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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230234/the-epigenetic-cytocrin-pathway-to-the-nucleus-epigenetic-factors-epigenetic-mediators-and-epigenetic-traits-a-biochemist-perspective
#1
Gemma Navarro, Nuria Franco, Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Rafael Franco
A single word, Epigenetics, underlies one exciting subject in today's Science, with different sides and with interactions with philosophy. The apparent trivial description includes everything in between genotype and phenotype that occurs for a given unique DNA sequence/genome. This Perspective article first presents an historical overview and the reasons for the lack of consensus in the field, which derives from different interpretations of the diverse operative definitions of Epigenetics. In an attempt to reconcile the different views, we propose a novel concept, the "cytocrin system...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222630/-there-s-so-much-to-it-the-ways-physiotherapy-students-and-recent-graduates-experience-practice
#2
S Barradell, T Peseta, S Barrie
Health science courses aim to prepare students for the demands of their chosen profession by learning ways appropriate to that profession and the contexts they will work and live in. Expectations of what students should learn become re-contextualised and translated into entry-level curriculum, with students operating as a connection between what is intended and enacted in curriculum, and required in the real world. Drawing on phenomenology, this paper explores how students understand practice-the collective, purposeful knowing, doing and being of a community-in entry-level physiotherapy programs...
December 8, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207739/assessment-of-palliative-care-awareness-among-undergraduate-healthcare-students
#3
Rajaragupathy Sujatha, Karthikeyan Jayagowri
Introduction: Palliative care knowledge is being given meager importance in the curriculum of medical and other allied medical sciences. It is vital that all health care practitioners including medical, pharmacy, physiotherapy and nursing are aware and apply the best principles of palliative care. Aim: To assess the awareness of palliative care among undergraduate students of medical, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy. Materials and Methods: The study population included total of 200 students...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199093/evolutionary-epistemology-reviewing-and-reviving-with-new-data-the-research-programme-for-distributed-biological-intelligence
#4
REVIEW
Predrag Slijepcevic
Numerous studies in microbiology, eukaryotic cell biology, plant biology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and philosophy of science appear to support the principles of the epistemological theory inspired by evolution, also known as "Evolutionary Epistemology", or EE. However, that none of the studies acknowledged EE suggests that its principles have not been formulated with sufficient clarity and depth to resonate with the interests of the empirical research community. In this paper I review evidence in favor of EE, and also reformulate EE principles to better inform future research...
November 30, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189930/periodization-theory-confronting-an-inconvenient-truth
#5
John Kiely
Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies...
November 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189650/application-of-adult-learning-theory-to-physician-assistant-education
#6
Sarah K Lewis, Patricia Thompson
Just as we depend on medical science and research to treat patients, we should connect our teaching methods to educational theory and research. In particular, the foundations of adult education philosophy and adult learning theories can be deliberately applied to further strengthen the clinical learning experience of physician assistants (PAs). We propose that PA educators should be aware of how their personal philosophy of education affects their teaching practice. In addition, educators should apply learning theories to both classroom process and content...
December 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177204/nutritional-renaissance-and-public-health-policy
#7
T C Campbell
The science of nutrition has long been entrapped in reductionist interpretation of details, a source of great confusion. However, if nutrition is defined as the integration of countless nutrient factors, metabolic reactions and outcomes, biologically orchestrated as in symphony, its relevance for personal and public health would be less confusing and more productive. This more wholistic interpretation may be observed at the cellular and physiological levels and may be described, in part, by the concept of pleiotropy (multiple cell-based effects from one nutrient source), together with its more expansive cousin, epitropy (multiple cell-based effects from multiple nutrients)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173509/virtuous-aging-and-existential-vulnerability
#8
Hanne Laceulle
In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging...
December 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161174/the-telescoping-phenomenon-origins-in-gender-bias-and-implications-for-contemporary-scientific-inquiry
#9
Katherine R Marks, Claire D Clark
BACKGROUND: In an article published in International Journal of the Addictions in 1989, Nick Piazza and his coauthors described "telescoping," an accelerated progression through "landmark symptoms" of alcoholism, among a sample of recovering women. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this critical analysis is to apply a feminist philosophy of science to examine the origins of the framework of telescoping research and its implications for contemporary scientific inquiry. METHODS: A feminist philosophy of science framework is outlined and applied to key source publications of telescoping literature drawn from international and United States-based peer-reviewed journals published beginning in 1952...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147898/-don-t-mind-the-gap-reflections-on-improvement-science-as-a-paradigm
#10
Trenholme Junghans
Responding to this issue's invitation to bring new disciplinary insights to the field of improvement science, this article takes as its starting point one of the field's guiding metaphors: the imperative to "mind the gap". Drawing on insights from anthropology, history, and philosophy, the article reflects on the origins and implications of this metaphoric imperative, and suggests some ways in which it might be in tension with the means and ends of improvement. If the industrial origins of improvement science in the twentieth century inform a metaphor of gaps, chasms, and spaces of misalignment as invariably imperfect and potentially dangerous, and therefore requiring bridging or closure, other currents that feed the discipline of improvement science suggest the potential value and uses of spaces of openness and ambiguity...
