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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934888/qsar-what-else
#1
Giuseppina Gini
QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) is a method for predicting the physical and biological properties of small molecules; it is today in large use in companies and public services. However, as any scientific method, it is nowadays challenged by more and more requests, especially considering its possible role in assessing the safety of new chemicals. Posing the question whether QSAR is a way not only to exploit available knowledge but also to build new knowledge, we shortly review QSAR history, thus searching for a QSAR epistemology...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914996/a-peircean-account-of-concepts-grounding-abstraction-in-phylogeny-through-a-comparative-neuroscientific-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Valentina Cuccio, Vittorio Gallese
The nature of concepts has always been a hotly debated topic in both philosophy and psychology and, more recently, also in cognitive neuroscience. Different accounts have been proposed of what concepts are. These accounts reflect deeply different conceptions of how the human mind works. In the last decades, two diametrically opposed theories of human cognition have been discussed and empirically investigated: the Computational Theory of Mind, on the one hand (Fodor 1983 The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology ; Pylyshyn 1984 Computation and cognition: toward a foundation for cognitive science ), and Embodied Cognition (Barsalou 2008 Annu...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911318/generalized-information-theory-meets-human-cognition-introducing-a-unified-framework-to-model-uncertainty-and-information-search
#3
Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani, Katya Tentori
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof...
June 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904535/clips-communication-learning-in-practice-for-scientists-a-new-online-resource-leverages-assessment-to-help-students-and-academics-improve-science-communication
#4
Susan Rowland, James Hardy, Kay Colthorpe, Rhianna Pedwell, Louise Kuchel
The ability to communicate is a crucial graduate outcome for science students; however, crowded curricula and large class sizes make it difficult to find time to explicitly teach foundational communication skills. In response to these challenges, we developed an online resource called Communication Learning in Practice for Scientists, or CLIPS. CLIPS provides a multi-point mentoring model that has allowed us to successfully integrate the teaching and learning of a complex set of tacitly-understood skills across multiple scientific disciplines...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887616/fundamentals-required-for-foundation-of-a-noteworthy-phd-in-biomedical-sciences-from-pakistan
#5
Sina Aziz, Maria Khan
There are only a few Doctors of Philosophy (PhDs) in Biomedical Sciences from Pakistan and there are a number of misconceptions in our country regarding them. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding the existence of available programmes or a lack of will or interest in acquiring such a degree. While several PhD programmes exist all over the world, such programmes are lacking in our region even though the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is trying to promote PhD through multiple means and resources...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857798/inductive-reasoning-in-the-context-of-discovery-analogy-as-an-experimental-stratagem-in-the-history-and-philosophy-of-science
#6
Amy A Fisher
Building on Norton's "material theory of induction," this paper shows through careful historical analysis that analogy can act as a methodological principle or stratagem, providing experimentalists with a useful framework to assess data and devise novel experiments. Although this particular case study focuses on late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century experiments on the properties and composition of acids, the results of this investigation may be extended and applied to other research programs...
June 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809308/unity-of-consciousness
#7
REVIEW
Christopher S Hill
Although there is much talk in various literatures of streams of consciousness, and most of us have an intuitive understanding of such talk, we are far from having a full grasp of what it is that unifies streams of consciousness, binding together the individual experiences that serve as their constituents. In recent years, discussion of this topic has been principally concerned with synchronic unity of consciousness-the form of unity that is exhibited by momentary states of consciousness, or in other words, by time slices or temporal segments of streams...
May 29, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799154/what-is-the-guidelines-challenge-the-causehealth-perspective
#8
Rani Lill Anjum
This paper is an introduction to the conference, The Guidelines Challenge, held in Oxford in October 2017. My aim is to explain our motivation for organising this conference, as part of the research project Causation, Complexity, and Evidence in Health Sciences (CauseHealth). Depending on the professional starting point, the guidelines challenge can be interpreted in a number of ways. Our idea with this conference was to discuss guidelines from 3 overarching perspectives: practice, policy, and philosophy. In particular, we wanted to discuss some of the challenges that face anyone developing and implementing clinical guidelines in the evidence-based era of medicine...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799092/how-to-never-be-wrong
#9
Samuel J Gershman
Human beliefs have remarkable robustness in the face of disconfirmation. This robustness is often explained as the product of heuristics or motivated reasoning. However, robustness can also arise from purely rational principles when the reasoner has recourse to ad hoc auxiliary hypotheses. Auxiliary hypotheses primarily function as the linking assumptions connecting different beliefs to one another and to observational data, but they can also function as a "protective belt" that explains away disconfirmation by absorbing some of the blame...
