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Philosophy of science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882504/media-portrayal-of-a-landmark-neuroscience-experiment-on-free-will
#1
Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle, Veljko Dubljevic
The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet's et al.'s (Brain 106(Pt 3):623-642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted as posing a serious challenge to the existence of free will...
November 23, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882040/a-new-model-of-master-of-philosophy-in-physiological-sciences
#2
H R Ahmad, F M Arain, N A Khan
The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881854/the-neural-and-computational-bases-of-semantic-cognition
#3
Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy T Rogers
Semantic cognition refers to our ability to use, manipulate and generalize knowledge that is acquired over the lifespan to support innumerable verbal and non-verbal behaviours. This Review summarizes key findings and issues arising from a decade of research into the neurocognitive and neurocomputational underpinnings of this ability, leading to a new framework that we term controlled semantic cognition (CSC). CSC offers solutions to long-standing queries in philosophy and cognitive science, and yields a convergent framework for understanding the neural and computational bases of healthy semantic cognition and its dysfunction in brain disorders...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859520/what-are-the-true-statistics-of-the-environment
#4
Jacob Feldman
A widespread assumption in the contemporary discussion of probabilistic models of cognition, often attributed to the Bayesian program, is that inference is optimal when the observer's priors match the true priors in the world-the actual "statistics of the environment." But in fact the idea of a "true" prior plays no role in traditional Bayesian philosophy, which regards probability as a quantification of belief, not an objective characteristic of the world. In this paper I discuss the significance of the traditional Bayesian epistemic view of probability and its mismatch with the more objectivist assumptions about probability that are widely held in contemporary cognitive science...
November 10, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855575/a-demonstration-of-mixed-methods-research-in-the-health-sciences
#5
Janet Katz, Roxanne Vandermause, Sterling McPherson, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker
Background The growth of patient, community and population-centred nursing research is a rationale for the use of research methods that can examine complex healthcare issues, not only from a biophysical perspective, but also from cultural, psychosocial and political viewpoints. This need for multiple perspectives requires mixed-methods research. Philosophy and practicality are needed to plan, conduct, and make mixed-methods research more broadly accessible to the health sciences research community. The traditions and dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research makes the application of mixed methods a challenge...
November 18, 2016: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846928/the-role-of-implementation-science-training-in-global-health-from-the-perspective-of-graduates-of-the-field-s-first-dedicated-doctoral-program
#6
Arianna R Means, David E Phillips, Grégoire Lurton, Anne Njoroge, Sabine M Furere, Rong Liu, Wisal M Hassan, Xiaochen Dai, Orvalho Augusto, Peter Cherutich, Gloria Ikilezi, Caroline Soi, Dong Xu, Christopher G Kemp
Bridging the 'know-do gap' is an enormous challenge for global health practitioners. They must be able to understand local health dynamics within the operational and social contexts that engender them, test and adjust approaches to implementation in collaboration with communities and stakeholders, interpret data to inform policy decisions, and design adaptive and resilient health systems at scale. These skills and methods have been formalized within the nascent field of Implementation Science (IS). As graduates of the world's first PhD program dedicated explicitly to IS, we have a unique perspective on the value of IS and the training, knowledge, and skills essential to bridging the 'know-do gap'...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844090/-cerebrospinal-fluid-diagnostics-in-germany-since-1950-developments-in-the-gdr-and-frg-in-the-context-of-society-and-science
#7
H Reiber
The 40 years of separated development in two countries with extremely different political and social utopias allow consideration of the connection between science and society. The society-dependent development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diagnostics in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is shown in the context of the international scientific development of the post-war era with new paradigms in physics, biology and genetics. As part of this contribution to the philosophy of science the consequences of the complex life science for a new view of disease research are discussed in contrast to the currently dominating, reductionistic medical industrial complex...
November 14, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834205/rigorous-science-a-how-to-guide
#8
EDITORIAL
Arturo Casadevall, Ferric C Fang
Proposals to improve the reproducibility of biomedical research have emphasized scientific rigor. Although the word "rigor" is widely used, there has been little specific discussion as to what it means and how it can be achieved. We suggest that scientific rigor combines elements of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and ethics. We propose a framework for rigor that includes redundant experimental design, sound statistical analysis, recognition of error, avoidance of logical fallacies, and intellectual honesty...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819432/correction-to-brock-2016
#9
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "THE NEW HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" by Adrian C. Brock (History of Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Jun 27, 2016, np). There was an error in the 11th paragraph of the Lovett's Five Questions for the New Historians section. The conference paper "The "new" history of science: Implications for philosophy of science" by Rachel Laudan (1992) was wrongly attributed to her husband, Larry Laudan. All versions of this article have been corrected...
November 7, 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800706/biologist-edwin-grant-conklin-and-the-idea-of-the-religious-direction-of-human-evolution-in-the-early-1920s
#10
Alexander Pavuk
Edwin Grant Conklin, renowned US embryologist and evolutionary popularizer, publicly advocated a social vision of evolution that intertwined science and modernist Protestant theology in the early 1920s. The moral prestige of professional science in American culture - along with Conklin's own elite scientific status - diverted attention from the frequency with which his work crossed boundaries between natural science, religion and philosophy. Writing for broad audiences, Conklin was one of the most significant of the religious and modernist biological scientists whose rhetoric went well beyond simply claiming that certain kinds of religion were amenable to evolutionary science; he instead incorporated religion itself into evolution's broadest workings...