November 17, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130153/from-reductionism-to-holism-toward-a-more-complete-view-of-development-through-genome-engineering
#11
Rebecca K Delker, Richard S Mann
Paradigm shifts in science are often coupled to technological advances. New techniques offer new roads of discovery; but, more than this, they shape the way scientists approach questions. Developmental biology exemplifies this idea both in its past and present. The rise of molecular biology and genetics in the late twentieth century shifted the focus from the anatomical to the molecular, nudging the underlying philosophy from holism to reductionism. Developmental biology is currently experiencing yet another transformation triggered by '-omics' technology and propelled forward by CRISPR genome engineering (GE)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118973/the-2017-bioinformatics-open-source-conference-bosc
#12
EDITORIAL
Nomi L Harris, Peter J A Cock, Brad Chapman, Christopher J Fields, Karsten Hokamp, Hilmar Lapp, Monica Munoz-Torres, Bastian Greshake Tzovaras, Heather Wiencko
The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. The 18th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2017) took place in Prague, Czech Republic in July 2017. The conference brought together nearly 250 bioinformatics researchers, developers and users of open source software to interact and share ideas about standards, bioinformatics software development, open and reproducible science, and this year's theme, open data...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110973/galton-reversion-and-the-quincunx-the-rise-of-statistical-explanation
#13
André Ariew, Yasha Rohwer, Collin Rice
Over the last six decades there has been a consistent trend in the philosophy literature to emphasize the role of causes in scientific explanation. The emphasis on causes even pervades discussions of non-causal explanations. For example, the concern of a recent paper by Marc Lange (2013b) is whether purported cases of statistical explanation are "really statistical" or really causal. Likewise, Michael Strevens (2011) argues that the main task of statistical idealizations is to distinguish between the causal factors that make a difference to the phenomenon to be explained and those that do not...
October 27, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110256/philosophy-of-medicine-2017-reviewing-the-situation
#14
EDITORIAL
Patrick Daly
In this introduction to a special subsection of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics comprising separate reviews of the Springer Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine, and The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine, I compare the three texts with respect to their overall organization and their approach to the relation between the science and the art of medicine. I then indicate two areas that merit more explicit attention in developing a comprehensive philosophy of medicine going forward: health economics and systematic relations within the field as a whole...
November 6, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105646/randomness-in-quantum-mechanics-philosophy-physics-and-technology
#15
Manabendra Nath Bera, Antonio Acín, Marek Kuś, Morgan W Mitchell, Maciej Lewenstein
This progress report covers recent developments in the area of quantum randomness, which is an extraordinarily interdisciplinary area that belongs not only to physics, but also to philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and technology. For this reason the article contains three parts that will be essentially devoted to different aspects of quantum randomness, and even directed, although not restricted, to various audiences: a philosophical part, a physical part, and a technological part. For these reasons the article is written on an elementary level, combining simple and non-technical descriptions with a concise review of more advanced results...
December 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105237/scientism-conflicts-of-interest-and-the-marginalization-of-ethics-in-medical-education
#16
Christopher Mayes, Jane Williams, Ian Kerridge, Wendy Lipworth
AIM: This paper reports on the findings from 6 focus groups conducted with Australian medical students. The focus groups sought students' perspectives on how the influence of commercial interests on medical practice and education could be managed. METHOD: We conducted 6 focus groups with medical students in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were recruited via student-run medical society and faculty e-mail lists. Forty-nine students from 6 medical schools in New South Wales participated...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103389/robert-boyle-and-the-representation-of-imperceptible-entities
#17
Alexander Wragge-Morley
In this essay, I examine Robert Boyle's strategies for making imperceptible entities accessible to the senses. It is well known that, in his natural philosophy, Boyle confronted the challenge of making imperceptible particles of matter into objects of sensory experience. It has never been noted, however, that Boyle confronted a strikingly similar challenge in his natural theology - he needed to make an equally imperceptible God accessible to the senses. Taking this symmetrical difficulty as my starting point, I propose a new approach to thinking about the interconnections between Boyle's natural philosophy and natural theology...
November 6, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098665/received-view-of-addiction-relapse-and-treatment
#18
Yamikani Ndasauka, Zhengde Wei, Xiaochu Zhang
It is important to highlight that attempts at understanding and explaining addiction have been made for centuries. It is, however, just five decades ago, with the growth of science and technology that more interest has been observed in this field. This chapter examines different views and theories that have been posited to understand and explain addiction. More attention will be given to prominent views that seem to draw consensus among researchers and medical practitioners. The first section of the chapter introduces the addiction debate, the different theories that have been provided to explain it from different perspectives and disciplines such as neurosciences, philosophy and psychology...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081553/identifying-economics-place-amongst-academic-disciplines-a-science-or-a-social-science
#19
John Hudson
Different academic disciplines exhibit different styles, including styles in journal titles. Using data from the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) in the UK we are able to identify the stylistic trends of different disciplines using 155,552 journal titles across all disciplines. Cluster analysis is then used to group the different disciplines together. The resulting identification fits the social sciences, the sciences and the arts and humanities reasonably well. Economics overall, fits best with philosophy, but the linkage is weak...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080598/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-as-a-treatment-for-anxiety-and-depression-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Michael P Twohig, Michael E Levin
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on a distinct philosophy and basic science of cognition. This article reviews the core features of ACT's theoretic model of psychopathology and treatment and its therapeutic approach. It provides a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating ACT for depression and anxiety disorders. Summarizing 36 RCTs, ACT appears to be more efficacious than waitlist conditions and treatment-as-usual, with largely equivalent effects relative to traditional cognitive behavioral therapy...
December 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
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