May 24, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785732/the-mental-representation-of-human-action
#10
Sydney Levine, Alan M Leslie, John Mikhail
Various theories of moral cognition posit that moral intuitions can be understood as the output of a computational process performed over structured mental representations of human action. We propose that action plan diagrams-"act trees"-can be a useful tool for theorists to succinctly and clearly present their hypotheses about the information contained in these representations. We then develop a methodology for using a series of linguistic probes to test the theories embodied in the act trees. In Study 1, we validate the method by testing a specific hypothesis (diagrammed by act trees) about how subjects are representing two classic moral dilemmas and finding that the data support the hypothesis...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765565/the-rediscovery-of-the-social-side-of-medicine-philosophy-and-value-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#12
EDITORIAL
Wolfgang Seger
Medicine is at risk of sliding into a sole repair service for the malfunction of organs. But the patients' hope and confidence towards doctors practicing this repair work go far beyond that: after acute medical treatment many patients suffer from chronic impairments due to the natural course of the disease or as a result of medical interventions. Despite resulting handicaps, patients aim at participating in family and social life, retaining a workplace and receiving support to remain a valued member of the family and the community...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751223/employability-and-career-experiences-of-international-graduates-of-msc-public-health-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
C Buunaaisie, A M Manyara, H Annett, E L Bird, I Bray, J Ige, M Jones, J Orme, P Pilkington, D Evans
OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the public health career experiences of international graduates of a Master of Science in Public Health (MSc PH) programme and to contribute to developing the evidence base on international public health workforce capacity development. STUDY DESIGN: A sequential mixed methods study was conducted between January 2017 and April 2017. METHODS: Ninety-seven international graduates of one UK university's MSc PH programme were invited to take part in an online survey followed by semistructured interviews, for respondents who consented to be interviewed...
May 8, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727520/the-mind-body-problem
#14
REVIEW
Bryan Chambliss
The mind-body problem is the problem of explaining how the happenings of our mental lives are related to physical states, events and processes. Proposed solutions to the problem vary by whether and how they endorse physicalism, the claim that mental states are ultimately "nothing over and above" physical states, and by how they understand the interactions between mental and physical states. Physicalist solutions to the mind-body problem have been dominant in the last century, with the variety of physicalism endorsed (reductive or nonreductive) depending upon both the outcome of philosophical arguments and methodological developments in the cognitive and neural sciences...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726441/how-to-measure-physical-motion-and-the-impact-of-individualized-feedback-in-the-field-of-rehabilitation-of-geriatric-trauma-patients
#15
Amelie Altenbuchner, Sonja Haug, Rainer Kretschmer, Karsten Weber
BACKGROUND: This preparatory study accelerates an implementation of individualized monitoring and feedback of physical motion using conventional motion trackers in the rehabilitation process of geriatric trauma patients. Regaining mobility is accompanied with improved quality of life in persons of very advanced age recovering from fragility fractures. OBJECTIVES: Quantitative survey of regaining physical mobility provides recommendations for action on how to use motion trackers effectively in a clinical geriatric setting...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685841/history-of-plastic-surgery-art-philosophy-and-rhinoplasty
#16
REVIEW
Valdas Macionis
The 200th anniversary of K. F. Graefe's "Rhinoplasty," E. Zeis' naming of the specialty of plastic surgery in 1838, and the continuing discussion on what is plastic surgery have prompted this historical-conceptual review with a semantic insight into the meaning of the word "plastic." A literature search has revealed that this term contains dual aspects: artistic and philosophical. The progressive development of these two connotations can be traced from their origin in the ceramics and the myths of ancient Greeks to their metamorphoses in fine arts, science, and philosophy of plasticity of the modern day...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673378/are-randomised-controlled-trials-positivist-reviewing-the-social-science-and-philosophy-literature-to-assess-positivist-tendencies-of-trials-of-social-interventions-in-public-health-and-health-services
#17
Chris Bonell, Graham Moore, Emily Warren, Laurence Moore
BACKGROUND: We have previously proposed that trials of social interventions can be done within a "realist" research paradigm. Critics have countered that such trials are irredeemably positivist and asked us to explain our philosophical position. METHODS: We set out to explore what is meant by positivism and whether trials adhere to its tenets (of necessity or in practice) via a narrative literature review of social science and philosophical discussions of positivism, and of the trials literature and three case studies of trials...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656369/seeking-for-the-definition-of-culture-current-concerns-and-their-implications-a-comment-on-gustav-jahoda-s-article-critical-reflections-on-some-recent-definitions-of-culture
#18
Irina A Mironenko, Pavel S Sorokin
This article takes as a starting point the critical analysis of attempts to define "culture", offered by Jahoda in 2012. Basing on the observed proliferation of various, often contradicting, definitions of "culture" (for instance, trying to refer to its both internal and external aspects), Jahoda arrives at the conclusion that attempts to define the concept of "culture" are vain and useless and it is quite practicable simply to use the term without seeking to define it. We find it hard to agree with this statement...
June 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655519/much-ado-about-mice-standard-setting-in-model-organism-research
#19
Rebecca A Hardesty
Recently there has been a practice turn in the philosophy of science that has called for analyses to be grounded in the actual doings of everyday science. This paper is in furtherance of this call and it does so by employing participant-observation ethnographic methods as a tool for discovering epistemological features of scientific practice in a neuroscience lab. The case I present focuses on a group of neurobiologists researching the genetic underpinnings of cognition in Down syndrome (DS) and how they have developed a new mouse model which they argue should be regarded as the "gold standard" for all DS mouse research...
April 11, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649220/statistical-reporting-inconsistencies-in-experimental-philosophy
#20
Matteo Colombo, Georgi Duev, Michèle B Nuijten, Jan Sprenger
Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of this question, namely the rate of inconsistencies in statistical reporting...
2018: PloS One
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