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T cell metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926956/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-and-the-management-of-hypoxic-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Claudiu T Supuran
Hypoxia and acidosis are salient features of many tumors, leading to a completely different metabolism compared to normal cells. Two of the simplest metabolic products, protons and bicarbonate, are generated by the catalytic activity of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), with at least two of its isoforms, CA IX and XII, mainly present in hypoxic tumors. Inhibition of tumor-associated CAs leads to an impaired growth of the primary tumors, metastases and reduces the population of cancer stem cells, leading thus to a complex and beneficial anticancer action for this class of enzyme inhibitors...
September 16, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926857/the-amelioration-of-insulin-resistance-in-salt-loading-subjects-by-potassium-supplementation-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-plasma-il-17a-levels
#2
Wen Wen, Zhaofei Wan, Dong Zhou, Juan Zhou, Zuyi Yuan
Background High dietary salt intake contributes to the development of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases including metabolic syndrome (MetS) which potassium supplementation can potentially reverse. T helper (Th) 17 cells as well as its production interleukin (IL)-17A are involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. The polarization of Th17 cells and enhanced IL-17A production induced by high salt might increase the risk of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Methods 45 normotensive subjects (aged 29 to 65 years) were enrolled from a rural community of Northern China at random...
September 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926770/1-25-oh-2d3-induces-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation-by-influencing-the-vdr-plc-%C3%AE-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-pathway
#3
Qiang Zhou, Shengying Qin, Jinyan Zhang, Lin Zhon, Zhihai Pen, Tonghai Xing
Vitamin D has been recommended as an immune modulator in recent years, in addition to regulating calcium-phosphorous-bone metabolism. Clinical studies on organ transplantation found that vitamin D sufficiency patients were less likely to develop acute cellular rejection within one year after transplantation compared to those with vitamin D deficiency. Thus, a high percentage of regulatory T cells might play a key role in preventing acute cellular rejection (ACR). In this report, we studied the specific effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on human T cell diff ;erentiation, and determined the potential molecule mechanism behind...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926398/association-of-a-3-untranslated-region-polymorphism-in-pcsk9-with-hiv-viral-load-and-cd4-levels-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-women
#4
Mark H Kuniholm, Hua Liang, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Seble Kassaye, Marek Nowicki, Beverly E Sha, Emilia J Pawlowski, Stephen J Gange, Bradley E Aouizerat, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Michael I Bukrinsky, Vinayaka R Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: We examined 2,050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1,066 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve women...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926189/environmental-peer-pressure-cd4-t-cell-help-in-tolerance-and-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Dana Tedesco, Arash Grakoui
The liver participates in a multitude of metabolic functions that are critical for sustaining human life. Despite constant encounters with antigenic-rich intestinal blood, oxidative stress and metabolic intermediates, there is no appreciable immune response. Interestingly, patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation benefit from a high rate of graft acceptance in comparison to other solid organ transplant recipients. In fact, co-transplantation of a donor liver in tandem with a rejection-prone graft increases the likelihood of graft acceptance...
