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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433867/research-during-general-surgery-residency-a-web-based-review-of-opportunities-structure-and-outputs
#1
Audrey Brochu, Rajesh Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Academic research is an integral part of general surgery training. Despite the recent research curriculum requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, there is perceived lack of research structure for residents. The aim of this study was to identify research opportunities, structure, and academic outputs during general surgical United States (US) residency. METHODS: A Web-based review of all accredited general surgery US residency programs was undertaken...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417878/newton-in-china-translating-the-principia-into-chinese-c-1855-2015
#2
Zhaoyuan Wan
This paper provides an account of Chinese translations of Newton's Principia produced over the past century and a half within the larger context of the dissemination of Newtonian philosophy in China. Given its fundamental importance in the history of science, the Principia, originally penned in Latin, has been translated into a number of other languages. While in all these languages no more than two full translations have appeared, as many as four complete versions in Chinese have been produced since the 1850s, when first attempts were made to translate the Principia in late imperial China...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416207/contribution-of-arabic-medicine-and-pharmacy-to-the-development-of-health-care-protection-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina-the-second-part
#3
Izet Masic
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements...
December 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408799/the-case-for-a-distinctive-philosophy-of-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#4
Hutan Ashrafian
What is an organ and what is an organ system? According to the 'standard' hierarchical model of physiology, each living organism comprises of organ systems including those that offer sensory and control functions (nervous system), energy accumulation (gastrointestinal system), internal dissipation (circulatory system) and mobility (musculoskeletal system). Each organ system in turn is comprised of individual organs. This taxonomy has conceptual flaws as not every organ has a single organ system function but may participate in a myriad of physiological functions...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406141/blending-the-liberal-arts-and-nursing-creating-a-portrait-for-the-21st-century
#5
Wendy Carter Kooken, Noël Kerr
The liberal arts and sciences serve as a core part of the educational discipline in nursing curriculum and are believed to undergird abilities for critical-thinking, creativity, and holistic care (Hermann, 2004; McKie, 2012). Over time, science has taken on a more central role in nursing education, despite the acknowledged importance and contributions of liberal arts. The humanities are an essential part of liberal arts education and generally include disciplines such as history, literature, religion, philosophy, architecture, or fine arts (e...
January 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402116/rhazes-a-pioneer-in-contribution-to-trials-in-medical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Farzaneh Ghaffari, Mohsen Naseri, Razieh Jafari Hajati, Arman Zargaran
Medical history explains that Persian physicians used scientific methods based on clinical experiences and observations for treatment from pre-Islamic time (before 637 AD) and centuries later (in the Islamic era). Rhazes was one of the Persian physicians acknowledged as a pharmacist, chemist and prominent scientific writer on various subjects of medicine and philosophy. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical experiences, as well as the ethical and critical views of Rhazes in medical practice. Rhazes promoted ethics in the medical profession...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394938/expertise-in-evidence-based-medicine-a-tale-of-three-models
#7
Sarah Wieten
BACKGROUND: Expertise has been a contentious concept in Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). Especially in the early days of the movement, expertise was taken to be exactly what EBM was rebelling against-the authoritarian pronouncements about "best" interventions dutifully learned in medical schools, sometimes with dire consequences. Since then, some proponents of EBM have tried various ways of reincorporating the idea of expertise into EBM, with mixed results. However, questions remain...