November 1, 2016: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798436/reorienting-esthetic-knowing-as-an-appropriate-object-of-scientific-inquiry-to-advance-understanding-of-a-critical-pattern-of-nursing-knowledge-in-practice
#11
Miriam Bender, Dina Elias
The esthetic pattern of knowing is critical for nursing practice, yet remains weakly defined and understood. This gap has arguably relegated esthetic knowing to an "ineffable" creativity that resists transparency and understanding, which is a barrier to articulating its value for nursing and its importance in producing beneficial health outcomes. Current philosophy of science developments are synthesized to argue that esthetic knowing is an appropriate "object" of scientific inquiry. Examples of empirical scholarship that can be conceived as scientific inquiry into manifestations of esthetic knowing are highlighted...
October 28, 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798257/the-theory-of-constructed-emotion-an-active-inference-account-of-interoception-and-categorization
#12
Lisa Feldman Barrett
The science of emotion has been using folk psychology categories derived from philosophy to search for the brain basis of emotion. The last two decades of neuroscience research have brought us to the brink of a paradigm shift in understanding the workings of the brain, however, setting the stage to revolutionize our understanding of what emotions are and how they work. In this paper, we begin with the structure and function of the brain, and from there deduce what the biological basis of emotions might be. The answer is a brain-based, computational account called the theory of constructed emotion...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781083/the-2016-bioinformatics-open-source-conference-bosc
#13
EDITORIAL
Nomi L Harris, Peter J A Cock, Brad Chapman, Christopher J Fields, Karsten Hokamp, Hilmar Lapp, Monica Muñoz-Torres, Heather Wiencko
Message from the ISCB: The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a yearly meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. BOSC has been run since 2000 as a two-day Special Interest Group (SIG) before the annual ISMB conference. The 17th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2016) took place in Orlando, Florida in July 2016...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750390/synthetic-wisdom
#14
Philip Kitcher
Wisdom is a special kind of virtue. It is not to be identified with any outstanding cognitive ability-like having a prodigious memory or knowing a lot. Rather it consists in seeing what is most important and most valuable, either within a particular domain or in life as a whole. In the life of a wise person, that insight should be accompanied by traits of character, enabling the person to pursue what is seen as valuable. Viewing wisdom as a capacity for synthetic understanding, I argue for the need for philosophy, even at a time when all of us have much to learn from the sciences...
November 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742179/a-guide-to-writing-academic-portfolios-for-radiologists
#15
John V Thomas, Rupan Sanyal, Janis P O'Malley, Satinder P Singh, Desiree E Morgan, Cheri L Canon
The academic educator's portfolio is a collection of materials that document academic performance and achievements, supplementing the curriculum vitae, in order to showcase a faculty member's most significant accomplishments. A decade ago, a survey of medical schools revealed frustration in the nonuniform methods of measuring faculty's medical education productivity. A proposed solution was the use of an academic educator's portfolio. In the academic medical community, compiling an academic portfolio is always a challenge because teaching has never been confined to the traditional classroom setting and often involves active participation of the medical student, resident, or fellow in the ongoing care of the patient...
October 11, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697295/information-based-approaches-of-noninvasive-transcranial-brain-stimulation
#16
Vincenzo Romei, Gregor Thut, Juha Silvanto
Progress in cognitive neuroscience relies on methodological developments to increase the specificity of knowledge obtained regarding brain function. For example, in functional neuroimaging the current trend is to study the type of information carried by brain regions rather than simply compare activation levels induced by task manipulations. In this context noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) in the study of cognitive functions may appear coarse and old fashioned in its conventional uses. However, in their multitude of parameters, and by coupling them with behavioral manipulations, NTBS protocols can reach the specificity of imaging techniques...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692216/the-re-emergence-of-hyphenated-history-and-philosophy-of-science-and-the-testing-of-theories-of-scientific-change
#17
Larry Laudan, Rachel Laudan
A basic premise of hyphenated history-and-philosophy-of-science is that theories of scientific change have to be based on empirical evidence derived from carefully constructed historical case studies. This paper analyses one such systematic attempt to test philosophical claims, describing its historical context, rationale, execution, and limited impact.
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692212/overlapping-ontologies-and-indigenous-knowledge-from-integration-to-ontological-self-determination
#18
David Ludwig
Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to "take Indigenous knowledge seriously". While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures...
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665436/metaphilosophy-of-mind-how-do-minds-investigate-minds-refutation-of-the-theocentric-view
#19
Konrad Werner
I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of mind and the boundary questions of mind...
September 24, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649834/disciplinary-crossings
#20
Ilina Singh
Eighteen months ago, I left a permanent professorship in a generously interdisciplinary department of sociology and took an impermanent, lower-paying job at a university where I had to apply to something called the "Committee on Distinction" to retain the title of "Professor." Some people say, "That's what happens when Oxford calls." But it wasn't just that. It was the opportunity to engage in a groundbreaking experiment: to embed and integrate ethics within the Oxford Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
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