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Philosophy of science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030836/quantitative-perspectives-on-fifty-years-of-the-journal-of-the-history-of-biology
#1
B R Erick Peirson, Erin Bottino, Julia L Damerow, Manfred D Laubichler
Journal of the History of Biology provides a fifty-year long record for examining the evolution of the history of biology as a scholarly discipline. In this paper, we present a new dataset and preliminary quantitative analysis of the thematic content of JHB from the perspectives of geography, organisms, and thematic fields. The geographic diversity of authors whose work appears in JHB has increased steadily since 1968, but the geographic coverage of the content of JHB articles remains strongly lopsided toward the United States, United Kingdom, and western Europe and has diversified much less dramatically over time...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030730/introduction-eric-davidson-and-the-molecular-biology-of-evolution-and-development
#2
EDITORIAL
Michel Morange, Ute Deichmann
Between November 30th and December 2nd, 2015, the Jacques Loeb Centre for the History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer Sheva (Israel) held its Eighth International Workshop under the title "From Genome to Gene: Causality, Synthesis and Evolution". Eric Davidson, the founder of the concept of developmental Gene Regulatory Networks, had regularly attended the previous meetings, and his participation in this one was expected, but he suddenly passed away 3 months before...
October 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021907/lessons-from-popper-for-science-paradigm-shifts-scientific-revolutions-and-exercise-physiology
#3
REVIEW
Robert Andrew Robergs
A connection has been made to the possible role of the central governor model (CGM) to be a paradigm shift within the exercise sciences. Unfortunately, very little evidence was presented to support this notion, and a narrow view of scientific philosophy was used to reflect on the role of the CGM in understanding exercise physiology and the pursuit of a more ideal scientific method. When contrasting the scientific philosophies of Kuhn to Popper, and applying the tenant of falsification to the research and commentary on the CGM, it is probable that the scholarship pertaining to the CGM adheres more to pseudoscience than science...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960759/philosophical-determinants-of-obesity-as-a-disease
#4
REVIEW
D Kilov, G Kilov
Is obesity a disease? Much ink has been spilled over this debate and for good reasons. The global prevalence of obesity has more than doubled since the 1980s and is now of pandemic proportions. Whether obesity is a disease has consequences for what kind of treatments are appropriate, as well as how we ought to allocate funding and access to healthcare resources. In most cases, there is no dispute over the medical facts, yet disagreement persists. This is because whether obesity is a disease is not determined by medical facts alone; the issue is, in part, conceptual...
September 29, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943341/a-causal-framework-for-integrating-contemporary-and-vedic-holism
#5
REVIEW
John Kineman
Whereas the last Century of science was characterized by epistemological uncertainty; the current Century will likely be characterized by ontological complexity (Gorban and Yablonsky, 2013). Advances in Systems Theory by mathematical biologist Robert Rosen suggest an elegant way forward (Rosen, 2013). "R-theory" (Kineman, 2012) is a synthesis of Rosen's theories explaining complexity and life in terms of a meta-model for 'whole' systems (and their fractions) in terms of "5(th)-order holons". Such holons are Rosen modeling relations relating system-dependent processes with their formative contexts via closed cycles of four archetypal (Aristotelian) causes...
