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Philosophy of science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818635/linking-the-tao-biomathics-and-information-through-the-logic-of-energy
#1
REVIEW
Joseph E Brenner
The knowledge accumulated in West and East is incomplete in different ways. The mainstream Western approach has contributed the basis for modern science, but indications have appeared in the Western literature that something has been missing in it that Eastern thought could offer. This paper explores the similarities and differences between Eastern and Western approaches to knowledge and whether a trend exists toward their conjunction or convergence. I suggest that a process of conjunction of these different modes of exploration of what the concepts of 'Life and Mind' really entail, at the interface of philosophy and science, is taking place in the areas of information and biomathics...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812979/truth-in-research-labelling
#2
John H Noble
This report describes the background and context of a currently circulating petition to the US Congress that seeks amendment of Section 801 of the Public Health Services Act (42 U.S.C. 282) to close a loophole in existing law which makes possible post hoc adjustment of randomised controlled trial (RCT) results reported to the Food and Drug Administration that differ from those reported to ClinicalTrials.gov and to medical journals. The report describes the petition's rationale, underlying assumptions, and support for its proposed remedy in deontological, consequentialist, and casuist philosophical ethics theories...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807466/midwives-being-with-woman-an-integrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Zoe Bradfield, Ravani Duggan, Yvonne Hauck, Michelle Kelly
BACKGROUND: Midwives being 'with woman' is embedded in professional philosophy, standards of practice and partnerships with women. In light of the centrality of being 'with woman' to the profession of midwifery, it is timely to review the literature to gain a contemporary understanding of this phenomenon. AIM: This review synthesises research and theoretical literature to report on what is known and published about being 'with woman'. METHODS: A five step framework for conducting an integrative literature reviews was employed...
August 11, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799478/researching-health-care-as-a-meaningful-practice-toward-a-nondualistic-view-on-evidence-for-qualitative-research
#4
Els van Wijngaarden, Hanneke van der Meide, Karin Dahlberg
Being able to describe how research findings become evidence is crucial in providing a justification for all kinds of research findings. However, qualitative researchers in health care, including those who conduct phenomenological research, are usually fairly modest when it comes qualifying their research findings as such. We advocate a view of evidence for phenomenological research, an approach that is rooted in philosophy of science, including perspectives of ontology, epistemology, and methodology. We suggest that phenomenology can become an exemplar for how qualitative research can make convincing arguments and thus can be better appreciated...
September 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#5
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795918/the-role-of-implementation-science-training-in-global-health-from-the-perspective-of-graduates-of-the-field-s-first-dedicated-doctoral-program
#6
Arianna R Means, David E Phillips, Grégoire Lurton, Anne Njoroge, Sabine M Furere, Rong Liu, Wisal M Hassan, Xiaochen Dai, Orvalho Augusto, Peter Cherutich, Gloria Ikilezi, Caroline Soi, Dong Roman Xu, Christopher G Kemp
Bridging the 'know-do gap' is an enormous challenge for global health practitioners. They must be able to understand local health dynamics within the operational and social contexts that engender them, test and adjust approaches to implementation in collaboration with communities and stakeholders, interpret data to inform policy decisions, and design adaptive and resilient health systems at scale. These skills and methods have been formalized within the nascent field of Implementation Science (IS). As graduates of the world's first PhD program dedicated explicitly to IS, we have a unique perspective on the value of IS and the training, knowledge, and skills essential to bridging the 'know-do gap'...
December 2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793239/ghosts-in-machine-learning-for-cognitive-neuroscience-moving-from-data-to-theory
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Carlson, Erin Goddard, David M Kaplan, Colin Klein, J Brendan Ritchie
The application of machine learning methods to neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered the field of cognitive neuroscience. Future progress in understanding brain function using these methods will require addressing a number of key methodological and interpretive challenges. Because these challenges often remain unseen and metaphorically "haunt" our efforts to use these methods to understand the brain, we refer to them as "ghosts". In this paper, we describe three such ghosts, situate them within a more general framework from philosophy of science, and then describe steps to address them...
August 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770878/who-teaches-science-to-nurses
#8
Naghma Rizvi
OBJECTIVE: To explore the demographics of individuals teaching basic science courses in private nursing schools. METHODS: The study was conducted in Karachi, and comprised teachers teaching basic science courses in 16 registered private nursing schools. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect data. The study was conducted in the year 2013. RESULTS: Teachers holding academic/professional degrees in different science disciplines were involved in teaching science to nurses...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752439/psychometrics-in-action-science-as-practice
#9
Jacob Pearce
Practitioners in health sciences education and assessment regularly use a range of psychometric techniques to analyse data, evaluate models, and make crucial progression decisions regarding student learning. However, a recent editorial entitled "Is Psychometrics Science" highlighted some core epistemological and practical problems in psychometrics, and brought its legitimacy into question. This paper attempts to address these issues by applying some key ideas from history and philosophy of science (HPS) discourse...
