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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551734/alopecia-areata-an-update-on-treatment-options-for-children
#1
REVIEW
Lauren Peloquin, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Pediatric alopecia areata is a spectrum of autoimmune non-scarring alopecia in which some patients lose small patches of hair from their scalp but others lose more or all of the hair from the scalp and body, including eyebrows and eyelashes. Few studies have looked at therapies for this disorder in children, so much of the data are derived from adult literature and describe off-label use of medication. Generally, topical therapies consisting of topical steroids and topical irritating compounds/contact sensitizers are used...
May 27, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550731/xanthotoxin-suppresses-lps-induced-expression-of-inos-cox-2-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-via-ap-1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-inactivation-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#2
Seung-Bin Lee, Woo Seok Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Dae Sik Jang, Kyung Tae Lee
Although xanthotoxin has been reported to possess skin-protective and anti-oxidative properties, its anti-inflammatory capacity has not been studied to date. Therefore, we investigated this role as well as the molecular mechanisms of xanthotoxin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Xanthotoxin inhibited production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by the LPS-induced macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. It also suppressed the LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression at the protein levels and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 at the mRNA levels...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550100/an-alternative-surgical-approach-reduces-variability-following-filament-induction-of-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#3
M Trotman-Lucas, M E Kelly, J Janus, R Fern, C L Gibson
Animal models are critical for understanding the pathology of stroke and investigating potential treatments. However, in vivo stroke models are associated, particularly in mice, with high variability in lesion volume. We investigated whether a surgical refinement where reperfusion is not reliant on the Circle of Willis reduced outcome variability. Mice underwent 60 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion avoiding ligation of the external carotid artery. During reperfusion the common carotid artery was either ligated (standard approach), or it was repaired to allow re-establishment of blood flow through the common carotid artery...
May 26, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548147/reentrant-phase-separation-behavior-of-active-particles-with-anisotropic-janus-interaction
#4
Mingfeng Pu, Huijun Jiang, Zhonghuai Hou
Recent studies showed substantial evidence of dynamic clustering and phase separation in active particle systems, but the role of anisotropic interaction between the particles has not been addressed yet. Here we investigate the phase separation of active particles that experience an anisotropic Janus interaction with tunable strength in two dimensional space by using Langevin dynamics simulations. Interestingly, we find that phase separation shows a re-entrance behavior with variation of the Janus interaction strength: while small Janus interaction can enhance the formation of living clusters and phase separation, large Janus interaction would destroy the large cluster...
May 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542880/suicidal-death-of-erythrocytes-in-cancer-and-its-chemotherapy-a-potential-target-in-the-treatment-of-tumor-associated-anemia
#5
REVIEW
Elisabeth Lang, Rosi Bissinger, Syed M Qadri, Florian Lang
In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling. Eryptotic erythrocytes are rapidly cleared from circulating blood and may adhere to the vascular wall. Stimulation of eryptosis thus impairs microcirculation and leads to anemia as soon as the loss of erythrocytes cannot be fully compensated by enhanced erythropoiesis. Signaling stimulating eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity, ceramide, caspases, calpain, p38-kinase, protein-kinase C, Janus-activated kinase 3, casein-kinase 1α, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541052/janus-particles-templated-by-janus-emulsions-and-application-as-pickering-emulsifier
#6
Duo Wei, Lingling Ge, Shuhui Lu, Jingjing Li, Rong Guo
One-step vibrational mixing has afforded batch-scale preparation of Janus emulsion. Fabrication of Janus particles (JPs) templated by the Janus emulsions was motivated as the topology and composition of the Janus droplets were highly tunable and controllable. Two immiscible polymerizable monomers were introduced as inner phases of Janus emulsion. The advanced geometry of the resultant JPs was easily and precisely controlled from "snowman" to "dumbbell" by adjusting the mass ratio of two oils in initial emulsion...