February 2, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382499/-the-jibarization-of-logos-how-medical-reductionism-can-kill
#8
Juan Emilio Sala
In recent decades, a disciplinary and subdisciplinary proliferation has triggered both in the medical fields and science in general. This trend may be partially explained by two diachronic, dialectically interconnected facts: the deepening of technical, social and international division of labor in the globalized capitalist world, and the triumph of the reductionist program, mainly developed by the logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle. This paper aims to deepen the debate on the intricate links between medicine, biology, philosophy, reductionism and complex thought, by using two examples: a case report of current medicine and the situation experienced by a famous American scientist, Stephen Jay Gould, about his first cancer, an abdominal mesothelioma...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374834/advancing-pharmacotherapy-development-from-preclinical-animal-studies
#9
Mark Egli
Animal models provide rapid, inexpensive assessments of an investigational drug's therapeutic potential. Ideally, they support the plausibility of therapeutic efficacy and provide a rationale for further investigation. Here, I discuss how the absence of clear effective-ineffective categories for alcohol use disorder (AUD) medications and biases in the clinical and preclinical literature affect the development of predictive preclinical alcohol dependence (AD) models. Invoking the analogical argument concept from the philosophy of science field, I discuss how models of excessive alcohol drinking support the plausibility of clinical pharmacotherapy effects...
January 28, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349516/new-perspectives-in-the-history-of-twentieth-century-life-sciences-historical-historiographical-and-epistemological-themes
#10
Robert Meunier, Kärin Nickelsen
The history of twentieth-century life sciences is not exactly a new topic. However, in view of the increasingly rapid development of the life sciences themselves over the past decades, some of the well-established narratives are worth revisiting. Taking stock of where we stand on these issues was the aim of a conference in 2015, entitled "Perspectives for the History of Life Sciences" (Munich, Oct 30-Nov 1, 2015). The papers in this topical collection are based on work presented and discussed at and around this meeting...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332025/prolegomena-to-a-true-integrative-medical-paradigm
#11
Babak Daneshfard, Mohammad Reza Sanaye, Majid Nimrouzi
When a paradigm starts to show signs of failure to cope with significant questions in any basic/applied branch of human knowledge, there come on the scene those who have perused the related literature enough to either answer those major questions according to the established paradigm or proffer a (wholly) new way of looking at things. In the latter case, the history of science tells us, a paradigm shift takes place. Modern medicine cannot be proven to be totally disconnected from its traditional roots. Where traditional medicine came to give its place to present-day conventional medicine, a number of humanistic aspects of healing, in addition to some axioms of old wisdom, were actually lost...
January 15, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317079/biotensegrity-and-myofascial-chains-a-global-approach-to-an-integrated-kinetic-chain
#12
S L Dischiavi, A A Wright, E J Hegedus, C M Bleakley
Human movement is a complex orchestration of events involving many different body systems. Understanding how these systems interact during musculoskeletal movements can directly inform a variety of research fields including: injury etiology, injury prevention and therapeutic exercise prescription. Traditionally scientists have examined human movement through a reductionist lens whereby movements are broken down and observed in isolation. The process of reductionism fails to capture the interconnected complexities and the dynamic interactions found within complex systems such as human movement...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299702/robot-life-simulation-and-participation-in-the-study-of-evolution-and-social-behavior
#13
Christopher M Kelty
This paper explores the case of using robots to simulate evolution, in particular the case of Hamilton's Law. The uses of robots raises several questions that this paper seeks to address. The first concerns the role of the robots in biological research: do they simulate something (life, evolution, sociality) or do they participate in something? The second question concerns the physicality of the robots: what difference does embodiment make to the role of the robot in these experiments. Thirdly, how do life, embodiment and social behavior relate in contemporary biology and why is it possible for robots to illuminate this relation? These questions are provoked by a strange similarity that has not been noted before: between the problem of simulation in philosophy of science, and Deleuze's reading of Plato on the relationship of ideas, copies and simulacra...