September 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940657/futurism-in-nursing-technology-robotics-and-the-fundamentals-of-care
#6
Mandy M Archibald, Alan Barnard
AIMS: To explore the concept of futurism and the emergence of robotics in relation to the fundamentals of care, highlighting how nurses need a more anticipatory and contemporary position towards technology to maintain relevance in the future. BACKGROUND: The future of nursing in Western countries will soon be linked with the emergence of robotics for efficient and cost effective provision of fundamental care. Their emergence and roles with care of the body and more broadly assisting people with their daily living activities has enormous implications for the profession and health care...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939326/peircean-cosmogony-s-symbolic-agapistic-self-organization-as-an-example-of-the-influence-of-eastern-philosophy-on-western-thinking
#7
REVIEW
Søren Brier
Charles S. Peirce developed a process philosophy featuring a non-theistic agapistic evolution from nothingness. It is an Eastern inspired alternative to the Western mechanical ontology of classical science also by the American transcendentalists. Advaitism and Buddhism are the two most important Eastern philosophical traditions that encompass scientific knowledge and the idea of spontaneous evolutionary development. This article attempts to show how Peirce's non-mechanical triadic semiotic process theory can embrace the quantum field view better than the mechanical and information views in a theory of the emergence of consciousness...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928679/determinants-of-judgments-of-explanatory-power-credibility-generality-and-statistical-relevance
#8
Matteo Colombo, Leandra Bucher, Jan Sprenger
Explanation is a central concept in human psychology. Drawing upon philosophical theories of explanation, psychologists have recently begun to examine the relationship between explanation, probability and causality. Our study advances this growing literature at the intersection of psychology and philosophy of science by systematically investigating how judgments of explanatory power are affected by (i) the prior credibility of an explanatory hypothesis, (ii) the causal framing of the hypothesis, (iii) the perceived generalizability of the explanation, and (iv) the relation of statistical relevance between hypothesis and evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922416/multi-level-computational-methods-for-interdisciplinary-research-in-the-hathitrust-digital-library
#9
Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Katy Börner, Robert Light, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Robert Rose, Doori Rose, Jun Otsuka, David Bourget, John Lawrence, Chris Reed
We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918826/islamic-medicine-in-the-middle-ages
#10
EDITORIAL
Hawa Edriss, Brittany N Rosales, Connie Nugent, Christian Conrad, Kenneth Nugent
The Islamic culture flourished between the 9th and 13th centuries. Scholars from this era made significant contributions in mathematics, science and medicine. Caliphs and physicians built hospitals that provided universal care and the foundation for medical education. Physician-scientists made significant advances in medical care, surgery and pharmacology. Notable authorities include al-Razi (865-925 CE) who wrote the Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine), a 23-volume textbook that provided the main medical curriculum for European schools into the 14th century...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914076/integrative-review-of-the-literature-on-hispanics-and-hospice
#11
Margaret L Rising, Dena S Hassouneh, Kristin F Lutz, Chris S Lee, Pat Berry
The provision of optimal end-of-life care to Hispanics receiving hospice care requires familiarity with hospice-specific variables. For example, a preference for nondisclosure of terminal prognosis in some Hispanics is incongruous with traditional hospice practice. In addition, the Spanish word for hospice, "hospicio," has negative connotations about abandonment of loved ones. Added to cultural considerations are socioeconomic considerations. Many marginalized Hispanic individuals may experience distinct challenges when enrolling in hospice due to socioeconomic hardships relating to poverty, citizenship, and lack of insurance...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900390/genetically-driven-enhancement-of-dopaminergic-transmission-affects-moral-acceptability-in-females-but-not-in-males-a-pilot-study
#12
Silvia Pellegrini, Sara Palumbo, Caterina Iofrida, Erika Melissari, Giuseppina Rota, Veronica Mariotti, Teresa Anastasio, Andrea Manfrinati, Rino Rumiati, Lorella Lotto, Michela Sarlo, Pietro Pietrini
Moral behavior has been a key topic of debate for philosophy and psychology for a long time. In recent years, thanks to the development of novel methodologies in cognitive sciences, the question of how we make moral choices has expanded to the study of neurobiological correlates that subtend the mental processes involved in moral behavior. For instance, in vivo brain imaging studies have shown that distinct patterns of brain neural activity, associated with emotional response and cognitive processes, are involved in moral judgment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899291/ethics-and-reverence-for-the-discipline-of-nursing
#13
Constance L Milton
Healthcare disciplines, including nursing, are emerging sciences that contain discipline-specific theories that guide the activities of research, practice, and education. The term nursing science calls forth meaning that has long been accepted and referred to as the extant nursing theories undergirded with philosophy of science. Recent writings dispute the purposes and future usage of nursing theoretical frameworks in the science of nursing. The author of this article proposes new thinking about the importance of reverence and ethical implications for the future of formal inquiry in nursing science...