May 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537215/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-considerations-for-cancer-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#7
Nicolas Janus, Vincent Launay-Vacher
The increased incidence of cancer in hemodialysis patients has been discussed since the mid-70s. Today, physicians regularly encounter situations where they must manage the prescription of anticancer drugs in hemodialysis patients. Areas covered: Hemodialysis patients are at risk of dose-related toxicities due to pharmacokinetic modifications. Hemodialysis patients are at risk of therapeutic drug removal during their hemodialysis session, which may result in a loss of efficacy. In the advent of novel immunotherapies, particularly tumor vaccines, there is an increased theoretical risk of pharmacodynamic modification...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537140/molecular-modeling-driven-approach-for-identification-of-janus-kinase-1-inhibitors-through-3d-qsar-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#8
Ramesh Itteboina, Srilata Ballu, Sree Kanth Sivan, Vijjulatha Manga
Janus kinase 1 (JAK 1) belongs to the JAK family of intracellular nonreceptor tyrosine kinase. JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway mediate signaling by cytokines, which control survival, proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cells. Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3 D-QSAR), molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) methods was carried out on a dataset of Janus kinase 1(JAK 1) inhibitors. Ligands were constructed and docked into the active site of protein using GLIDE 5...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535472/nanocomposite-janus-paper-as-3d-cell-culture-system
#9
N S Kehr, A Motealleh
Nanocomposite (NC) papers using bifunctional nanoparticles are prepared for 3D cell growth experiments. Cells show better affinity to NC papers than to paper itself and differentiate the chemical group on the external surface of the nanoparticles. Cells possess spherical shaped morphology and form agglomerates onto the (NC) papers like as observed by cell growth in 3D materials. Furthermore, the preparation of "Janus" paper and the differentiation of its two distinct faces by cells is presented.
May 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531828/ct-and-mri-based-door-needle-times-for-acute-stroke-patients-a-quasi-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Christine Krarup Hansen, Anders Christensen, Helen Rodgers, Inger Havsteen, Christina Kruuse, Janus Nybing, Mari-Anne Kaasbøl, Hanne Christensen
Door-Needle-times (DNT) of 20min are feasible when Computer Tomography (CT) is used for first-line brain-imaging to assess stroke-patients' eligibility for intravenous-tissue-Plasminogen-Activator (iv-tPA), but the more time-consuming Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based-evaluation is superior in detecting acute ischaemia.
May 10, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530647/stage-of-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-congenital-bleeding-disorders-and-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus
#11
Marta Kucharska, Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz, Aleksandra Szymczak, Marcin Inglot, Weronika Rymer, Małgorzata Zalewska, Krzysztof Małyszczak, Małgorzata Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata Inglot
INTRODUCTION    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of chronic liver disease in patients with hemophilia. As liver biopsy should not be routinely used in them, possibilities of accurate assessment of the fibrosis stage have been very limited until recently. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the stage of liver fibrosis in HCV-infected hemophiliacs with use of non-invasive methods of fibrosis assessment and to analyze the influence of risk factors on liver fibrosis.  PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 71 HCV-infected patients with hemophilia and other congenital bleeding disorders...
May 22, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529954/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-stimulation-attenuates-neuroinflammation-through-jak2-stat3-activation-in-murine-models-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
Paul R Krafft, Devin McBride, William B Rolland, Tim Lekic, Jerry J Flores, John H Zhang
Accounting for high mortality and morbidity rates, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains one of the most detrimental stroke subtypes lacking a specific therapy. Neuroinflammation contributes to ICH-induced brain injury and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate whether α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) stimulation ameliorates neuroinflammation after ICH. Male CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley were subjected to intracerebral injection of autologous blood or bacterial collagenase...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529308/assessing-the-thrombotic-risk-of-patients-with-essential-thrombocythemia-in-the-genomic-era
#13
REVIEW
L Falchi, H M Kantarjian, S Verstovsek
The molecular characterization of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), including essential thrombocythemia (ET), has enabled deeper understanding of their pathogenesis. A driver lesion, namely, Janus kinase (JAK)2V617F, calreticulin (CALR) or myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL) gene mutation can be identified in the vast majority of patients. Each of these mutations is associated with distinct clinical features and may modulate the patients' clinical course, risk of complications, including vascular events, and survival...