July 27, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750250/philosophical-and-theoretical-content-of-the-nursing-discipline-in-academic-education-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis
#10
REVIEW
Maria Luisa Rega, Fabia Telaretti, Rosaria Alvaro, Mari Kangasniemi
BACKGROUND: Nursing as clinical practice, management and research are based on nursing philosophy and theory. Thus, the philosophical and theoretical content is required to be incorporated in academic education in order to enable nurses' skills for reflection, analysis, and thinking about the profession. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to describe what is known of the philosophical and theoretical content of the nursing discipline within academic education...
July 13, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742499/how-should-novelty-be-valued-in-science
#11
Barak A Cohen
Scientists are under increasing pressure to do "novel" research. Here I explore whether there are risks to overemphasizing novelty when deciding what constitutes good science. I review studies from the philosophy of science to help understand how important an explicit emphasis on novelty might be for scientific progress. I also review studies from the sociology of science to anticipate how emphasizing novelty might impact the structure and function of the scientific community. I conclude that placing too much value on novelty could have counterproductive effects on both the rate of progress in science and the organization of the scientific community...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741165/history-and-conceptual-developments-in-vascular-biology-and-angiogenesis-research-a-personal-view
#12
REVIEW
Andreas Bikfalvi
Vascular biology is an important scientific domain that has gradually penetrated many medical and scientific fields. Scientists are most often focused on present problems in their daily scientific work and lack awareness regarding the evolution of their domain throughout history and of how philosophical issues are related to their research field. In this article, I provide a personal view with an attempt to conceptualize vascular development research that articulates lessons taken from history, philosophy, biology and medicine...
July 24, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712352/national-overview-of-medication-assisted-treatment-for-american-indians-and-alaska-natives-with-substance-use-disorders
#13
Traci Rieckmann, Laurie Moore, Calvin Croy, Gregory A Aarons, Douglas K Novins
OBJECTIVE: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience higher rates of substance use disorders and less access to high-quality care compared with other racial-ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to better understand the use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of substance use disorders for AI/ANs and barriers to broader implementation. METHODS: Representatives of 192 substance abuse treatment programs completed a survey about their use of MAT...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707863/science-and-russian-orthodox-scholarship
#14
COMMENT
Karl Hall, Dimitri Bayuk
In Russia the theme of science and religion found its strongest resonance at the levels of humanistic scholarship and Christianity in general, where visions of harmony dominated and doctrinal and confessional particularity was largely absent. The fraught relations of both the Holy Synod and the Imperial Academy of Sciences with the Russian state since the early eighteenth century had the collateral consequence of minimal institutional contacts between theology and natural philosophy. Though “scientific apologetics” eventually found a place in the seminaries, scientists did not contribute to this scholarship in the nineteenth century...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702783/origins-of-life-research-a-bibliometric-approach
#15
Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Zehra Taşkın
This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wȁchtershȁuser 1988, etc...
July 13, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690694/impact-of-co-investigators-on-pharmacy-resident-research-publication
#16
Paul M Stranges, Scott M Vouri
OBJECTIVE: To explore influences of co-investigators on the successful publication of a pharmacy residency project. METHODS: We analyzed published and non-published research presented at a regional pharmacy conference. Abstracts were matched 1:1 based on state and abstract year. We assessed university affiliation, number, degree, and H-Index of co-investigators on the abstract. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to identify variables associated with resident publication...
April 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686980/whewell-on-classification-and-consilience
#17
Aleta Quinn
In this paper I sketch William Whewell's attempts to impose order on classificatory mineralogy, which was in Whewell's day (1794-1866) a confused science of uncertain prospects. Whewell argued that progress was impeded by the crude reductionist assumption that all macroproperties of crystals could be straightforwardly explained by reference to the crystals' chemical constituents. By comparison with biological classification, Whewell proposed methodological reforms that he claimed would lead to a natural classification of minerals, which in turn would support advances in causal understanding of the properties of minerals...
July 4, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674299/introduction-interprofessional-education-ipe-and-pharmaceutical-education-saitama-interprofessional-education-project
#18
Osamu Hosoya
 In 2002, the Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE) defined interprofessional education (IPE) as: Interprofessional Education occurs when two or more professions learn with, from, and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care. Since 2005, also in Japan, IPE has been introduced within educational institutions to train professionals in healthcare and welfare. Within pharmaceutical education, to acquire the "10 qualities required for pharmacists" indicated by revised model core curricula for pharmaceutical education in 2015, IPE is thought quite important...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670279/innovating-chinese-herbal-medicine-from-traditional-health-practice-to-scientific-drug-discovery
#19
Shuo Gu, Jianfeng Pei
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669794/climate-science-truth-and-democracy
#20
Evelyn Fox Keller
This essay was written almost ten years ago when the urgency of America's failure as a nation to respond to the threats of climate change first came to preoccupy me. Although the essay was never published in full, I circulated it informally in an attempt to provoke a more public engagement among my colleagues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. In particular, it was written in almost direct response to Philip Kitcher's own book, Science, Truth and Democracy (2001), in an attempt to clarify what was special about Climate Science in its relation to truth and democracy...
June 29, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
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