January 2017: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899121/unconscious-fantasy-and-the-priming-phenomenon
#14
Anne Erreich
This paper is the third in a series of investigations into (1) the nature and development of unconscious fantasy, (2) its place in a contemporary model of mind that, parenthetically, suggests a possible solution to the problem of theoretical pluralism, and (3) its mode of operation in the mind. The aim of these investigations is to update the notion of unconscious fantasy, an indispensable construct in psychoanalytic theories that assume out-of-awareness mentation, and to situate that construct within contemporary views of mental functioning in disciplines such as philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and developmental psychology...
April 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887144/sheaf-theoretic-formulation-for-consciousness-and-qualia-and-relationship-to-the-idealism-of-non-dual-philosophies
#15
REVIEW
Menas C Kafatos, Goro C Kato
Questions about the nature of reality, whether Consciousness is the fundamental reality in the universe, and what is Consciousness itself, have no answer in systems that assume an external reality independent of Consciousness. Ultimately, the ontological foundation of such systems is the absolute division of subject and object. We advocate instead what we consider to be an approach that is in agreement with the foundation of quantum reality, which is based on Rāmānuja's version of Vedanta philosophy and non-dual Kashmir Śaivism...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876995/benefits-and-challenges-of-developing-a-customized-rubric-for-curricular-review-of-a-residency-program-in-laboratory-animal-medicine
#16
Tiffany L Whitcomb, Ronald P Wilson
Rigorous curricular review of post-graduate veterinary medical residency programs is in the best interest of program directors in light of the requirements and needs of specialty colleges, graduate school administrations, and other stakeholders including prospective students and employers. Although minimum standards for training are typically provided by specialty colleges, mechanisms for evaluation are left to the discretion of program directors. The paucity of information available describing best practices for curricular assessment of veterinary medical specialty training programs makes resources from other medical fields essential to informing the assessment process...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871502/science-and-sentiment-grinnell-s-fact-based-philosophy-of-biodiversity-conservation
#17
Ayelet Shavit, James R Griesemer
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the biologist Joseph Grinnell made a distinction between science and sentiment for producing fact-based generalizations on how to conserve biodiversity. We are inspired by Grinnellian science, which successfully produced a century-long impact on studying and conserving biodiversity that runs orthogonal to some familiar philosophical distinctions such as fact versus value, emotion versus reason and basic versus applied science. According to Grinnell, unlike sentiment-based generalizations, a fact-based generalization traces its diverse commitments and thus becomes tractable for its audience...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868095/a-mechanistic-account-of-wide-computationalism
#18
Luke Kersten
The assumption that psychological states and processes are computational in character pervades much of cognitive science, what many call the computational theory of mind. In addition to occupying a central place in cognitive science, the computational theory of mind has also had a second life supporting "individualism", the view that psychological states should be taxonomized so as to supervene only on the intrinsic, physical properties of individuals. One response to individualism has been to raise the prospect of "wide computational systems", in which some computational units are instantiated outside the individual...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846587/a-history-of-the-international-commission-on-non-ionizing-radiation-protection
#19
M H Repacholi
Concern about health risks from exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) commenced in the 1950s after tracking radars were first introduced during the Second World War. Soon after, research on possible biological effects of microwave radiation in the former Soviet Union and the U.S. led to public and worker exposure limits being much lower in Eastern European than in Western countries, mainly because of different protection philosophies. As public concern increased, national authorities began introducing legislation to limit NIR exposures from domestic microwave ovens and workplace devices such as visual display units...
October 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843479/chreods-homeorhesis-and-biofields-finding-the-right-path-for-science-through-daoism
#20
REVIEW
Arran Gare
C.H. Waddington's concepts of 'chreods' (canalized paths of development) and 'homeorhesis' (the tendency to return to a path), each associated with 'morphogenetic fields', was conceived by him as a contribution to complexity theory. Subsequent developments in complexity theory have largely ignored Waddington's work and efforts to advance it. Waddington explained the development of the concept of chreod as the influence on his work of Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy, notably, the concept of concrescence as a self-causing process...
August 23, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
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