May 22, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528276/a-review-of-neighborhood-effects-and-early-child-development-how-where-and-for-whom-do-neighborhoods-matter
#14
REVIEW
Anita Minh, Nazeem Muhajarine, Magdalena Janus, Marni Brownell, Martin Guhn
This paper describes a scoping review of 42 studies of neighborhood effects on developmental health for children ages 0-6, published between 2009 and 2014. It focuses on three themes: (1) theoretical mechanisms that drive early childhood development, i.e. how neighborhoods matter for early childhood development; (2) dependence of such mechanisms on place-based characteristics i.e. where neighborhood effects occur; (3) dependence of such mechanisms on child characteristics, i.e. for whom is development most affected...
May 18, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525273/directional-fluid-gating-by-janus-membranes-with-heterogeneous-wetting-properties-for-selective-oil-water-separation
#15
Prashant Gupta, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian
The rising oil seepage accidents evolved into a global issue necessitating immediate counter measure to abridge its catastrophic repercussions on sensitive marine ecosystem urging innovative techniques for effective oil/water separation. Here, we report surface tailored wettability modified superhydrophobic/superoleophilic Janus membrane by impregnating nonionic surfactant stabilized nanosized polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dispersion polymerized via nonfluorinated processing aid onto cotton substrate using the Meyer rod-coating technique, exhibiting excellent separation efficiency up to 98% with various petroleum products and retaining its intrinsic properties for at least 30 recurrences...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524930/nutrition-support-in-hospitalised-adults-at-nutritional-risk
#16
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Steven Kwasi Korang, Kirstine Halberg Engell, Marie Skøtt Nielsen, Kang Zhang, Maria Didriksen, Lisbeth Lund, Niklas Lindahl, Sara Hallum, Ning Liang, Wenjing Xiong, Xuemei Yang, Pernille Brunsgaard, Alexandre Garioud, Sanam Safi, Jane Lindschou, Jens Kondrup, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk...
May 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524719/polyester-based-microdisc-systems-for-sustained-release-of-neuroprotective-phosphine-borane-complexes
#17
David A Janus, Christopher J Lieven, Megan E Crowe, Leonard A Levin
Phosphine-borane complexes are recently developed redox-active drugs that are neuroprotective in models of optic nerve injury and radioprotective in endothelial cells. However, a single dose of these compounds is short-lived, necessitating development of sustained-release formulations of these novel molecules. We screened a library of biodegradable co- and non-block polyester polymer systems for release of incorporated phosphine-borane complexes to evaluate them as drug delivery systems for use in chronic disease...
May 19, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523588/advances-in-the-development-of-janus-kinase-inhibitors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-future-prospects
#18
Mathurin Flamant, Josselin Rigaill, Stephane Paul, Xavier Roblin
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by a dysregulation of the immune system, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. A better understanding of the mucosal immune response in IBD has led to the development of new drugs directed at inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte-trafficking molecules. Beyond tumor necrosis factor antagonists and anti-integrin molecules, which act by blocking the interaction between gut-specific lymphocytes and their receptor on vascular endothelium, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway represents a new target in IBD...
May 18, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521425/jak3-is-involved-in-ccr7-dependent-migration-and-invasion-in-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#19
Zhongti Zhang, Fayu Liu, Zhenning Li, Dan Wang, Ruiwu Li, Changfu Sun
Patients with cervical lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) exhibit a poor prognosis and low 5-year survival rate. It has been proven that chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) promotes cellular migration and invasion in metastatic SCCHN. In the present study, the metastatic SCCHN PCI-37B cell line was utilized to explore the role of Janus activated kinase-3 (Jak3) in the CCR7-mediated signaling pathway in metastatic SCCHN cells. It was observed that phospho-Jak3 was expressed in SCCHN tissues...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521411/reduced-rkip-expression-levels-are-associated-with-frequent-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-metastasis-and-stat3-phosphorylation-and-activation
#20
Ansheng Wang, Guixin Duan, Chengling Zhao, Yuan Gao, Xuegang Liu, Zuyi Wang, Wei Li, Kangwu Wang, Wei Wang
The current study examined the role of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis. A total of 100 patients with NSCLC were recruited following pathological diagnosis in the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College. The patients were classified and statistically analyzed according to their clinicopathological characteristics and tumor-node-metastasis stage. Paired tumor tissue and adjacent non-tumor tissue samples were subject to pathological diagnosis and western blot analysis...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
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