January 3, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299692/steeves-demazeux-and-patrick-singy-eds-the-dsm-5-in-perspective-philosophical-reflections-on-the-psychiatric-babel-dordrecht-heidelberg-new-york-london-springer-2015-series-history-philosophy-and-theory-of-the-life-sciences-vol-10-238%C3%A2-pp-%C3%A2-90
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280271/paper-1-nursing-as-concrete-philosophy-part-i-risjord-on-nursing-knowledge
#15
Kyriakos Theodoridis
This essay addresses the problem of the essentiality of nursing knowledge and what kind of theory, if any, is essential to nursing practice. The overarching aim of the essay was to argue for the thesis that nursing may be described as a kind of philosophical activity, and, consequently, that philosophy is the kind of "theory" that is essential to nursing practice and to the nursing discipline at large. The essay consists of two papers. The present paper, Part I, is a critical examination of Mark Risjord's discussion of the problem of the theory-practice gap in his Nursing Knowledge: Practice, Science, Philosophy, from 2010...
December 26, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277844/shared-participatory-research-principles-and-methodologies-perspectives-from-the-usa-and-brazil-45-years-after-paulo-freire-s-pedagogy-of-the-oppressed
#16
Nina Wallerstein, Leandro L Giatti, Cláudia Maria Bógus, Marco Akerman, Pedro Roberto Jacobi, Renata Ferraz de Toledo, Rosilda Mendes, Sonia Acioli, Margaret Bluehorse-Anderson, Shelley Frazier, Marita Jones
The trajectory of participation in health research by community social actors worldwide has been built on a history of community participation from the Ottawa Charter Health Promotion call for community mobilization, to the emancipatory educational philosophy of Paulo Freire, to social movements and organizing for health and social justice. This paper builds on this history to expand our global knowledge about community participation in research through a dialogue between experiences and contexts in two prominent countries in this approach; the United States and Brazil...
June 2017: Societies (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259084/graduate-biomedical-science-education-needs-a-new-philosophy
#17
Gundula Bosch, Arturo Casadevall
There is a growing realization that graduate education in the biomedical sciences is successful at teaching students how to conduct research but falls short in preparing them for a diverse job market, communicating with the public, and remaining versatile scientists throughout their careers. Major problems with graduate level education today include overspecialization in a narrow area of science without a proper grounding in essential critical thinking skills. Shortcomings in education may also contribute to some of the problems of the biomedical sciences, such as poor reproducibility, shoddy literature, and the rise in retracted publications...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240702/the-platonic-receptacle-hypodoch%C3%A3-whitehead-s-philosophy-and-genome-evolution
#18
Jan Svoboda, Jan Svoboda
The discovery of a universal genetic code utilized by all existing organisms became the backbone of biology. The coding capacity underwent changes during evolution, but its main fluctuation results from its different reading and regulation. The genetic code thus represents a sort of receptacle of living organism evolution. In this article, we propose an analogy between the genetic code and a broader Platonic hypodoché, a concept that Alfred North Whitehead used to explain various aspects of science.
December 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240699/is-a-good-death-at-the-time-of-animal-slaughter-an-essentially-contested-concept
#19
Qurat ulAin, Terry L Whiting
The phrase "essentially contested concept" (ECC) entered the academic literature in 1956 in an attempt to better characterize certain contentious concepts of political theory. Commonly identified examples of contested concepts are morality, religion, democracy, science, nature, philosophy, and certain types of creative products such as the novel and art. The structure proposed to identify an ECC has proven useful in a wide variety of deliberative discourse in the social, political, and religious arenas where seemingly intractable but productive debates are found...
December 14, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238855/epigenesis-by-experience-romantic-empiricism-and-non-kantian-biology
#20
Amanda Jo Goldstein
Reconstructions of Romantic-era life science in general, and epigenesis in particular, frequently take the Kantian logic of autotelic "self-organization" as their primary reference point. I argue in this essay that the Kantian conceptual rubric hinders our historical and theoretical understanding of epigenesis, Romantic and otherwise. Neither a neutral gloss on epigenesis, nor separable from the epistemological deflation of biological knowledge that has received intensive scrutiny in the history and philosophy of science, Kant's heuristics of autonomous "self-organization" in the third Critique amount to the strategic capture of epigenesis from nature, for thought, in thought's critical transcendence of nature...
December 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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