September 19, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926063/methylglyoxal-attenuates-insulin-signaling-and-downregulates-the-enzymes-involved-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#6
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925944/interference-of-paraben-compounds-with-estrogen-metabolism-by-inhibition-of-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases
#7
Roger T Engeli, Simona R Rohrer, Anna Vuorinen, Sonja Herdlinger, Teresa Kaserer, Susanne Leugger, Daniela Schuster, Alex Odermatt
Parabens are effective preservatives widely used in cosmetic products and processed food, with high human exposure. Recent evidence suggests that parabens exert estrogenic effects. This work investigated the potential interference of parabens with the estrogen-activating enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) 1 and the estrogen-inactivating 17β-HSD2. A ligand-based 17β-HSD2 pharmacophore model was applied to screen a cosmetic chemicals database, followed by in vitro testing of selected paraben compounds for inhibition of 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD2 activities...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925584/quorum-sensing-improves-current-output-with-acidithiobacillus-ferrooxidans
#8
Nicolas Chabert, Violaine Bonnefoy, Wafa Achouak
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a strict acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that obtains its energy from reduced inorganic sulfur species or ferrous iron oxidation under aerobic conditions. Carbon felt electrodes were pre-colonized by A. ferrooxidansATCC 23270(T) using ferrous iron or sulfur as electron donors, via the addition (or not) of a mixture of C14 acyl-homoserine lactones (C14-AHLs). Electrode coverage during pre-colonization was sparse regardless of the electron donor source, whereas activation of quorum sensing significantly enhanced it...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924239/the-autophagy-initiator-ulk1-sensitizes-ampk-to-allosteric-drugs
#9
Toby A Dite, Naomi X Y Ling, John W Scott, Ashfaqul Hoque, Sandra Galic, Benjamin L Parker, Kevin R W Ngoei, Christopher G Langendorf, Matthew T O'Brien, Mondira Kundu, Benoit Viollet, Gregory R Steinberg, Kei Sakamoto, Bruce E Kemp, Jonathan S Oakhill
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic stress-sensing enzyme responsible for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK by salicylate and the thienopyridone A-769662 is critically dependent on phosphorylation of Ser108 in the β1 regulatory subunit. Here, we show a possible role for Ser108 phosphorylation in cell cycle regulation and promotion of pro-survival pathways in response to energy stress. We identify the autophagy initiator Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) as a β1-Ser108 kinase in cells...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923586/genetic-code-asymmetry-supports-diversity-through-experimentation-with-posttranslational-modifications
#10
REVIEW
James W Dennis
Protein N-glycosylation has been identified in all three domains of life presumably conserved for its early role in glycoprotein folding. However, the N-glycans added to proteins in the secretory pathway of multicellular organisms are remodeling in the Golgi, increasing structural diversity exponentially and adding new layers of functionality in immunity, metabolism and other systems. The branching and elongation of N-glycan chains found on cell surface receptors generates a gradation of affinities for carbohydrate-binding proteins, the galectin, selectin and siglec families...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923351/functionally-redundant-control-of-cardiac-hypertrophic-signaling-by-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors
#11
M Iveth Garcia, Anja Karlstaedt, Jessica J Chen, Javier Amione-Guerra, Keith A Youker, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Darren Boehning
Calcium plays an integral role to many cellular processes including contraction, energy metabolism, gene expression, and cell death. The inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is a calcium channel expressed in cardiac tissue. There are three IP3R isoforms encoded by separate genes. In the heart, the IP3R-2 isoform is reported to being most predominant with regards to expression levels and functional significance. The functional roles of IP3R-1 and IP3R-3 in the heart are essentially unexplored despite measureable expression levels...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920922/g%C3%AE-13-ablation-reprograms-myofibers-to-oxidative-phenotype-and-enhances-whole-body-metabolism
#12
Ja Hyun Koo, Tae Hyun Kim, Shi-Young Park, Min Sung Joo, Chang Yeob Han, Cheol Soo Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920416/effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-combined-with-ochratoxin-a-and-or-zearalenone-on-metabolism-immune-function-and-antioxidant-status-in-lactating-dairy-goats
#13
Shuai Huang, Nan Zheng, CaiYun Fan, Ming Cheng, Shang Wang, Adil Jabar, JiaQi Wang, JianBo Cheng
Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) alone or mixed with ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or zearalenone (ZEA) on the metabolism, immune function, and antioxidant status of dairy goats. Methods: Fifty lactating Laoshan dairy goats were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups (n = 10) for 14 days. Goats were fed no additive (control) or administered with 50 μg AFB1/kg DM (AFB1), 50 μg AFB1/kg DM + 100 μg OTA/kg DM (AFB1+OTA), 50 μg AFB1/kg DM + 500 μg ZEA/kg DM (AFB1+ZEA), or 50 μg AFB1/kg DM + 100 μg OTA/kg DM + 500 μg ZEA/kg DM (AFB1+OTA+ZEA)...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919076/mitochondrial-priming-by-cd28
#14
Ramon I Klein Geltink, David O'Sullivan, Mauro Corrado, Anna Bremser, Michael D Buck, Joerg M Buescher, Elke Firat, Xuekai Zhu, Gabriele Niedermann, George Caputa, Beth Kelly, Ursula Warthorst, Anne Rensing-Ehl, Ryan L Kyle, Lana Vandersarren, Jonathan D Curtis, Annette E Patterson, Simon Lawless, Katarzyna Grzes, Jing Qiu, David E Sanin, Oliver Kretz, Tobias B Huber, Sophie Janssens, Bart N Lambrecht, Angelika S Rambold, Edward J Pearce, Erika L Pearce
T cell receptor (TCR) signaling without CD28 can elicit primary effector T cells, but memory T cells generated during this process are anergic, failing to respond to secondary antigen exposure. We show that, upon T cell activation, CD28 transiently promotes expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), an enzyme that facilitates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), before the first cell division, coinciding with mitochondrial elongation and enhanced spare respiratory capacity (SRC). microRNA-33 (miR33), a target of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), attenuates Cpt1a expression in the absence of CD28, resulting in cells that thereafter are metabolically compromised during reactivation or periods of increased bioenergetic demand...
