for-110-years-national-s-philosophy-of-collaboration-and-integration
#19
REVIEW
Kenneth J Dougherty
The National University of Health Sciences celebrated its 110th year in 2016. This article is an edited transcription of the presentation made by Dr Kenneth J. Dougherty, Chair of the Board of Trustees, at the National University of Health Sciences Homecoming reception on June 18, 2016, in Lombard, IL.
December 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462649/the-roles-of-the-analogy-with-natural-selection-in-b-f-skinner-s-philosophy
#20
Terry L Smith
Beginning in the 1950s, B. F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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