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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712352/national-overview-of-medication-assisted-treatment-for-american-indians-and-alaska-natives-with-substance-use-disorders
#1
Traci Rieckmann, Laurie Moore, Calvin Croy, Gregory A Aarons, Douglas K Novins
OBJECTIVE: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience higher rates of substance use disorders and less access to high-quality care compared with other racial-ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to better understand the use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of substance use disorders for AI/ANs and barriers to broader implementation. METHODS: Representatives of 192 substance abuse treatment programs completed a survey about their use of MAT...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707863/science-and-russian-orthodox-scholarship
#2
COMMENT
Karl Hall, Dimitri Bayuk
In Russia the theme of science and religion found its strongest resonance at the levels of humanistic scholarship and Christianity in general, where visions of harmony dominated and doctrinal and confessional particularity was largely absent. The fraught relations of both the Holy Synod and the Imperial Academy of Sciences with the Russian state since the early eighteenth century had the collateral consequence of minimal institutional contacts between theology and natural philosophy. Though “scientific apologetics” eventually found a place in the seminaries, scientists did not contribute to this scholarship in the nineteenth century...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702783/origins-of-life-research-a-bibliometric-approach
#3
Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Zehra Taşkın
This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wȁchtershȁuser 1988, etc...
July 13, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690694/impact-of-co-investigators-on-pharmacy-resident-research-publication
#4
Paul M Stranges, Scott M Vouri
OBJECTIVE: To explore influences of co-investigators on the successful publication of a pharmacy residency project. METHODS: We analyzed published and non-published research presented at a regional pharmacy conference. Abstracts were matched 1:1 based on state and abstract year. We assessed university affiliation, number, degree, and H-Index of co-investigators on the abstract. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to identify variables associated with resident publication...
April 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686980/whewell-on-classification-and-consilience
#5
Aleta Quinn
In this paper I sketch William Whewell's attempts to impose order on classificatory mineralogy, which was in Whewell's day (1794-1866) a confused science of uncertain prospects. Whewell argued that progress was impeded by the crude reductionist assumption that all macroproperties of crystals could be straightforwardly explained by reference to the crystals' chemical constituents. By comparison with biological classification, Whewell proposed methodological reforms that he claimed would lead to a natural classification of minerals, which in turn would support advances in causal understanding of the properties of minerals...
July 4, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674299/introduction-interprofessional-education-ipe-and-pharmaceutical-education-saitama-interprofessional-education-project
#6
Osamu Hosoya
 In 2002, the Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE) defined interprofessional education (IPE) as: Interprofessional Education occurs when two or more professions learn with, from, and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care. Since 2005, also in Japan, IPE has been introduced within educational institutions to train professionals in healthcare and welfare. Within pharmaceutical education, to acquire the "10 qualities required for pharmacists" indicated by revised model core curricula for pharmaceutical education in 2015, IPE is thought quite important...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670279/innovating-chinese-herbal-medicine-from-traditional-health-practice-to-scientific-drug-discovery
#7
Shuo Gu, Jianfeng Pei
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669794/climate-science-truth-and-democracy
#8
Evelyn Fox Keller
This essay was written almost ten years ago when the urgency of America's failure as a nation to respond to the threats of climate change first came to preoccupy me. Although the essay was never published in full, I circulated it informally in an attempt to provoke a more public engagement among my colleagues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. In particular, it was written in almost direct response to Philip Kitcher's own book, Science, Truth and Democracy (2001), in an attempt to clarify what was special about Climate Science in its relation to truth and democracy...
June 29, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657173/among-nurses-how-does-education-level-impact-professional-values-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
B T Sibandze, K N Scafide
BACKGROUND: Professional nursing values have been acknowledged globally as the foundation of daily nursing care practice. Understanding how nurses identify, comprehend and apply their professional nursing values is an important step towards improving nursing practice and patient care quality. Research has demonstrated that nurses' professional values are cultivated during prelicensure academic education. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to determine how level of education affects professional nursing values of clinical practising nurses...
June 28, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643845/on-the-advancement-of-therapeutic-penality-therapeutic-authority-personality-science-and-the-therapeutic-community
#10
Ruari-Santiago McBride
In this article I examine the advancement of therapeutic penality in the UK, a penal philosophy that reimagines prison policy, practices and environments utilising psychological knowledge. Adopting a historical approach, I show how modern therapeutic penality is linked to the emergence of personality science in the nineteenth century and the development of the democratic therapeutic community (DTC) model in the twentieth century. I outline how at the turn of the twenty-first century a catalytic event generated a moral panic that led the British government to mobilise psychological knowledge and technologies in an attempt to manage dangerous people with severe personality disorder...
June 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639739/philosophical-aesthetics-and-cognitive-science
#11
REVIEW
Aaron Meskin, Jon Robson, Anna Ichino, Kris Goffin, Annelies Monseré
Philosophical aesthetics is the branch of philosophy which explores issues having to do with art, beauty, and related phenomena. Philosophers have often been skeptical about the place of empirical investigation in aesthetics. However, in recent years many philosophical aestheticians have turned to cognitive science to enrich their understanding of their subject matter. Cognitive scientists have, in turn, been inspired by work in philosophical aesthetics. This essay focuses on a representative subset of the areas in which there has been fruitful dialog between philosophical aestheticians and cognitive scientists...