September 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916813/genome-sequencing-reveals-metabolic-and-cellular-interdependence-in-an-amoeba-kinetoplastid-symbiosis
#15
Goro Tanifuji, Ugo Cenci, Daniel Moog, Samuel Dean, Takuro Nakayama, Vojtěch David, Ivan Fiala, Bruce A Curtis, Shannon J Sibbald, Naoko T Onodera, Morgan Colp, Pavel Flegontov, Jessica Johnson-MacKinnon, Michael McPhee, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Steven Kelly, Keith Gull, Julius Lukeš, John M Archibald
Endosymbiotic relationships between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are common in nature. Endosymbioses between two eukaryotes are also known; cyanobacterium-derived plastids have spread horizontally when one eukaryote assimilated another. A unique instance of a non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic endosymbiont involves members of the genus Paramoeba, amoebozoans that infect marine animals such as farmed fish and sea urchins. Paramoeba species harbor endosymbionts belonging to the Kinetoplastea, a diverse group of flagellate protists including some that cause devastating diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916735/functional-screening-in-human-cardiac-organoids-reveals-a-metabolic-mechanism-for-cardiomyocyte-cell-cycle-arrest
#16
Richard J Mills, Drew M Titmarsh, Xaver Koenig, Benjamin L Parker, James G Ryall, Gregory A Quaife-Ryan, Holly K Voges, Mark P Hodson, Charles Ferguson, Lauren Drowley, Alleyn T Plowright, Elise J Needham, Qing-Dong Wang, Paul Gregorevic, Mei Xin, Walter G Thomas, Robert G Parton, Lars K Nielsen, Bradley S Launikonis, David E James, David A Elliott, Enzo R Porrello, James E Hudson
The mammalian heart undergoes maturation during postnatal life to meet the increased functional requirements of an adult. However, the key drivers of this process remain poorly defined. We are currently unable to recapitulate postnatal maturation in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs), limiting their potential as a model system to discover regenerative therapeutics. Here, we provide a summary of our studies, where we developed a 96-well device for functional screening in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac organoids (hCOs)...
September 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916592/cytological-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-important-roles-of-cle19-in-pollen-exine-formation
#17
Shuangshuang Wang, Jianan Lu, Xiufen Song, Shi-Chao Ren, Chenjiang You, Jie Xu, Chun-Ming Liu, Hong Ma, Fang Chang
The CLAVATA3/ESR-RELATED (CLE) peptide signals are required for cell-cell communication in several plant growth and developmental processes. However, little is known regarding possible functions of the CLEs in the anther. Here, we show that a T-DNA insertional mutant, and dominant-negative (DN) and overexpression (OX) transgenic plants of the CLE19 gene exhibited significantly reduced anther size and pollen grain number, and abnormal pollen wall formation. Interestingly, the DN-CLE19 pollen grains showed a more extensively covered surface but CLE19-OX pollen exine exhibited clearly missing connections in the network and lacked separation between areas that normally form the lacunae...
September 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915394/overcoming-the-warburg-effect-is-it-the-key-to-survival-in-sepsis
#18
REVIEW
David Bar-Or, Matthew Carrick, Allen Tanner, Mark J Lieser, Leonard T Rael, Edward Brody
Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality in the U.S. and Europe. Sepsis and septic shock are the results of severe metabolic abnormalities following infection. Aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg Effect) is as much a hallmark of sepsis as it is of cancer. Warburg observed that cancer cells generated energy through glycolysis (generation of ATP through degradation of glucose, usually associated with anaerobic conditions) rather than through oxidative phosphorylation (generation of ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, usually associated with aerobic conditions)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#19
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#20
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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