June 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635570/quality-dementia-care-prerequisites-and-relational-ethics-among-multicultural-healthcare-providers
#12
Gerd Sylvi Sellevold, Veslemøy Egede-Nissen, Rita Jakobsen, Venke Sørlie
BACKGROUND: Many nursing homes appear as multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Furthermore, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers' lived experiences of their own working relationship, and its importance to quality care for people with dementia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635383/rendering-lgbtq-visible-in-nursing-embodying-the-philosophy-of-caring-science
#13
Lisa Goldberg, Neal Rosenburg, Jean Watson
Although health care institutions continue to address the importance of diversity initiatives, the standard(s) for treatment remain historically and institutionally grounded in a sociocultural privileging of heterosexuality. As a result, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) communities in health care remain largely invisible. This marked invisibility serves as a call to action, a renaissance of thinking within redefined boundaries and limitations. We must therefore refocus our habits of attention on the wholeness of persons and the diversity of their storied experiences as embodied through contemporary society...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629649/scientists-attitudes-on-science-and-values-case-studies-and-survey-methods-in-philosophy-of-science
#14
Daniel Steel, Chad Gonnerman, Michael O'Rourke
This article examines the relevance of survey data of scientists' attitudes about science and values to case studies in philosophy of science. We describe two methodological challenges confronting such case studies: 1) small samples, and 2) potential for bias in selection, emphasis, and interpretation. Examples are given to illustrate that these challenges can arise for case studies in the science and values literature. We propose that these challenges can be mitigated through an approach in which case studies and survey methods are viewed as complementary, and use data from the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative to illustrate this claim...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567486/xenobiology-state-of-the-art-ethics-and-philosophy-of-new-to-nature-organisms
#15
Markus Schmidt, Lei Pei, Nediljko Budisa
The basic chemical constitution of all living organisms in the context of carbon-based chemistry consists of a limited number of small molecules and polymers. Until the twenty-first century, biology was mainly an analytical science and has now reached a point where it merges with engineering science, paving the way for synthetic biology. One of the objectives of synthetic biology is to try to change the chemical compositions of living cells, that is, to create an artificial biological diversity, which in turn fosters a new sub-field of synthetic biology, xenobiology...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562731/-helminthology-according-to-the-philosophy-of-science-of-imre-lakatos
#16
Martín Orensanz, Guillermo Denegri
Lakatos's philosophy of science has been used for different branches of biology, however this has not been true for helminthology. Therefore, this article examines the possibility of using his methodology of scientific research programmes (SRP) for reconstructing the history of the discipline of helminthology. It is upheld that the first SRP in biology was inaugurated by Aristotle, and its protective belt included a small group of auxiliary hypotheses referring to helminths. This programme continued up until the 17th century, when two rival programmes in helminthology arose: the internalist and the externalist...
January 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540750/neurobiology-of-emotions-an-update
#17
Vanderson Esperidião-Antonio, Marilia Majeski-Colombo, Diana Toledo-Monteverde, Glaciele Moraes-Martins, Juliana José Fernandes, Marjorie Bauchiglioni de Assis, Stefânia Montenegro, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista
The 'nature' of emotions is one of the archaic themes of Western thought, thematized in different cultural manifestations - such as art, science, philosophy, myths and religion -, since Ancient times. In the last decades, the advances in neurosciences have permitted the construction of hypotheses that explain emotions, especially through the studies involving the limbic system. To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of processes relating to emotions - focusing (1) on the main neural structures that relate to emotions, (2) the paths and circuits of greater relevance, (3) the implicated neurotransmitters, (4) the connections that possess neurovegetative control and (5) the discussion about the main emotions - is the objective of this present article...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524641/nursing-philosophy-2016-response-to-peter-allmark-s-article-aristotle-for-nursing
#18
Beverly J B Whelton
Preparing to lecture on Aristotle's contribution to Nursing at the International Philosophy of Nursing Conference August 22, 2016, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, I came upon the recently published article by my IPONS colleague, Allmark (2016), "Aristotle for Nursing." Allmark (2016) provides a comprehensive and understandable overview of Aristotle's philosophical system including the substantial nature of being and the four causes of change. Nurses using Aristotle to support practice and theoretical research will benefit from a careful reading of Allmark to enrich their use of the realist understanding of knowledge of nature (epistemology) and the matter-form causal relationships within natural being (ontology and teleology)...
May 19, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508673/ayurvedic-college-education-reifying-biomedicine-and-the-need-for-reflexivity
#19
Maarten Bode, Prasan Shankar
The paper analyses the experiences with government sanctioned Ayurvedic college education of 14 young Ayurvedic doctors working at the Integrative Health Centre in Bangalore, India. Unfamiliarity with Ayurvedic logic and Indian natural philosophies, lack of clinical training and the mixing-up of Ayurvedic and biomedical notions are their main complaints. The 14 young Ayurvedic doctors also missed a convincing perspective on how to integrate Ayurvedic logic, modern scientific knowledge and biomedical diagnostics...
May 16, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485670/hermeneutic-caring-conversations-in-forensic-psychiatric-caring
#20
Kenneth Rydenlund, Unni Å Lindström, Arne Rehnsfeldt
BACKGROUND: In forensic psychiatric care, a hermeneutic caring conversation between caregivers and patients can improve health outcomes. The hermeneutic approach entails starting from the whole and involves openness for what is shown as well as paying attention to the different parts. One way to deepen these conversations is to take advantage of both the caregivers' and the patients' life experiences. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: The purpose of the study is to discuss and reflect on what hermeneutic caring conversations can mean for a deepened understanding of the movement in the health processes of patients in forensic care, patients who are in deep suffering...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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